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Узкая полоска света, тонкий луч

Lection 1.

1) Consult dictionaries and give the definitions of the following words:

demotivation- making someone less eager or willing to do their job = it’s opposite to motivation

etymology - 1. the study of the origins, history, and changing meaning of words

2. a description of the history of a word

lexeme[‘leksi:m] - an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of forms taken by a single word

lexicology - the part of linguistics which studies words, their nature and meaning, words' elements, relations between words (semantical relations), word groups and the whole lexicon

morpheme [‘mo:fi:m] - the smallest unit of meaning in a language

motivation - 1. eagerness or willingness to do something without needing to be told or forced to do it

2. the reason why you want to do something: motivation for (doing) smth

vocabulary- 1. all the words that someone knows and uses

2. all the words in a particular language

3. the words that are typically used when talking about a particular subject

4. the range of possible features, effects, actions etc, especially in a type of music or art

5. a list of words with explanations of their meanings, especially in a book for learning a foreign language

word - a single group of letters that are used together with a particular meaning

 

2) Group the following words and word-combinations into motivated and non-motivated. Define the types of motivation.

a) buzz, twitter, cats, flies, asses, birds, hiss, wolves, grunt, bees, mew, snakes, howl, pigs, bray.

Put the above given words in pairs according to their conceptual associations:

1. bees, flies buzz - пчелы, мухи жужжат

2. wolves howl - волки воют

3. pigs grunt - свиньи хрюкают

4. birds twitter - птицы щебечут

5. asses bray - ослы вопят

6. cats mew - кошки мяукают

7. snakes hiss - змеи шипят

b)

teacher - учитель (non-motivated),

sunflower - подсолнух (non-motivated),

driver - водитель, машинист (non-motivated),

carpenter - плотник, столяр (non-motivated),

airline - авиалиния, авиатрасса (motivated: feeder airline - вспомогательная авиалиния),

ladder - лестница (motivated: to come down a ladder - спускаться по лестнице, to kick away the ladder - отвернуться от тех, кто помог достичь успеха, to see through a ladder - видеть очевидное и т.д.),

miner - шахтер, горнорабочий (non-motivated),

light-minded - легкомысленный, несерьезный (non-motivated),

miser - скряга, скупец (non-motivated),

operator - оператор, связист, радист (non-motivated),

beaver - бобр, бобер (non-motivated),

bottle-opener - открывалка (non-motivated),

radio-active - радиоактивный (motivated: radio-active waste - радиоактивные отходы, radio-active decay - радиоактивный распад),

hammer - молоток (non-motivated)

c) motivated word-combinations:

cold weather - холодная погода,

the golden rule - золотое правило,

cold smile - холодная, сдержанная улыбка,

the key to a problem - ключ к проблеме,

to burn one’s fingers - обжечь себе пальцы,

(at) the foot of a page - в конце, внизу страницы,

sweet voice - сладкий, слащавый голос,

a smooth tongue - острый на язык,

golden hair - золотистые волосы,

the root of a plant - корень растения,

to burn with anger - сгорать от ярости, гнева.

 

3) Give the definitions of the following words:

archaisms [a:’keizmz] - old words or phrases that is no longer used

barbarisms - non-standard words, expressions or pronunciation in a language, particularly one regarded as an error in morphology

dialect(al) - a form of language which is spoken only in one area, with words or grammar that are slightly different from other forms of the same language

4) Make up list of formal and informal words.

Formal words: to comprise, to compile, experimental, heterogeneous, homogeneous, conclusive, divergent, to assist, to endeavour, to proceed, approximately, sufficient, attired, to inquire, a solitude, a sentiment, a fascination, a fastidiousness, a facetiousness, a delusion, a meditation, a felicity, elusive, cordial, illusionary, constancy, doth, to evade, bilingual, interdental, etc.

Informal words: buffer, kid, to up, pal, chum, to start, to go on, to finish, to be through, pram, exam, fridge, prop, movie, to put up, to put over, to make up, to do away, to turn up, mug, saucers, trap, to leg, car, trolley, tram, to lake, nivver, brass, mun, chap, fellow, etc.

 

5) The following words appeared as slang words. Consult dictionaries to see if they still preserve this stylistic reference.

