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Analyze the etymological composition of the following lexemes. Can we consider them hybrids? Why?

Гибридизм - языковое явление, при котором в производном слове могут сочетаться словообразовательные элементы (префиксы, корни и аффиксы) разной этимологии.
1) relationship [relation + -ship] = отношение, взаимоотношение =>

relation: 1. from Anglo-Fr. relacioun, 2. O.Fr. relacion, 3. from L. relationem

2) godless [god n + -less] = безбожный, неверующий =>

god: 1. from P.Gmc. (Proto-Germanic) *guthan, 2. from PIE (Proto-Indo-European) *ghut-

3) countless [to count + -less] = многочисленный, неисчислимый =>

count: from O.Fr. conter

4) ill-tempered [ill adj + temper n] = раздражительный, брюзгливый =>

ill: from O.N. illr

temper: from Latin temperare

5) beautiful [beauty n + -ful] = прекрасный =>

beauty: 1. from Anglo-French beute, 2. Old French biauté, 3. from Vulgar Latin bellitatem, 4. from Latin bellus

6) fishery [fish + -ery] = рыболовство, рыбная ловля =>

fish: 1. from P.Gmc. *fiskaz, 2. from PIE *peisk-

7) avidly [avid adj + -ly] = жадно =>

avid: 1. from French avide, 2. from Latin avidus

8) hindrance [to hinder + -ance] = преграда, помеха = >

hinder: from P.Gmc. *hinderojanan

9) pre-sputnik [pre- + sputnik] =>

sputnik: from Russian sputnik

10) painstaking [pain n + to take] = старание, усердие =>

pain: 1. from O.Fr. peine, 2. from L. poena, 3. from Gk. poine, 4. from PIE *kwei-

take: from a Scandinavian source, from P.Gmc. *tækanan

11) faintness [fain adj + -ness] = слабость, истощение =>

faint: from O.Fr. feint

12) active [act n + ive] = активный, живой =>

active: 1. from Old French actif, 2. directly from Latin activus, from actus

 

4. Compare the meaning of the following pairs of etymological doublets and define their origin.

a) card - chart

card (игральная карта, открытка)

1) from M.Fr. carte,

2) from Latin charta "leaf of paper, tablet,"

3) from Greek khartes "layer of papyrus,"

4) probably from Egyptian

5) form influenced after 14 century by Italian carta

chart (график, схема, таблица, ав. карта)

1) from Middle French charte "card, map,"

2) from Late Latin charta "paper, card, map"

 

b) shade - shadow

shade (тень, тон, оттенок)

1) from Proto-Germanic *skadwo

2) from Proto-Indo-European *skotwa

shadow (тень, полумрак, пятно)

1) Old English sceadwe, sceaduwe

 

c) egg - edge

egg (яйцо)

1) from Proto-Germanic *ajja

edge (край, граница, острие)

1) from Proto-Germanic *agjo

 

d) gage - wage

gage [geɪʤ] (заклад, залог)

1) from Old French gage "pledge (of battle), security, guarantee"

wage (заработная плата, заклад, залог)

1) from Old North French wage "pledge,"

 

e) hale - whole

hale (здоровый, крепкий)

1) Old English hal "healthy, entire, uninjured" The Scottish and northern English form of whole

whole

1) from Proto-Germanic *khailaz "undamaged"

2) from Proto-Indo-European *koilas

 

f) liquor - liqueur

liquor [‘likə] (напиток, спиртной напиток)

1) from Old French licor "fluid, liquid; sap; oil"

2) from Latin liquorem "liquidity, fluidity,"

liqueur [li’kjuə] (ликер)

1) from Old French licor "liquid"

 

g) of - off

of (указывает на родительный падеж, принадлежность к кому-либо)

1) from Proto-Germanic. *af,

2) from Proto-Indo-European *apo- "off, away"

off (указывает на удаление от чего-либо, на прекращение чего-либо)

1) an emphatic form of Old English of

 

h) scar - share

scar (рубец, шрам)

