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Read the text carefully. Be ready to fulfil the tasks that follow.




Evolutionarily, the vast majority of organisms above the level of the primitive invertebrate phyla have evolved sense organs in the anterior portion (front end) of their bodies that respond to the high concentration of incoming information there. The most anterior ganglion, or enlarged, organized, integrative mass of nervous tissue, is called the brain. It is the brain that is responsible for processing most of the incoming information.

In many species of invertebrates, the brain is not much larger than the other ganglia located along the rest of the longitudinal nerve cords. The brain of an invertebrate usually has considerably less dominance over the rest of the nervous system, and therefore the body, than is true for a vertebrate` brain in the same size category. The brain in most lower vertebrates is not capable of significantly more complex tasks than most invertebrate brains. But the early vertebrate brains reflect evolutionary trends that led to many of the brain developments that have helped distinguish the vertebrates from other groups of organisms.

In the higher invertebrates as well as in the vertebrates, the brain functions in coordination with, or in place of, the many localized, segmented ganglia that are usually little more than a stimulus-and-response apparatus. This large accumulation of nervous tissue receives and transmits sufficiently large amounts of data to give it considerable control over the rest of the organism. The brain also makes it possible for many of these organisms to learn.



Define what the brain is and enumerate its functions.

Name the differences between the brain of an invertebrate and a vertebrate.

Sum up what you have learned about the brain and write an essay about it.


Ex. 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect continuous tense.

1. I (make) cakes. That is why my hands are all covered with flour.

2. Her phone (ring) for ten minutes. I wonder why she doesn't answer it.

3. He (overwork). That is why he looks so tired.

4. There is sawdust in your hair. ~ I'm not surprised. I (cut) down a tree.

5. Have you seen my bag anywhere? I (look) for it for ages.

6. What you (do)? ~ I (work) in the laboratory.

7. He (study) Russian for two years and doesn't even know the alphabet yet.

8. How long you (wait) for me? ~ I (wait) about half an hour.

9. It (rain) for two days now. There'll be a flood soon.

10. We (argue) about this for two hours now. Perhaps we should stop!

11. I (bathe). That's why my hair is all wet.

12. You (drive) all day. Let me drive now.

13. How long you (wear) glasses?

14. The petrol gauge (say) "Empty" for quite a long time now. Don't you think we should get some petrol?

15. I'm sorry for keeping you waiting. I (try) to make a telephone call to Rome.

16. You (not eat) enough lately. That's why you feel irritable.

17. He (speak) for an hour now. I expect he'll soon be finished.

18. That helicopter (fly) round the house for the last hour; do you think it's taking photographs?

19. The radio (play) since 7 a.m. I wish someone would turn it off.

20. I (shop) all day and I haven't a penny left.

21. We (live) here since 1977.

22. I'm on a diet. I (eat) nothing but bananas for the last month.

23. The children (look) forward to this holiday for months.

24. That pipe (leak) for ages. We must get it mended.

25. Tom (dig) in the garden all afternoon and I (help) him.

26. I (ask) you to mend that window for six weeks. When are you going to do it?

27. Someone (use) my bicycle. The chain's fallen off.

28. How long you (drive)? ~ I (drive) for ten years.

29. The trial (go) on for a long time. I wonder what the verdict will be.

30. It (snow) for three days now. The roads will be blocked if it doesn't stop soon.

31. Mary (cry)? ~ No, she (not cry), she (peel) onions.

32. The car (make) a very curious noise ever it ran out of oil.

33. He walked very unsteadily up the stairs and his wife said, "You (drink)!"

34. Your fingers are very brown. You (smoke) too much.

35. You usually know when someone (eat) garlic.

36. Ever since he came to us that man (try) to make trouble.


Ex. 2. Compare the use of the Present Perfect Continuous, the Present Perfect Simple and the Present Continuous tense-forms.

1. Someone has been eatingmy chocolates. There are only six left.

2. Someone has eatenall my chocolates. The box is empty.

3. Have you decidedwhere to go ? — Not yet. We have been thinkingabout it for the whole week.

4. Why areyou crying?What's wrong? Hasanyone beenrude to you?

5. I remember meeting your brother last summer, but I haven't seenhim this year. What hashe been doingsince then ?

6. Have you doneyour homework yet, Liz?— No, I'm still doingit. I've been busysince morning.

7. Have you hada good evening? Well, I've been watchingthis film on television but it's rubbish, so I think I'll turn it off now.

8. Oh, David, I've been lookingfor you!

9. Your mother sends her love. I've just been speakingto her on the phone.


Ex. 3. Choose the appropriate tense-forms.


1. A. What have you done/have you been doing with my knife? Where is it?

B. I've put it back in your drawer.

A. (taking it out) What have you done/have you been doing with it? The blade's all twisted! Have you been using/have you used it to open tins?

2. A. Do you see those people on that little sandy island? They have been waving/have waved their handkerchiefs for the last half-hour. I wonder why.

B. They need help. The tide is coming in and very soon that island will be under water. Have you sat/have you been sitting calmly without doing anything to help them?

A. I have never been/have never been being here before. I haven't been hearing/haven't heard about the tides here.

3. What's up? What are you looking for/have you been looking for? Have you lost/have you been losing something?

4. A. Are you still painting/have you been still painting your country house? B. Yes. I'm painting/I've been painting it for several days already. I think it'll look beautiful when it's finished.