Beans

Боб, фасоль

Башка, голова

Монета

Chink

Щель, скважина (crack)

Узкая полоска света, тонкий луч

Луч света

Звон, звяканье

Attic

Чердак, мансарда (garret, loft)

Чердак», голова

Nut

Орех

Голова, башка

Чудак, дурачок, сумасброд

Cock-eyed

Косоглазый

Странный, нелепый, абсурдный

Пьяный (амер.)

Mob

Сборище, толпа

Стадо животных (австрал.)

Банда, воровская шайка

Snob

Сноб

Сапожник

Человек, принадлежащий к низшим слоям общества

Chap

Парень

Дитя, ребенок (диалект)

Трещина, щель

Humbug

Обман, жульничество, уловка

Обманщик, мошенник, притворщик

Чушь, вздор, ерунда

Мятная конфета (брит.)

cheerio [ʧɪərɪ'əu]

За ваше здоровье (тост)

2. будьте здоровы! всего хорошего!

 

6) Suggest neutral synonyms to the poetical words:

pto behold: 1. увидеть, заметить, узреть = to see

2. созерцать, рассматривать, наблюдать = to gaze, to observe

pto deem: полагать, считать =to consider, to think, to suppose

pa gore: кровь, пролитая в сражении; запекшаяся кровь = blood

pan array: убор, наряд, одеяние, облачение = clothing, finery

plone: одинокий, замкнутый, уединенный = secluded, solitary

pmurky: темный, тусклый, неясный = dark

pnigh: близкий, ближний = near, close

poft: часто = often, frequently

palbeit [o:l’bi:it] (all though it be that): хотя (и) = even though, even if, although

pere: до, перед = til, until, before

 

7) Define the meaning of the barbarisms and give their corresponding English equivalents.

Bon mot [bɔːŋ'məu] - остроумное выражение, острота, красное словцо (a clever remark) = a quip, a remark

Et cetera - и так далее = and so on, and so forth

Alma Mater - альма-матер (об университетах и колледжах) = university, college

Ad hoc - непродуманный, спонтанный, случайный (not planned, but arranged or done only when necessary) = spontaneous, unplanned

Tete-a-tete - разговор наедине, с глазу на глаз, тет-а-тет (a private conversation between two people) = one on one, in private, privately

Lection 2.

Choose your own passage for analysis and identify the type of English to which it belongs - formal, informal or nonstandard. Characterize the passage by elements of style. Note the particular words and constructions that cause you to label the passage as you do so. Explain the choice of words according to the formality of the situation in which they are used in the passage under analysis.

A capacitor is like a small bucket that is able to store electrons. To store a 1 in the memory cell, the bucket is filled with electrons. To store a 0, it is emptied. The problem with the capacitor's bucket is that it has a leak. In a matter of a few milliseconds a full bucket becomes empty. Therefore, for dynamic memory to work, either the CPU or the memory controller has to come along and recharge all of the capacitors holding a 1 before they discharge. To do this, the memory controller reads the memory and then writes it right back. This refresh operation happens automatically thousands of times per second.

 

1. It belongs to the formal type of English (it’s a professional terminology). It is a technical text that describes the process of working of the Random Access Computer Memory.

2.

capacitor - конденсатор (electro technology)

electron(s) - электрон (physic)

the memory cell - ячейка памяти запоминающего устройства (information and computer technology)

the dynamic memory - динамическое запоминающее устройство (information and computer technology)

the CPU - центральный процессор (information technology)

the memory controller - регулятор памяти (technical term)

the refresh operation - операция обновления (information and computer technology)

2) With the help of a dictionary define the stylistic value of each of the following words (f=formal, n=neutral, c=colloquial, s=slang, d=dialect, l=literary, t=terminology, p=poetic, fam=family, etc.).

a. begin (n), commence [начинать] (f), start (c), initiate [вводить в курс дела] (f)

b. phoney [ложный, фальшивый, обманщик] (s), sham (n), false (f)

c. intelligent (n), smart (s), highbrow (f), brainy (c)

d. man (n), chap (c; d - дитя, ребенок), fellow (c), guy (s)

e. to die (n), to perish (f, l), to kick the bucket (s), to pass away (c), to decease (f, l)

f. money (n), cash (c), currency (f), legal tender (f, t), specie, dough (c)

Mss. Jane Hobbs

Personnel Officer

Manton Ferrace

London, W

July 2002

Dear Madam,

I graduated from the Hammesmith Secreterial College and received a Bi-lingual Secretary Diploma. After completing my course I spent a year in Italy where I worked as a receptionist. Mr. Joseph Keller, The Senior Manages of IPCO International, Vienna agreed to give you any further information that you require about my work.

