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Write an essay describing human senses.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Compare the use of the Past Simple and the Present Perfect tense-forms. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Ann boughtherself a new dress yesterday. She paid30 poundsfor it.

2. Have a look. I've just boughta lovely pair of shoes.

3. Marie and Pierre Curie discoveredradium and in 1903 wonthe Nobel Prize.

4. The police haven't foundthe boy yet. He disappeared3 days ago.

5. How many times haveyou beenin love? When didyou fallin love first?

6. Ron hasn't studiedmuch this term.

7. When didthey get married?— Last year. So they have been married forabout a year.

8. Chemistry hasnever beenmy favourite subject. I likedMaths when I studiedat school.

9. Sam hasn’t drunkalcohol since he gotinto a car accident.

10. I boughteverything I neededand wentstraight home.

11. Ihave boughta new car. — But where's the car you boughtlast уear?

12. That's where I used to livein my childhood.

13. Where is your key? — I don't know. I'm afraid I've lostit. — But when didyou seeit last ?

14. Peter was meetingsomeone that night so I stayedat the office and workedfor a few extra hours.

 

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences. Use the present perfect in the correct form.

1. A: Is it raining at the moment? В: …(it / just / stop).

2. I can't find my keys. ... (you / see) them?

3. A: Where's your dictionary?

B: I don't know ... (it / disappear).

4. A: Let's go and see 'Lions of Africa' at the Cannon cinema.

В: … (I / already / see) it.

A: Oh well, ... (you / see) 'Green Beans'?

B: No, let's go to that.

5. A: Please can I have my book back.

B: Oh dear. ... (I / not / finish) it.

6. A: Are Steve and Martha at home? B: No, ... (they / go) out.

7. John looks thinner. ... (he / lose) weight?

8. A: Is Sally enjoying her new job?

В: I don't know. (I / not / hear) from her.

9. A: Why doesn't this tape recorder work?

B: I think ... (you / break) it.

10. Mary, you're very late. I was worried about you. Where ... (you /be)?

11. A: How many times ... (you / take) your driving test?

B: Twice. My third one is next week.

12. This music is new to me. I'm sure ... (I / not / hear) it before.

 

Ex. 3.Complete the sentences with already (I've already .../She's already ...) or yet (He hasn't ...yet/ They haven't ...yet).

1. MARK: Lets go to the new Spielman exhibition at the Modern Art Museum.

JANE:I … . It's not very good. (see)

2. DAVID:Don't forget to tell Mary the good news.

LIZ:I ... and she was very happy. (tell)

3. SUE:What does John say in his letter?

CHRIS:I don't know. I ... I've been too busy. (read)

4. TIM:Did Sue's operation go well?

PAT:She ... . The hospital were too busy. (have)

5. JOHN:I enjoyed reading that new novel by Sarah Dunmore. Is it her first book?

JILL:No, she ... three, but I think this one is her best. (write)

6. PETE: Is that your father's new car?

PAUL:Yes, it arrived last week but he … . (drive)

7. KATE:When are Tony and Chris going to sell their house?

MICK:They ... They're moving to London next week. (sell)

 

Ex. 4. You work for a travel agency. A customer, Jack, is interested in one of your walking holidays in the tropical rain forests of South America. You are asking him some questions beginning Have you ever...?

YOU: 1. Can you walk a long distance? … (walk) more than 40 kms? 2. Are you healthy? … (have) a serious illness? ... break) an arm or a leg? 3. Can you swim? ... travel) in a canoe? 4. Do you like flying? ... (fly) in a helicopter? 5. Can you read a map? … (lose) your way? 6. Do you sleep well? … (sleep) outside? 7. Are you afraid of heights? … (climb) a high mountain? JACK: Yes, no problem. Yes, often. Yes, very. No, never. My leg, twice. Yes. Yes, once. Not very much. Yes, a few times. I think so. No, never. Yes, always. Yes, many times. No. Yes, once.

Ex. 5. Complete the conversations. Make questions with How long ... + the present perfect.

 

1. PIPPA: Do you like London?

MARTIN:Yes, very much.

PIPPA: … here? (live)

2. MIKE: This is a really good party, isn't it?

JEAN: Yes, great.

