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Module II Fundamentals of Engineering



Unit 1

Engineering: What is All About?

Read and remember the following words and word combinations.

apply [ə`pla](v) - 1)обращаться с просьбой,

заявлением

2) применять, употреблять,

3) касаться, относиться

be concerned with … - заниматься, интересоваться чем-л.

branch [brα:nt∫] (n) - ветвь, отрасль, подразделение

civil [`svl] (adj) - (зд.)гражданский

civil engineer - инженер-строитель

communication [kə,mju:n`ke∫n](n) -1) коммуникация, связь

2) взаимодействие, общение

communications (pl) - средства связи, линии коммуникации

construct [kən`strΛkt] (v) - 1)строить, воздвигать, сооружать,

2) создавать, придумывать

construction [kən`strΛk∫n] (n) - 1) стройка, строительство, сооружение

2) здание, строение, сооружение

deal[di:l](v) - работать, иметь дело, решать задачу

design [d` zan] (n) - план, чертёж, замысел

design [d` zan] (v) -конструировать, проектировать,

разрабатывать, делать эскизы (наброски)

device [d` vas] (n) - 1)прибор, устройство

2) план, проект

electrical installations [,nstə`le∫nz] - электрооборудование, электроустановки

engine [`endჳn] (n) - 1)двигатель, мотор,2) прибор, устройство

engineering [,endჳ`nərŋ] (n) - инженерное искусство, инженерия,

разработка и управление

evaluate [`væljuet] (v) - оценивать, составлять мнение

exist [ց`zi:st] (v) - существовать

field [fi:ld] (n) - (зд.)область, сфера, поле деятельности

fluid [flud] mechanics - гидромеханика

generation [,dჳenə`re∫n] (n) -выработка, генерация, образование (тех.)

improve [m`pru:v] (v) - улучшать

investigate [n`vestցet] (v) -изучать, исследовать, получать сведения

maintain [men `ten] (v) - сохранять, обслуживать, содержать в

исправности

manufacture [,mænju`fækt∫ə] (n) - производство, изготовление

mining [`manŋ] (n) - горная промышленность, горное дело

nevertheless - всё же, тем не менее, однако, всё-таки

occupation [,כkju`pe∫n] (n) - занятие, дело, профессия

operate [`כ pəret] (v) - 1) работать, действовать, 2) управлять,

3) разрабатывать, эксплуатировать

operation [`כ pəre∫n] (n) - 1) деятельность, работа, действие,

2)разработка, 3) управление,

prevent [pr`vent] accidents - предотвращать несчастные случаи

safety engineering - техника безопасности

subfield [sΛb`fi:ld] (n) - подполе

 

 

Answer the following questions.

1. What is the name of the faculty you study at?

2. What other engineering faculties are there at our university?

3. How many years do students study for Engineer’s Degree?

4. Where do NSTU graduates usually work?

5. What is engineering?

 

Read the following word combinations and translate them into Russian.

 

electrical engineering electronic engineering

mechanical engineering medical engineering

automobile engineering hydraulic engineering aeronautical engineering aeronautical engineering

marine engineering civil engineering

safety engineering

 

1.3.2. Tick the fields of engineering NSTU students are trained in. Make up sentences with them using the following phrases:

As far as I know…

I believe…

I am not sure but I think…

I’m afraid I don’t know exactly but…

I suppose…

 

 

Read the text.

Text A

 

What is Engineering?

 

Almost everything we use in modern life is made by engineers. In general, engineering is a science that deals with the design, construction and operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices. Engineers use theory for producing practical answers. We can say that engineering puts ideas into action. The term “engineering” is difficult to translate into Russian because it has a lot of meanings. It can be translated as “инженерное дело”,”разработка”, “строительство”. There are a lot of different types of engineering, which are called branches. So the whole science of engineering can be divided into the following main branches: electrical, mechanical, civil, electronic. There also exist several specialized areas which may be characterized as subfields of the major branches. Now let’s say a few words about each branch.

Electrical engineering, for example, is one of the widest fields of engineering. It deals with systems and devices that use electric power and signals. The subfields of this branch are lighting, electricity generation, electrical installations, etc.

Mechanical engineering is concerned with design, testing, building and operation of machinery of all types. A mechanical engineer must be trained in mechanics, hydraulics, and metallurgy and machine design. The subfields of mechanical engineering are heating and ventilation, marine engineering, automobile engineering, aeronautical engineering.

Civil engineering deals with the design of large buildings, roads, bridges, railway lines, airports and other constructions. A civil engineer must know the properties of materials, hydraulics and fluid mechanics. The main subfields of this branch are construction engineering and hydraulic engineering.

Also we should mention such branches as mining and medical engineering, which belong partly to mechanical and partly to electrical. Medical engineers, for example, create and deal with high-tech equipment - body scanners, X-ray machines, life-support systems.

Electronic engineering is concerned with the development of components and equipment for communication, computing, and so on.

One more branch of engineering which should be singled out because it can exist in any area is safety engineering. Its object is to prevent accidents, developing methods and procedures to safeguard workers.

To sum it up we can say that all the branches of engineering have a lot in common - they use science to develop industry, manufacture and to improve our life.

 

 

1.5.Find in the text the equivalents of the following Russian phrases.

a) наука, которая занимается…;

b) …внедряет идеи в жизнь;

c) …делится на следующие основные отрасли;

d) производство электроэнергии;

e) заниматься конструированием всех видов оборудования;

f) отопление и вентиляция;

g) проектирование больших сооружений;

h) гидравлика и гидромеханика;

i) разработка оборудования и его компонентов;

j) системы жизнеобеспечения;

k) обеспечение безопасности рабочих;

l) иметь много общего;

m) делать жизнь людей лучше.

 

Match the synonyms.

A B

create be concerned with

branch equipment

deal with develop

construct field

manufacture built

machinery produce

 

 

Fill in the gaps in the table, putting the words having the same root with the given one.

Adjective Verb Noun (sphere) Noun (profession)
- -   engineer
  - science  
mechanical -    
constructive      
-     designer
-   building  
  communicate   -
preventive     -

Match the branch and the things it is concerned with.

1) civil engineering; a) body scanners, X-ray machines, life- support systems.

2) mechanical engineering; b) electricity, lighting.

3) electronic engineering; c) construction of bridges, airports, railways;

hydraulics; fluid mechanics.

4) electrical engineering; d) to safeguard workers, to prevent accidents.

5) medical engineering; e) cars, ships, heating, planes, operation of

machinery of all types.

6) safety engineering f) computers, communications.

 

Finish the sentences; use the ideas from the text.

1) Engineering is a science …

2) Branches are called …

3) The specialized areas of engineering are…

4 One of the widest fields of engineering is…

5) Mechanics, hydraulics, machine design are the fields of …

6) A civil engineer deals with …

7) Creation of hi-tech equipment …

8) Safety engineering is…

9) Summing up we can say that…

 

 

Tick the true idea based on the text.

 

1. a) Only few things in modern world are made by engineers.

b) Practically everything in modern world is made by engineers.

 

2. a) Engineers use practice to produce theories.

b) Engineers use theory to produce practical answers.

 

3. a) There are several branches of engineering.

b) There are two branches of engineering.

 

4. a) Electrical engineering is the subfield of mechanical engineering.

b) Electrical engineering deals with electric power.

 

5. a) Civil engineers design different constructions.

b) Civil engineers design machinery.

 

6. a) Medical engineering is the same as mining engineering.

b) Medical engineering and mining engineering are connected both with mechanical and electrical engineering.

 

7. a) Computing belongs to electronic engineering.

b) Computing is the subfield of electrical engineering.

 

 






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