Warm Regards,

Sally Brook

2.

Dearest,

Remember, I told you about Arthur? So it is all off with him. I was right about him at first. But who I am attracted to is Robert, which is much better for all. First impressions are always right. Yes? No?

Robert and I were driving about all day in the Botanic gardens. And Goodness! He was Decent - Bestie got plastered and had a row with Mabel - Miss P Again - so that’s all right too. And Robert’s lousy girl had spent all day on board. Mum bought a shawl. Bill told Lady Mabel about his disappointment and she told Robert, who said: «Yes, we all know». So Lady Mabel said it was very unreticent of Bill and she had very little respect for him and didn’t blame his wife. Or the foreigners.

Lots of Love,

Mary

Beans

Боб, фасоль

Башка, голова

Монета

Chink

Щель, скважина (crack)

Луч света

Звон, звяканье

Attic

Чердак», голова

Nut

Орех

Голова, башка

Чудак, дурачок, сумасброд

Cock-eyed

Косоглазый

Пьяный (амер.)

Mob

Сборище, толпа

Стадо животных (австрал.)

Банда, воровская шайка

Snob

Сноб

Сапожник

Chap

Парень

Дитя, ребенок (диалект)

Трещина, щель

Humbug

Обман, жульничество, уловка

Чушь, вздор, ерунда

Мятная конфета (брит.)

cheerio [ʧɪərɪ'əu]

За ваше здоровье (тост)

2. будьте здоровы! всего хорошего!

8) Consult the dictionary and define the stylistic reference of the words and word-combinations given below:

whereafter (после того как) = literary

brow (лоб) = literary

thee (the) = old-used, literary, poetic

horse = neutral

gee-gee (лошадка) = British, colloquial, used by children

to co’mmence (начинать, начинаться) = formal

labial (губной) = formal, technical

fair (честный справедливый + красивый, прекрасный + свободный, беспрепятственный + женщина, возлюбленная + проясняться о погоде) = neutral + literary, poetic + old-used + old-used, poetic + dialect

woolies (шерстяное нижнее белье) = American English, colloquial

where on earth (где, черт возьми, носит) = colloquial

good Lord = informal, colloquial

hat peg (вешалка для шляпы) = informal, colloquial

boozy (пьяный) = colloquial

cradle-snatcher (тот, кто женится или выходит замуж за человека значительно моложе себя) = negative, informal, colloquial

Lection 3.

Confluence

preservationist

quantifiable

construction

Word past

coll - college, collaboration, collage, collapse, collar, colleague, collection, collocation, collision, collider, decollation, décolleté [deikol’tei], decollement, subcollection

Demon (демон, бес)

1) from Latin daemon "spirit,"

2) from Greek daimon "deity, divine power; lesser god; guiding spirit, tutelary deity"

quart [‘kwɔ:t] (кварта - единица объема)

1) from Old French quarte "a fourth part",

2) from Latin quarta

air (воздух, атмосфера)

1) from Old French air "atmosphere, breeze, weather",

2) from Latin aerem "air, lower atmosphere, sky,"

3) from Greek aer "air" (related to aenai "to blow, breathe")

Legal (правовой, законный)

1) from Middle French légal

2) or directly from Latin legalis "legal, pertaining to the law,"

tyrant ['taɪərənt] (тиран, деспот)

1) from Old French tyrant,

2) from Latin tyrannus "lord, master, tyrant",

3) from Greek tyrannos "lord, master, sovereign, absolute ruler,"

Lection 1.