MIKE: … here? (be)

3. PETE: Does Julie enjoy her work?

LYNN: Not very much. She thinks the bank is a bit boring.

PETE: … there? (work)

4. ТОМ: Are you OK? You look a bit pale.

LIZ: I've got a headache.

ТОМ: … it? (have)

5. ALEX: Did you know David and Sheila are going to get married in the autumn?

JOHN: … each other? (know)

6. SARAH:Today is Tom's last day at work. He doesn't want to stop but he's 65 next month so … .

DAVID: ... with his company? (be)

SARAH:All his working life.

Ex. 6. Open the brackets using the Present Perfect or the Past Simple tense-forms.

 

1. What's the best film you ever (see)?

2. Simon is not at home. He (go) to a football match.

3. Why do you look so sad? Anything (happen)?

4. Jaime lives in Venezuela; he never (see) snow.

5. A lot of rain (fall) last week.

6. I (know) Helen for 10 years. We (study) at university together. She was one of the best students.

7. The house they (buy) looks much larger than ours.

8. You (cut) your finger! How it (happen)?

9. He (be) interested in jazz ever since he (leave) school.

10. We (have) a lovely time in Wales. — So you (enjoy) your holiday, didn't you?

11. My elder brother (have) a car for two years already. He (buy) it in France.

12. You (see) Tom? — Yes, I (talk) with him an hour ago.

13. Are you the boy whose dog (make) a terrible noise at night? — I'm sorry, but you are mistaken, sir. I never (own) a dog.

14. What (happen) there? — The dog (bite) the boy when he entered the garden.

15. You (know) each other before? — Yes. We first (meet) 3 years ago.

16. Why are you limping? — I (twist) my ankle.

17. The plane (take) off from London at 9.00 and (land) in Geneva at 10.30.

18. Joanna (not/change); she is the same as ever.

19. When I (switch) on the dishwasher, the machine (make) a loud noise.

20. People always (want) to be able to fly like birds in the sky.

21. I once (play) a guitar which (have) only five strings.

22. I never (teach) a class where the students are so lazy.

23. I (lose) a button. I don't suppose I’ll ever find it.

24. The slower you eat the more you will think you (eat).

25. You (be) already late for classes twice this week, Nick.

26. What a surprise! You're the very person 1 (want) to see so much.

27. They say the police already (catch) both of the thieves.

28. When we (be) kids, we (love) the beach very much, so we (use) to spend all our holidays at the.sea.

29. You (make up) your mind yet? What you (decide) to do?

30. Thanks a lot. It (be) a wonderful holiday. We (have) great fun.

31. Anyone (leave) a note for me?

32. People (use) to come at the weekends, but during the week I (be) alone in that huge house.

33. We (see) him at the summer course in London.

34. All the shirts you (send) your father (fit) him perfectly so far.

35. Although I (study) French for years I have difficulties in speaking the language.

36. Yesterday we (have) supper with the neighbours of ours.

37. Some years ago 1 (come) across this photo in an old magazine.

38. We (not/give) him a thing to eat since he (arrive).

39. Jerry (fail) his exams. He'll have to take them again.

40. It's ages since I last (see) a decent comedy film on television.

41. We understood that it (be) just a slip of the tongue.

42. The police (find) the bomb yet?

43. My computer (break down) again. It's time for me to buy a new word processor.

44. They always (bring) flowers when they came to visit me.

45. I'm sorry for her. She (have) bad luck all her life.

46. You (see) my gloves, by any chance?

47. He (give up) smoking yet? When he (do) it?

 

UNIT 4

GRAMMAR: PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS.

TEXTS: THE BRAIN.

 

PRE-READING AND READING TASKS.

 

1. Practise the pronunciation and study the meaning of the words:

 

refer (v) [rI'fE:] относить
axon ['xksPn] аксон
behaviour [bI'heIvIq] поведение
cerebellum ["serI'belqm] мозжечок
cerebrum ['serIbrqm, sq'ri:brqm] головной мозг
hemisphere ['hemIsfIq] полушарие
neuron ['njV(q)|rPn] нейрон, нервная клетa
skull [skAl] череп
cerebral ['serIbrql] черепно-мозговой, церебральный
wrinkled ['rINk(q)ld] сморщенный, складчатый

 

Read and translate the text.

