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Write an essay describing the structure of the skeletal system.



GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Put in the construction “ there + be” in the correct tense form.

1. … … one theatre and five cinemas in our town.

2. We enjoyed our holidays very much. … … a lot of places to go in the evening.

3. … … many types of cells, and just as many classifications to go with them.

4. We stayed at a very nice hotel. … … a swimming pool and other places to entertain there.

5. We didn’t visit the museum. … … too much traffic, therefore we were late.

6. … … some lovely old houses and traditional shops in the historical part of the city.

7. … … two pictures and a big oval mirror on the wall.

8. Don’t be in a hurry. … … a train at 10.30 a.m. tomorrow. We have enough time for sightseeing in the historical part of the city.

9. … … too much traffic and noise in the centre of the city. … … be a big problem about living here.

10. Where can I buy a newspaper? … … a shop at the end of the street.

11. When we arrived at the cinema, … … a long queue to see the film.

12. Why are those policemen outside the bank? … … … a robbery.

13. Last week I went back to the town where I was born. It’s very different now. … … … a lot of changes.

14. I think everything will be OK. I don’t think … … be any problems.

15. Twenty years ago … … many tourists here. Now … … only few.

 

Ex. 2. Put in there is /was / will be / has been / should be /in negative and interrogative forms.

1. The journey took a lot of time. There was a lot of traffic.

2. There is a bookshop near here. I think, the book you are looking for, is available here.

3. When we got to the cinema, there was a long queue outside.

4. There was a trouble at the club last night. They had to call the police.

5. There will be a lot of people at the party.

6. There is a flight to London this evening.

7. There is nothing to do here.

8. There was an interesting program on TV yesterday.

9. There will be a day off tomorrow, let’s spend it with our friends.

10. It is very convenient that there is a lift in my house.

11. There are some mistakes in my paper.

12. There was much noise in the street.

13. There are some ways of solving this problem.

14. There must be a lot of noise from the traffic.

15. There are three children in my sister’s family.

16. There are other elements present in some proteins, e.g. magnesium.

17. There is somebody waiting for me at the entrance door.

18. There are some children swimming in the river.

19. There was a big red car parked outside the road.

20. There has been a big rise in the cost of living.

21. There should be an equal chance of X and Y sperm meeting an ovum, and therefore equal members of girl and boy babies should be born.

 

Ex. 3. Comparethereandit. Correct mistakes.

Model :They live on a busy road.It must be a lot of noise. -WRONG.

There must be a lot of noise.

1. Last winter it was very cold and it was a lot of snow.

2. I wish it was warmer. I hate cold weather.

3. It used to be a church here, but it was knocked down.

4. It’s a long way from my house to the nearest shop.

5. Why was she so unfriendly? It must have been a reason.

6. I don’t know who will win but it’s sure to be a good match.

7. ‘Where can we park the car?’ ‘Don’t worry. It’s sure to be a car park somewhere.’

8. After the lecture it will be an opportunity to ask questions.

9. I like the place where I live but it would be nicer to live by the sea.

10. I was told that it would be somebody to meet me at the station but it wasn’t anybody.

11. How far is it to the airport?

12. It is hot in summer. It was windy yesterday.

13. It’s going to be a nice day.

14. It’s a long way from here to the airport.

15. It’s dangerous to walk in the road.

16. If people drove more carefully, it would be fewer accidents.

17. Look at the sky. It would be a storm.

18. If people weren’t aggressive, it wouldn’t be any wars.

19. It was a beautiful day yesterday. We had a picnic.

 

Ex. 4. Put in there is / was or it is / was.

 

1. The journey took a long time … a lot of traffic.

2. What’s the new restaurant like? … good?

3. … a bookshop near here? ‘Yes … one in Hill street’.

4. When we got to the cinema, … a queue outside. … a very long queue, so we decided not to wait.

5. I couldn’t see anything. … completely dark.

6. … trouble at the club last night. They had to call the police.

7. How far … from Milan to Rome?

8. … Keith’s birthday yesterday. We had a party.

9. … three years since I last went to the theatre.

10. I wanted to visit the museum but … enough time.

11. “… time to go” “Yes, nearly midnight”

12. A few days ago … a storm. … a lot of damage.

13. … a beautiful day yesterday. We had a picnic.

14. … anything on television, so I turned it off.

15. … an accident in King Street but … very serious.

