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Read the information about 4 generations of nanotechnologies given in the table. Give the examples of Participle II.

1st Passive nanostructures ( 1st generation products) Materials designed to perform 1 task   ~ 2000   a) Dispersed and contact nanostructures, e.g.: aerosols b) Products incorporating nanostructures, e.g.: coatings, nanoparticle reinforced composites, nanostructured metals, polymers, ceramics
2nd Active nanostructures For multitasking ~ 2005 a) Bio-active, health effects, e.g.: targeted drugs, biodevices b) Physico-chemical active, e.g.: 3D-transistors, amplifiers, adaptive structures
3rd Integrated nanosystems (with thousands of interacting components) ~ 2010 E.g.: guided assembling, 3D networking and new hierarchical architectures, robotics
4th Molecular nanosystems (molecular manufacturing) ~ 2015- E.g.: molecular devices “by design”, atomic design, emerging functions


Make Participle I and participle II of the following verbs. Translate them.

E.g. incorporate- incorporating (P1)-включающий, включая

Incorporated (P2)-включенный

Describe, develop, design, perform, introduce, integrate, include, build, connect, limit, improve, formulate.


Make up 5 sentences with the participles from Ex. 5.7

Match the verbs in A with their synonyms in B.



affect take away

perform pour out

resist form

shape carry out

remove oppose

spill influence


Use the verbs from 4.1.9 in the sentences below. Change the form where necessary.

1) He has been ……surgery for 10 years.

2) I accidentally…… my drink all over him.

3) These stains will be difficult to……

4) This metal is able to……corrosion.

5) You can buy specially……bricks for an arch.

6) Nanotechnology in its advanced form will…… almost all industries and all areas of society.


Complete these predictions about nanotechnology. Use each verb in the list once.

construct perform

replace (with) store

clean up take

remove stop

resist wear




AManufacturers will be able to construct cars from lightweight materials that are 50 times stronger than steel. Today’s two-ton Cadillac could weigh only 50 kg in the future. The materials used to build cars will be able to……(1) scratches, dents, and rust (царапины, вмятины, ржавчина)
BWe’ll be to……(2) trillions of bytes of information in a structure the size of sugar cube.
CDoctors will be able to……(3) broken human bones (кости) with artificial bones made with nanotechnology. Nanorobots will be able to……(4) surgery. We’ll be able to……(5) pills(пилюли) containing nanorobots.
D We’ll be able to……(6) nanorobots up into space to rebuild the ozone layer. Other nanorobots will be able to……(7)pollutants from water and……(8) oil spills.
EEveryone will be able to……(9) computers and colour screens because they will be built into their clothes. We’ll be able to……(10) our clothes from getting dirty by making them with stain repellent fabrics (ткани, устойчивые к пятнам)


Match each of the following headings with one of the abstracts (A-E) above.


1) Medicine

2) Clothes

3) Car

4) The Environment

5) Computers

Discuss these questions in groups and make a short report about nanotechnologies.


· Can you see any applications for nanotechnology in your job?

· What things would you like to be smaller, stronger, etc?

· Could nanotechnology affect employment in your industry? (How?)

· Do you like the idea of having nanorobots inside your body?

· Some people say we’ll be able to live for ever with nanotechnology.

Would you like to?

· Is nanotechnology always going to be a good thing? Can you see any dangers?

New Sources of Energy


Read and study new words on the topic.

burn fossil fuels [fɒsıl] сжигать жидкое топливо
consume (v) [kənˈsju:m] потреблять
consumption (n) [kənˈsʌmp∫n] потребление
conserve energy [kənˈsɜːv ˈenədʒi] сохранять энергию
demand (for) (n) [dıˈmɑːnd] спрос
deplete (v) [dıˈpli:t] истощать
diminish (v) [dəˈmını∫] уменьшать(ся)
electrical power [ıˈlektrıkəl ˈpaʊə] электроэнергия
electrical appliance [ıˈlektrıkəl əˈplaıəns] эл. прибор
generate electricity [ˈdʒenəreıt ɪˌlekˈtrısti] вырабатывать электричество
insulate(v) [ˈnsjuleıt] изолировать
power(v) [paʊə] питать
plug ( into) (v) [plʌg] подключать
photovoltaic (adj) [ˌfəʊtəʊvɒlˈteıık] фотоэлектрический
nuclear power [ˌnju:kliə] ядерная энергия
renewable [rıˈnju:əbəl] возобновимый
non-renewable [ˌnɒn rıˈnju:əbəl ] невозобновимый
utility company [ju:ˈtləti ˈkʌmpənı] компания общественного пользования
wall socket [ˈwɔːl ˈsɒkıt] эл. розетка