1) from Old French escare "scab,"

2) from Late Latin eschara,

3) from Greek eskhara "scab formed after a burn,"

 

share (доля, часть)

1) from Proto-Germanic *skaro-

 

i) whit - wight

whit (йота, капелька)

1) from Old English nan wiht, from wiht "amount," originally "person, human being"

wight [wait] (существо, человек)

1) from Proto-Germanic *wekhtiz

 

j) artist - artiste

artist (художник, артист)

1) from Middle French artiste,

2) from Italian artista,

3) from Middle Latin artista,

4) from Latin ars

artiste [a:t’i:st] (артист, актер, певец)

1) from French artiste; a reborrowing of artist

 

k) abridge - abbreviate

to ab’ridge (сокращать, уменьшать, убавлять)

1) from Old French abregier "abridge, diminish, shorten,"

2) from Late Latin abbreviare "make short"

to ab’breviate (сокращать, использовать сокращения)

1) from Latin abbreviatus

 

l) pauper - poor

pauper [‘po:pə] (бедняк, нищий)

1) from Latin pauper "poor, not wealthy, of small means"

poor (бедный, неимущий)

1) from Old French poure,

2) from Latin pauper "poor"

 

m) raise - rear

to raise (поднимать, увеличивать)

1) from Proto-Germanic *raizijanau "to raise,"

to rear (воспитывать, выращивать, поднимать)

1) from Proto-Germanic *raizijanau "to raise"

 

n) prune - plum

prune (чернослив)

1) from O.Fr. pronne "plum"

plum (слива, изюм)

1) from Latin prunum"plum,"

2) from Greek prounon

 

o) host - guest

host (хозяин)

1) from O.Fr. hoste "guest, host, hostess, landlord"

2) from L. hospitem "guest, host,"

guest (гость)

1) from P.Gmc. *gastiz

 

p) ward - guard

ward (защита, охрана)

1) from West Germanic *wardo

guard (охрана, защита, караул)

1) from M.Fr. garde “guardian, warden, keeper; watching, keeping, custody”

 

5. Look up the following words in the dictionary (the Oxford English Dictionary or the American Heritage Dictionary). Define the meaning of the part which is underlined; think of another word with the same part:

1) obnoxious - неприятный, отвратительный; оскорбительный

ous: mountainous, voluminous, various, famous, dangerous

2) substituted - запасной, заменяемый, замещаемый

sub: substantial, subjective, subliminal, submissive, subarctic

3) commuter - пассажир, самолет местной авиалинии

com: computer, commitment, comprehension, complaint, comparison

4) past - прошлое, прошедшее

past: pastime, pasture, pastor

5) ridicule - насмешка, несерьезность

rid: riddle, riddel

6) dissident - диссидент, инакомыслящий

dis: distinction, disruption, dissent, disbelief, dismissal

 

6. Determine the etymology and the degree of assimilation of the following lexical units.

1) mascara (краска, тушь для ресниц и бровей): from Spanish mascara "a stain, a mask";

2) delicatessen (деликатесы, кулинария): 1.from German delicatessen "a delicacy, fine food," 2.from French délicatesse, from délicat "fine," 3.from Latin delicates

3) macaroni (макароны): 1.from southern Italian dialectal maccaroni, name for a kind of pasty food, 2.possibly from maccare "bruise, batter, crush," of unknown origin, 3.from late Greek makaria "food made from barley"

4) cereal (злак, крупа): 1.from French céréale, 2.from Latin Cerealis "of grain,"

5) pattern (образец, модель, система, структура): from Old French patron and directly from Middle Latin patronus

6) intelligence (интеллект, рассудок, разум): 1.from Old French intelligence, 2.from Latin intelligentia, intellegentia "understanding, power of discerning; art, skill, taste," from intelligentem "discerning"

7) alumnus (бывший студент, выпускник): from Latin alumnus "a pupil," lit. "foster son"

8) conservatory (оранжерея, теплица; консерватория): from Italian conservatorio or French conservatoire