 

Ex. 5. Fill in the blanks with the correct subjectorobject pronoun.

1. Joe is late. Has … called? It’s not like … to be late.

2. Nick is lucky. … has a good job and … earns much more than … do.

3. Marie works hard, because … wants the boss to give … a pay rise.

4. ‘Where is Sarah?’ ‘Isn’t that … over there?’

5. She is older than … am, but I’m taller than … .

6. ‘I’m sick and tired of this job.’ ‘ … too.’

7. ‘ John gave … a great idea.’ ‘It is so inventive, isn’t it?’

Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with there oritorone.

 

1. A: Did you enjoy the party?

B: No. … weren’t many people there. … was boring.

2. A: … is someone on the phone for you. I think … is David.

B: Hold on. I’ll be there in a minute.

3. A: Was that a Ferrari going past?

B: I didn’t see … .

4. A: Look! … is your friend!

B: Oh yes! … ‘s Ian.

5. A: When did you last see a film?

B: I haven’t seen … for months.

6. A: Have you got your umbrella with you?

B: No, … wasn’t raining this morning, so I left … at home.

7. A: Did you sleep late yesterday?

B: Yes, by the time I woke up, … was lunch time.

8. A: Have you got a computer?

B: No, I had … , but I sold … .

9. A: Look at this mess. … are toys everywhere.

B: Sorry. I’ll tidy up.

10. A: Did you visit the Acropolis?

B: No, … wasn’t enough time.

11. A: Could I have the bill, please?

B: Certainly. I’ll bring … at once.

12. A: … seems to be a mistake in this report.

B: Oh, sorry, I’ll type … again.

13. A: Josie is very pretty.

B: Yes. … doesn’t matter what she wears, she always looks good.

Ex. 7. Put in object pronouns.

1. This letter isn’t for … . It’s for him.

2. Who is that girl? Why are you looking at … ?

3. We are going to the theatre. Do you want to come with … ?

4. Where are my gloves? You are sitting on … .

5. I want that English book. Please give … to … .

6. I don’t eat sweets. I don’t like … .

7. I’m talking to you. Please listen to … .

8. My sister has got a new job, but she doesn’t like … very much.

9. Where is Alice? I want to talk to … .

10. This is my new car. Do you like … ?

11. He wrote to Sarah, but she didn’t answer … .

12. We are going for a walk. Why don’t you come with … . ?

13. This letter is for Sarah. Can you give it to … ?

14. ‘Are there any messages for … ?’, asked Sally.

15. Where are my keys? Where did I put … ?

 

Ex. 8. Fill in possessive adjectives.

1. We always wash … hands before eating anything.

2. Wipe … feet before you come in.

3. I trapped … finger in the door.

4. He lost … jacket at the party.

5. He hit … knee on the table.

6. I like … shoes. I wonder where she bought … .

7. … feet hurt because … shoes were too tight.

8. She invited me to ... new apartment.

9. He has decided to give up … job and there’s nothing you can do to stop him.

10. He has got a pain in … chest. He must consult a doctor.

11. He is sick and tired of … job. He should change it.

12. Susan is … friend. She is … colleague, too.

13. He missed … flight, so he was the only one who didn’t attend the conference.

14. She invited a lot of people to … party. She knew most of them from work.

15. People living abroad often miss … friends and family.

 

Ex. 9. Fill in object pronounsandpossessive adjectivesin the letter by Rachel:

Dear Carol,

Thank you for … letter. I really enjoyed reading … . Have … children started … new school yet? I’m sure they will enjoy …. very much once they settle in and make new friends. Mary and John asked me for … new address, so I gave … to … . I hope you don’t mind. I saw Anne last week. She said she would phone you this week to invite you to … birthday party. Well, I’m going to … … aerobics class now. Please write to … soon.

Love,

Rachel

Ex. 10. Fill in the gaps with oforonwhere necessary, addingmy, your, his, her etc. own.

Models:If they had a garden … of their own … , they could grow flowers.

I want …my own… flat.