 

THE BRAIN

 

The brain looks like a mass of grey jelly and is very soft. It is protected in the hard, bony case known as the skull. The human brain is quite large but is wrinkled, which makes it compact.

The brain is the body’s control center. It is involved with what we do and what we think, as well as what we feel and remember. We also use our brain to learn. The left-hand side of our brain controls the right side of the body, and the right-hand side of our brain controls the left side of the body. Most people are right handed, because the left side of the brain is generally used more than the right side. It has been found that each side of our brain is responsible for different skills. The right side holds our artistic talent and imagination, and the left side is more responsible for practical abilities and logical thinking.

The cells that make up the brain are called neurons. Branches from the cells, called dendrites receive impulses from the nerves while axons transmit them. Our brain interprets the impulses and can tell where they are coming from and to what they are referring. The brain cells can also store information. A piece of stored information is called a memory. One part of our brain stores long-term memories, another part more recent memories.

The largest part of the brain consists of two sections. Together they are known as the cerebral hemispheres or cerebrum. The cerebrum is highly organized. It is arranged in areas that relate to different parts of the body and to different needs. Vision is interpreted at the back of the cerebrum; hearing and speech at the side. The areas for sensation and movement are in the middle. The area at the front of the cerebrum, the frontal lobes, controls our behaviour. Below and to the back of the cerebrum lies the cerebellum. It contains nerve cells that are mainly concerned with balance. Below this the brain is connected to the rest of the body by the spinal cord.

 

COMPREHENSION CHECK

1. Express your agreement or disagreement with the following:

1. The human brain is quite small and very hard.

2. Most people are left handed because the right side of the brain is generally used more than the left side.

3. The brain is responsible for only one skill.

4. The cells that make up the brain can store information.

5. Vision is interpreted at the back of the dendrites.

6. Our behaviour is controlled by the spinal cord.

 

2 Answer the following questions:

1. Where is the brain located?

2. What does the brain look like?

3. Why is the human brain wrinkled?

4. Can the brain cells store information?

5. What cells of the brain receive impulses from the nerves?

6. How is the cerebrum organized?

7. What role does the cerebellum perform?

LANGUAGE FOCUS.

 

1. Give a) synonyms and b) antonyms to these words:

A b
to control to interpret to call mainly to involve to connect hard different below front left generally

 

2. Put the words in the right order to make up sentences:

1. Is, body, the, control, the, centre, of, brain, the.

2. Like, the, jelly, brain, looks, a, mass, grey.

3. The, one, more, used, left, side, of, the, brain, than, the, right, is.

4. From, nerves, the, receive, dendrites, impulse.

5. Information, is, a, stored, memory.

6. Two, of, sections, brain, the, consists.

7. Behaviour, the, controls, our, of, cerebrum, the, front.

8. Mainly, with, cerebellum, the, is, balance, concerned.

 

3. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:

1. Мозг контролирует все движения тела.

2. Мозг участвует в том, что мы делаем и думаем, а также в том, что мы чувствуем.

3. Наш мозг отвечает за различные навыки и умения. Правая сторона мозга отвечает за наши артистические способности и воображение, а левая – за практические способности и логическое мышление.

4. Наш мозг интерпретирует импульсы и может определить, откуда они идут и к чему относятся. В заднем отделе больших полушарий обрабатывается то, что мы видим, а то, что слышим и говорим – в боковом.

5. Клетки мозга могут также накапливать информацию. Памятью называется накопленная информация.

6. Головной мозг очень хорошо устроен.

7. Спинной мозг соединяет головной мозг с телом.

8. Большинство людей – правши, потому что левая сторона мозга в целом используется больше, чем правая.

9. Отростки клеток, называемые дендритами, получают импульсы от нервов, а аксоны передают их.

10. Клетки, составляющие мозг, называются нейронами.

11. Участок передней части больших полушарий, который называется передними долями, контролирует наше поведение.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

Discuss with your partner:

1) The brain as a body’s control centre.

2) The brain cells – neurons, dendrites – and their functions.

3) The main sections of the brain and the interpretation of various sense organs, movement, behaviour, balance, etc.

 

ADDITIONAL TEXT

 

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