Ex. 4. Use the words given to complete the sentences. Put the verbs in the present perfect or continuous.


1. John's terribly upset. … (he / break) off his engagement to Megan. Apparently ... (she / see) someone else while (he / be) in Africa.

2. Can you translate this note from Stockholm? I understood Swedish when I was a child, but ... (I / forget) it all.

3. What's that dent in the side of the car? ... (you / have) an accident?

4. I'm sorry, John's not here; ... (he / go) the dentist. ... (he / have) trouble with a tooth.

5. This cassette recorder is broken ... (you / play about) with it?

6. Your Italian is very good. ... (you / study) it long?

7. Do you mind if I clear the table? ... (you / have) enough to eat?

8. I'm not surprised ... (he / fail) that exam. ... (he / not / work) hard recently.

9. Oh no! ... (the children / cook). Look at the state of this kitchen!

10. How many times ... . (Wendy / be) late for work this week?

11. I'm going to give that cat some food. ... (it / sit) on the doorstep for hours. I'm sure it's starving.

12. ... (I / do) grammar exercises all morning. I deserve a treat for lunch.

13. ... (you / not / buy) your mother a present? That's really mean of you!

14. I saw Katie yesterday . ... (she / work) in Australia for the past year. Did you know?

15. Now where are my keys? This is the third time ... (I / lose) them today!

16. ... (you / ever / play) chess? You should try it. I'm sure it's the sort of game you'd like.

17. Oh do be quiet. ... (you / grumble) all day!

18. ... (your tennis / really / improve)! … (you / practise) in secret?


Ex. 5. Open the brackets using the Present Perfect Continuous/Present Perfect/ Present Simple/Present Continuous tense-forms.

1. How long he (live) in Manchester? — All his life. He was born there.

2. Mr. Woods (not/feel) well for over a month.

3. Look. Can you see Simon over there? — He (sit) in the corner. — Yes. He (wait) for Jack. He (sit) here since two o'clock.

4. They (be) in London now. They (live) there for the last six months.

5. I (learn) Spanish since last year.

6. How many driving lessons you (have) lately?

7. They (repair) the road all this week, but they (not/finish) it yet.

8. Where you (be)? I (wait) for you for over an hour.

9. Your mum is still in the kitchen. She (cook) all the morning. — Yes. We (expect) guests tonight.

10. Sorry about the mess. I (paint) the house. I already (paint) the front.

11. It (get) harder and harder to find time.

12. How long you (be) a hairdresser?

13. She's obviously very unhappy. She (sit) alone in her bedroom for most of the day.

14. Paul and Jean (go out) together for about a year now 51.1 can smell something nice. What you (cook)?

15. He always (argue) or (fight).

16. The hall (hold) 300 people on some occasions, though you'd hardly believe it.

17. Sorry about the mess! The workmen (install) a new boiler in the bathroom all morning.

18. You are out of breath. You (run)?

19. It (rain) since yesterday evening. I wonder when it'll stop.

20. I (die) of thirst. Is there a water-fountain near here?

21. Don't rush me. I (work) as fast as I can.

22. I (read) some of your poetry. It's not bad.

23. You won't believe it, but I (wait) two months for my phone to be repaired.

24. Oh look, the sky (get) darker and darker. I think it's going to rain.

25. You look tired. — Yes, I (work) non-stop all day.

26. Since when he (learn) Chinese? — Since he got to university.

27. You look tired. I think you (work) hard lately and you (not/get) enough fresh air and exercise.

28. It's the most beautiful house I ever (see).

29. Oh, you (have) a shave! You look strange without a beard.

30. I (not/see) you for ages. What you (do)?

31. I (study) hard of late. I've got exams next week.

32. Jimmy always (have) cold and chest problems.

33. You're very late. — I (talk) to Henry and he just goes on and on.

34. It is the first time he (clean) his own boots.

35. Why are my books all over the floor? — Helen (look) at them.

36. Older people (become) more isolated now.

37. Katia says she (be) very tired recently. She (work) almost sixty hours a week for the past month.

38. My daughter-in-law (try) to find a job since she graduated from university.

Ex. 6. Open the brackets using the appropriate tense-forms.

1. By the time I (get) to the station the train (leave).

2. Patrick's mother (be) very angry when he (come) home late because she (worry) about him all evening.

3. The children (start) a fire. They (play) with matches.

4. Brenda (disappear) before I (have) time to talk to her.

5. Bruce (go) to hospital because he (cut) his hand while he (try) to mend a broken window.

6. It (be) more than a month before I (realize) what (happen).

7. When Jack (not/arrive) by 6 p.m. I (know) he (miss) the bus.

8. When I (meet) him he (work) as a plumber for a year or so.

9. I (be) very pleased when my son (find) my watch because we (look)

for it for hours.

10. I (wake) up and (look) out of the window. Everything (be) white.

It (snow) all night.

11. Karen (admit) that she (make) a mistake and (apologize).

12. When we (get) to the airport we (hear) that they (cancel) all the flights.

13. When our teacher (see) what Tom (do) she (be) absolutely furious.

14. My old watch (work) very well for many years before I (drop) it.

15. Her work (look) really neat because she (use) the computer.







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