1) Consult dictionaries and give the definitions of the following words:

demotivation- making someone less eager or willing to do their job = it’s opposite to motivation

etymology - 1. the study of the origins, history, and changing meaning of words

2. a description of the history of a word

lexeme[‘leksi:m] - an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of forms taken by a single word

lexicology - the part of linguistics which studies words, their nature and meaning, words' elements, relations between words (semantical relations), word groups and the whole lexicon

morpheme [‘mo:fi:m] - the smallest unit of meaning in a language

motivation - 1. eagerness or willingness to do something without needing to be told or forced to do it

2. the reason why you want to do something: motivation for (doing) smth

vocabulary- 1. all the words that someone knows and uses

2. all the words in a particular language

3. the words that are typically used when talking about a particular subject

4. the range of possible features, effects, actions etc, especially in a type of music or art

5. a list of words with explanations of their meanings, especially in a book for learning a foreign language

word - a single group of letters that are used together with a particular meaning

 

2) Group the following words and word-combinations into motivated and non-motivated. Define the types of motivation.

a) buzz, twitter, cats, flies, asses, birds, hiss, wolves, grunt, bees, mew, snakes, howl, pigs, bray.

Put the above given words in pairs according to their conceptual associations:

1. bees, flies buzz - пчелы, мухи жужжат

2. wolves howl - волки воют

3. pigs grunt - свиньи хрюкают

4. birds twitter - птицы щебечут

5. asses bray - ослы вопят

6. cats mew - кошки мяукают

7. snakes hiss - змеи шипят

b)

teacher - учитель (non-motivated),

sunflower - подсолнух (non-motivated),

driver - водитель, машинист (non-motivated),

carpenter - плотник, столяр (non-motivated),

airline - авиалиния, авиатрасса (motivated: feeder airline - вспомогательная авиалиния),

ladder - лестница (motivated: to come down a ladder - спускаться по лестнице, to kick away the ladder - отвернуться от тех, кто помог достичь успеха, to see through a ladder - видеть очевидное и т.д.),

miner - шахтер, горнорабочий (non-motivated),

light-minded - легкомысленный, несерьезный (non-motivated),

miser - скряга, скупец (non-motivated),

operator - оператор, связист, радист (non-motivated),

beaver - бобр, бобер (non-motivated),

bottle-opener - открывалка (non-motivated),

radio-active - радиоактивный (motivated: radio-active waste - радиоактивные отходы, radio-active decay - радиоактивный распад),

hammer - молоток (non-motivated)

c) motivated word-combinations:

cold weather - холодная погода,

the golden rule - золотое правило,

cold smile - холодная, сдержанная улыбка,

the key to a problem - ключ к проблеме,

to burn one’s fingers - обжечь себе пальцы,

(at) the foot of a page - в конце, внизу страницы,

sweet voice - сладкий, слащавый голос,

a smooth tongue - острый на язык,

golden hair - золотистые волосы,

the root of a plant - корень растения,

to burn with anger - сгорать от ярости, гнева.

 

3) Give the definitions of the following words:

archaisms [a:’keizmz] - old words or phrases that is no longer used

barbarisms - non-standard words, expressions or pronunciation in a language, particularly one regarded as an error in morphology

dialect(al) - a form of language which is spoken only in one area, with words or grammar that are slightly different from other forms of the same language

4) Make up list of formal and informal words.

Formal words: to comprise, to compile, experimental, heterogeneous, homogeneous, conclusive, divergent, to assist, to endeavour, to proceed, approximately, sufficient, attired, to inquire, a solitude, a sentiment, a fascination, a fastidiousness, a facetiousness, a delusion, a meditation, a felicity, elusive, cordial, illusionary, constancy, doth, to evade, bilingual, interdental, etc.

Informal words: buffer, kid, to up, pal, chum, to start, to go on, to finish, to be through, pram, exam, fridge, prop, movie, to put up, to put over, to make up, to do away, to turn up, mug, saucers, trap, to leg, car, trolley, tram, to lake, nivver, brass, mun, chap, fellow, etc.

 

5) The following words appeared as slang words. Consult dictionaries to see if they still preserve this stylistic reference.

Beans

Боб, фасоль

Башка, голова

Монета

Chink

Щель, скважина (crack)

узкая полоска света, тонкий луч

Луч света

Звон, звяканье

Attic

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