9) cradle (колыбель, младенчество): from Old English cradol "little bed, cot," from Proto-Germanic *kradulas "basket"

10) purple (пурпурный, фиолетовый): 1.Old English purpul, from purpure "purple garment," purpuren "purple," 2.from Latin purpura "purple-dyed cloak, purple dye," also "shellfish from which purple was made," 3.from Greek porphyra

11) centennial (вековой, столетний): from Latin centum "one hundred"

12) millennium (тысячелетие): 1.from Modern Latin millennium, 2.from Latin mille "thousand" + annus "year"

13) machine (механизм, машина, автомобиль): 1.from Middle French machine "device, contrivance," 2.from Latin machina "machine, engine, military machine; device, trick; instrument", 3.from Greek makhana, Doric variant of mekhane "device, means"

14) school (школа, обучение): 1.from Latin schola, 2.from Greek skhole "school, lecture, discussion"

15) hybrid (гибрид, помесь): from Latin hybrida, variant of ibrida "mongrel"

16) gifted (одаренный, способный): from a Scandinavian source, from Proto-Germanic *giftiz

17) conservatoire (консерватория): from French conservatoire

18) datum (данная величина, данное): from Latin datum "(thing) given"

19) bourgeois (буржуазия): from French bourgeois, from Old French burgeis, borjois "town dweller"

20) boutique (бутик, модная лавка): 1.from French boutique, 2.from Old Provençal botica, 3.from Greek apotheke

21) Zoo: from comb. form of Greek zoion "an animal," lit. "a living being"

22) moustache (усы): 1.from French moustache, 2.from Italian mostaccio, 3.from Medieval Greek moustakion "upper lip, mustache,"

23) emphatic (выразительный, подчеркнутый): from Greek emphatikos, variant of emphantikos, from emphainein

24) nouveau riche (богатый выскочка): from French lit. "new rich."

25) coffee (кофе): 1.from Italian caffe, 2.from Turkish kahveh, 3.from Arabic qahwah "coffee"

26) café (кафе, закусочная): 1.from French café "coffee, coffeehouse," 2.from Italian caffe "coffee"

27) police (полиция, охрана): 1.from Middle French police, 2.from Latin politia "civil administration," 3.from Greek polis "city"

28) husband (муж, супруг): from Old Norwegian husbondi "master of the house"

29) squaw (женщина, жена, супруга): from Massachuset (Algonquian) squa "woman"

30) clinic (поликлиника, лечебница): 1.from French clinique, 2.from Latin clinicus "physician that visits patients in their beds," 3.from Greek klinike "(practice) at the sickbed"

 

7. Comment on the etymological structure of the following joke:

a) Did you hear about the customer who dashed into the barbershop and in great distress said to the barber, «You remember the hair tonic you sold me last week? My wife upset it all over the grand piano.» «Don’t worry about it, we have lots more.»

Customer: «I’m not worried about it. I want to know how much you charge for shaving a grand piano?»

 

1.tonic: from Greek tonikos "of stretching," from tonos "a stretching"

2.piano: from French piano, from Italian piano

3.customer: from Anglo-French custumer, from Middle Latin custumarius, from Latin consuetudinarius

b) The kindergarten teacher was patiently struggling with the last pair of galoshes. She gad already gone through the process of helping 40 youngsters - pulling their overshoes on or off in the morning, at recess and lunch. As she gave the final tug to little Johnny’s galoshes, he said, «You know, Miss Smith, these are not mine.»

The patient teacher, after counting to ten, once more pulled off Johnny’s galoshes. When she was finished, he said, smiling, «These are my sister’s galoshes, but Mummy said I had to wear hers today because I couldn’t find mine!»

 

1.kindergarten: from German, lit. "children's garden"

2.youngster: Old English geong "youthful, young," from Proto-Germanic *jungas, from Proto-Indo-European *juwngkos + -ster

3.galoshes: from Old French galoche, from Late Latin gallicula "a Gallic (sandal)"

 

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