4.2.2 Read these international words and guess their meaning.


battery [ˈbætəri]  
cycle [saıkl]  
chemical reactor [ˈkemɪkəl riˈæktə]  
gas [gæs]  
geothermal [dʒi:əʊˈθɜːməl]  
hydraulic [haˈdrɒlık]  
energy [ˈenədʒi]  
electricity [ˌlekˈtrısıtı]  
radiation [reɪdiˈeı∫n]  
thermal [θɜːməl]  
transformation [ˌtrænsfəˈmeɪ∫ən]  
volt [vəʊlt]  



Add punctuation and capital letters to the text, and then make a list of non-renewable sources of energy.

when you plug an electrical appliance into the wall socket do you know where your electricity comes from probably the local public utility company but how does the utility company generate the electricity you use at home if it is like most power companies it produces electrical power by burning fossil fuels coal natural gas or oil it makes steam which turns turbines to generate electricity at the powerplant in the u s 88 per cent of all the electricity comes from coal natural gas and oil they are non-renewable fuels which according to the estimate of scientists will runout during this century

4.2.4 Replace the underlined words by their synonyms:

come to an end



power station

educated guess


Fill in the gaps with the words from the table.

electricity reduce power use generation consumers far users increase sources energy light consumption

We hear so much these days of local problems of electricity…….1). Many……2) are taking steps to ……3) their electricity……4). This is as a result of the recent……5) in electricity tariffs for……6). We should all try to……7) less…..8), by insulating our houses, turning off the…..9) when leaving a room and using less hot water.

We must try to develop alternative …….10) of energy. It is known that nuclear power comes from the consumer as electricity, which is convenient form of ……11). Although nuclear…….12) stations are large, they can be built……13) from places where people live.



Answer the question.

· What new sources of energy have you heard about? Give examples of their usage.

Match these alternative sources of energy A to the correct definitions B.


Solar energy from plant and animal residues (остатки)

Wind energy from heat inside the earth

Geothermal energy from the sun

Modern biomass energy from seawater movement and

temperatures changes

Ocean energy from small dams, such as those filled by

melting snow

Small hydroelectric energy from moving air



A combination of these 6 alternative sources of energy may prove to be our best hope to fill the energy created as supplies of fossil fuels gradually diminish.

Read the text to get information about one of the alternative sources of energy.

Solar energy

One of the most promising researches is the development of power stations with direct transformation of solar energy. Almost all energy comes from the Sun. The energy stored in coal, oil, and natural gas is the result of photosynthesis carried by plants that lived hundreds of million years ago. Wind energy is actually the movement of the atmosphere driven by the heat from the Sun. It was Russia that was the first in the world to develop and test a photoelectric battery of 32,000 volts, which made it possible to concentrate solar radiation. Currently solar energy is used in two ways: for heat (thermal) and to generate electricity (photovoltaic).

However, the efficiency of a solar power station is considerably reduced because of limited time of its work during the year. But it is possible to improve the efficiency of solar power stations by developing different combinations of solar power stations and traditional ones- thermal, atomic and hydraulic. Today some engineers are working at the problem of developing electric power stations with the use of a thermal-chemical cycle. It will operate on products of the transformation of solar energy, while the “solar” chemical reactor uses CO2 and water steam of the thermal power station. The result is that we have a closed cycle.

In Kamchatka there are geothermal power stations operating on hot water-steam mixture from the depth of about a kilometer. In some projects water will be heated by the warmth of mountains at a depth of four-five km.

It is planned that plants working on energy of the solar heat provided by the sun will be built on a larger scale. It is important that all these advances in developing new sources of energy and improving the old ones help to solve the energy problem as a whole and they won’t have negative effects on the environment.



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