 

1. John is lucky. He has got a computer … .

2. Don’t treat me like a child. I’ve got a mind … .

3. I don’t need a lift to work. I ‘ve got … … car.

4. They hope to set up … … business one day.

5. Haven’t you got … … book? You’re always taking mine.

6. Their house is big, so Harry can have a room … .

7. We’re saving up money to buy a flat ... .

8. You can’t eat my sweets. Buy some … .

9. Brian usually cuts … … hair.

10. Vera and George would like to have their … house.

11. I’d like to have a garden so that I could grow … … vegetables.

12. I like living … … own.

13. Did you go on holiday … … own?

14. Learner drivers are not allowed to drive … … own.

 

Ex. 11. Fill in possessive pronouns.

Model: I’ve bought a new camera. This camera is mine, not yours.

I’m writing to a friend of mine.

1. Is this book … or ... ?

2. It’s their problem, not … .

3. I didn’t take my umbrella, so Alice gave me … .

4. We went in our car and they went in … .

5. It was a nice performance, Harry came together with a friend … .

6. Whose book is this? It’s … .

7. Whose money is this? It’s … .

8. Whose children are these ? They are … .

9. She’s going out with a friend … .

10. I played tennis with a friend … .

11. She’s meeting a friend … this evening.

12. He gave me his address and I gave him … .

13. They gave you … address and you gave them … .

14. We went on holidays with some friends … .

15. Michael had an argument with a neighbor … .

 

Ex. 12. Complete these sentences using reflexive pronouns. Use the following verbs in the correct form:

Fix, make, organize, teach, paint, decorate, dress, grow

Model: Annie didn’t buy her wedding dress. She made it herself.

1. Do you like these flowers. I … .

2. Look at this picture. My son … .

3. What a beautiful room! Did you … ?

4. I didn’t call the plumber to fix the pipe. I … .

5. He didn’t have piano lessons . He … .

6. My son is only three, but I don’t dress him. He … .

7. Nobody helped Julie with the party. She … .

 

Ex. 13. Fill in each otherorone another.

 

1. How long have you and Alice known … ?

2. I need you and you need me, we need … .

3. In Britain friends often give … presents at Christmas.

4. Nora and I don’t see … very often these days.

5. They’ve had an argument. They’re not speaking to … at the moment.

6. Don’t worry about Tom and me. We can take care of … .

7. The students ask … questions in English.

8. We’d never met before, so we introduced ourselves to … .

9. We often write letters to … .

10. Real friends support … in case of troubles.

 

Ex. 14. Fill in the gaps with some, any, noor one of their compounds.

 

Model: A: Is there anything good on television tonight?

B: I don’t know. Look in the newspaper.

 

1. A: Would you like … to eat ?

B: No, I don’t want … , thank you.

2. A: There is … here to see you.

B: Who is it ?

3. A: I went to Jane’s house, but there was … at home.

B: Perhaps she has gone … nice for the weekend.

4. A: I have … time to do all this work.

B: Is there … I can do to help ?

5. A: Was the party good last night ?

B: Not really. There were hardly … people there.

6. A: I have to go shopping, but I don’t have … money.

B: I’ll lend you …. if you like.

7. A: Have you seen Michael … ?

B: No, I haven’t seen him.

8. A: The town was very busy today. There was … to park.

B: They should build … new parking facilities.

9. A: What would you do if you were lost?

B: I would ask … for directions.

10. A: Is there … you would like to go this weekend?

B: I’d like to go … nice and quiet.

11. A: This place is crowded.

B: Shall we go … else?

12. A: Would you like … to drink?

B: Yes. please. Can I have … lemonade? (request)

 

Ex. 15. Read the dialogue and underline the correct item. (Bill has lost his keys.)

A: There is nothing / something more annoying than losing something / anything.

B: What have you lost?

 

A: My keys. They must be anywhere / somewhere in the house, but I’ve got no / any idea where. I can’t find themnowhere / anywhere.

B: Are you sure you haven’t left them nowhere / anywhere by mistake?

A: Of course not. They can’t be somewhere / anywhere else but here. No one / Someone must have hidden them.

B: Why would no one / anyone hide your keys? There is any / no reason for anyone / no one to do something / anything so silly.

 

A: Well, I need some / any help to find them. I have to go anywhere / somewhere important this afternoon.

B: Calm down. It’s some / no use getting angry about anything / something like this. Look! There are no / some keys on that chair.

 

A: They are mine! Oh, I feel so silly!

Ex. 16. Fill in the gaps with this, that, these or those

1. That car over there belongs to the mayor.

2. … people over there are waiting for the bus.

3. My cousin is staying with me … week.

4. … is my favourite painting.

5. Listen to … . It’s really funny.

6. Hello. … is Helen.

7. … room hasn’t got enough light.

8. … was a great party. We enjoyed ourselves.

9. She lost her job. …‘s awful.

10. I’ve got a new job. …’s wonderful news.

11. Mum, … is my teacher, Miss. Jones.

12. … are my holiday photographs. Would you like to look at them?

13. ‘Hello, … is Jane Black speaking.’

14. The day I got married was wonderful. I will remember … day for ever.

15. I had a wonderful childhood. We did things differently in … days.

 

Ex. 17. Complete the sentences using oneor ones with the following words: better, big, clean, different, new, old, green, white, fast, another, dark blue.

Model: This cup is dirty. Can I have a clean one.

1. I’m going to sell my car and buy … .

2. That’s not a very good photograph but this is … .

3. I want today’s newspaper. This is … .

4. This box is too small. I need … .

5. Why do we always go to the same restaurant? Let’s go to … .

6. I don’t like the red shoes, but I like the … .

7. 7. Which flowers do you want? The … .

8. Is there a train to Moscow tonight? Yes, there is … in an hour.

9. These biscuits are not tasty. Can we have … .?

10. I don’t like the brown coat, but I like … .

 

 

Ex. 18. Fill in many, much, how many, how much ora lot.

Model:A: Shall we go out tonight

B: I can’t. I don’t have much money, I’m afraid.

 

1. A: Can you help me?

B: I’m sorry. I haven’t got … time at the moment.

1. A: … potatoes are in that bag?

B: Seven, I think. Why?

2. A: What did you do on your holiday?

B: Well, I read … and I relaxed on the beach.

3. A: There isn’t … milk left.

B: Well, I’ll buy some later this afternoon.

4. A: … homework have you got?

B: Quite … . I’d better start now.

5. A: Did you enjoy your dinner?

B: Yes. I ate … and I’m very full.

6. A: Mark is a wonderful athlete.

B: Yes. He has won … competitions.

7. A: Are there … flowers in the garden?

B: Yes, and they are beautiful too.

8. A: Are you very busy?

B: No. I haven’t got … to do today.

9. A: She has got … clothes.

B: I know. She wears something different every day.

10. A: … times have you seen this film?

B: Three times, but always cry at the end.

11. A: … food should we take on the picnic?

B: Oh, enough for all four of us.

12. A: Have you travelled to … places.

B: Yes, I go to a different country every year.

 

Ex. 19. Underline the correct item.

Model: I have a lot of records, but very few/ little/ very little CDs.

 

1. We have very little/ very few/ few spaghetti, so I can’t make Spaghetti Bolognese.

2. I’m tired. I didn’t get many/ much/ few sleep last night.

3. I’ve made many/ much/ a lot of notes but I haven’t written my essay yet.

4. This coffee is bitter. It needs a few/ a little/ little more sugar.

5. I have invited a few/ a lot of/ much people to the party.

6. I don’t have many/ much/ few time at the moment. I’ll talk to you later.

7. I have had a few/ very few/ very little success in my search for a job.

8. There are much/ a lot of / a little reasons why he should go to university.

9. I’d love to come to the beach. I just need a few/ a little/ many minutes to get ready.

10. There are much/ little/ few people who are as hardworking as James.

11. I have little/ a little/ a few work to do before I can leave.

12. I made a lot of/ a little/ a few biscuits this morning. Would you like to try one?

13. There weren’t few/ much/ many people in town today. It was very quiet.

14. There is a little/ little/a few chance of his getting the job. He has no experience.

15. There is very little/ little/ very few coffee left. We need to buy some more.

 

Ex. 20. Underline the correct item.

Oliver has got two jobs, but neither / neither of them pay very well. He has had more jobs already than most/ most of people have in their whole lives, but none/ none ofthem really suited him. It is a shame, because he spent several / several of years at college and has got some/ any good qualifications. Either of / Both his parents are very proud of him for getting a good education, but each of / neither of them can understand why he can’t find a suitable job. He buys several / most newspapers every week and looks carefully through each of/ every one of them to see if any / no good jobs are being advertised. He applies for every one of/ every available position, but often receives some / no reply. He still believes that he will find his ideal job one day.

 

 

UNIT 7

GRAMMAR: TENSE FORMS IN PASSIVE.

TEXTS: THE BLOOD SYSTEM. BLOOD.

 






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