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Write a paragraph describing the blood system.



 

ADDITIONAL TEXT

 

Read the text carefully to fulfil the tasks that follow.

BLOOD

 

Like muscle, bone, cartilage, and nerves, blood is a type of tissue, a collection of similar types of cells and the associated intercellular substances that surround them. Tissues are categorized into four main types: 1) epithelium, 2) muscle, 3) nervous, and 4) connective. Connective tissue includes blood, lymph, bone, and cartilage. In the case of blood and lymph, the base substance, or matrix, is a liquid. What differentiates these two from other tissue types is that they are not stationary. Blood is a fluid flowing through blood vessels throughout the body (lymph runs through the lymph vessels).

Blood accounts for about 8 percent of a human’s total body weight, amounting to an average of four to six liters per adult (over a gallon), depending on individual size. Blood is thicker (more viscous) and slightly heavier than water. And, depending on the organism, blood is usually slightly warmer than the animal’s body temperature. While the core body temperature of most humans is 37oC (98.6oF), their blood is about 38oC (100.4oF). Blood pH is slightly alkaline, ranging from about 7.35 to 7.45. Its salt (NaCl) concentration normally varies from about 85 to 90 ppt (parts per thousand), or two to three times the concentration of sea water.

Plasma is the fluid portion of both blood and lymph. Fifty to sixty percent of the blood volume consists of plasma. When the proteins involved in clotting are removed from blood plasma, the remaining liquid is called serum. The plasma, which is over 90 percent water, carries a variety of ions and molecules. In addition to salts and proteins, there are many nutrients such as amino acids, fats, and glucose. There are also dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, as well as antibodies, hormones, enzymes, and certain waste products such as urea and uric acid. The relative amount of plasma in the blood depends upon the species, the sex, the organism’s health when being examined, and on a host of other variables. The remaining 40 to 50 percent of the blood volume is composed of cells and cell fragments that can be divided into three main categories: red blood cells, or erythrocytes; white blood cells, or leukocytes; and platelets, or thrombocytes, which are fragments of cells.

 

POST-READING TASKS

Define the following concepts: blood, plasma, serum.

2. Name: a) the main types of tissue, b) the kinds of connective tissue, c) the constituents of plasma, d) types of blood cells.

3. Explain what differentiates: a) blood and lymph from other tissue types, b) blood from lymph, c) blood from water.

Write an essay describing the structure of blood.

 

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Underline passive forms in the sentences. Translate into Russian.

1. Rickets is prevented by ultra-violet radiation.

2. A great deal of information about the human nervous system has been obtained by observing the effects of axonal destruction.

3. Anatomical methods can be used postmortem when lesions of the central nervous system have been deliberately made.

4. Viruses, though not classed as living organisms, are also studied by microbiology.

5. The hippocampus, with its seahorse-shaped structure, is buried deep in the brain behind the ears.

6. A variety of biopolymers, such as polysaccharides, polyesters, and polyamides are produced by microorganisms.

7. Histamine causes nose cells to secrete more mucus, so if more viruses try to invade they will be trapped in the sticky fluid there.

8. Numerical taxonomy method involves grouping of individuals, so identifications are being made based on overall similarity.

9. The term ‘biosphere’ had been coined to highlight the interdependence of living and non-living world.

10. Many of the original variety of alleles will have been lost in individuals who didn’t survive due to a natural catastrophe or a continual more gradual change in the environment.

11. The genetic information was being used to establish an understanding of the relationships between the dozens of common-cold rhinoviruses.

12. The first heart transplant in an experimental model was performed by French surgeon Alexis Carrel in 1905.

13. Evidences to establish viewpoint, that the presence of Y chromosome determines maleness and its absence determines femaleness, had been provided by certain abnormal conditions called syndromes.

14. Who are Francis Crick and James Watson by whom the DNA structure has been found out?

15. Neuroscientist Susan Masino was not involved in the study of caffeine’s effects on brain.

 

Ex. 2. Use the correct tense forms of the verbs in brackets: active or passive.

1. Hormones (to produce) in small quantities and they (to carry) in blood stream.

2. In the next chapter the work of the immune system will (to show).

3. Researches are (to be conducted) to fully understand the development of cancer at the cellular or molecular level.

4. The flowers of the sun-flower plant are rather small and (to aggregate) together into compact groups.

5. By the beginning of the 20th century, most major forms of cancer (to describe).

6. The insect orders (отряды) like Coleoptera, Diptera (to create) by Aristotle.

7. Quinine, which (to extract) from the bark of cinchona trees, (to use) effectively for the past 300 years to cure malaria.

8. A lot of persistent organic substances (to accumulate) in the environment as a result of industrial activity.

9. White-rod wood fungi (to live) on the trees and (to consume) wood that mostly (to consist) of lignin and cellulose.

10. Neurons (to communicate) by releasing the contents of vesicles (пузырьки) full of neurotransmitters into the space between one neuron and the next.

11. People (to conduct) an unplanned global experiment by changing the face of the entire planet.

12. As result of decreased rainfall in some areas, in the future river flow (to reduce) or (to stop) all together completely.

13. The DNA segments that carry genetic information (to call) genes.

14. Evolution is the complexity of processes by which living organisms (to establish) on the earth and (to expand) and (to modify) through changes in form and function.

15. Now the team (to plan) (to examine) the roles of proteins in the fusion process.

 

Ex. 3. Change the following sentences from active to passive voice.

1. The brain and spinal cord compose the central nervous system.

2. Recent research has suggested that microorganisms could be useful in the treatment of cancer.

3. Microbiology includes virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology and other branches.

4. Scientists can identify any type of organism by examination of DNA sequences unique to that species.

5. The parasite shuttles back and forth between mosquitoes and humans causing disease on its way.

6. The researchers mixed these tagged donor vesicles with acceptor vesicles on a glass surface.

7. Biophysicists are studying proteins’ work.

8. Several studies have indicated that the specific location of a gene in the nucleus influences its activity.

9. The human heart, a complex organ vital to life, pumps blood throughout the body.

10. The upper chambers, called atria, collect blood returning to the heart.

11. Galen was the first to discover the fact that the heart and vessels contained blood rather than air.

12. Ribosomes make proteins as nucleus tells them.

13. They asked us to try out the new device.

14. Future discoveries may provide better disease treatments.

15. Pasteur developed and successfully used a vaccine for hydrophobia (rabies).

 

Ex. 4. Translate into English in active or passive voice.

1. Клетки мозга могут также накапливать информацию.

2. Прокариоты используются в медицине.

3. Долгое время полагали, что вирусы вызывают острые (acute) массовые заболевания.

4. Микроорганизмы невозможно увидеть невооружённым глазом.

5. Кишечнополостные относятся к многоклеточным животным.

6. Пищей для гидры могут служить различные мелкие организмы.

7. Гидра обитает в пресных водах и ведет прикрепленный образ жизни.

8. Гидра прикрепляется к подводным предметам более широким концом.

9. Стрекательные клетки считаются одними из самых совершенных и высокоспециализированных клеток животных.

10. Трубки, по которым происходит ток жидкости, называют сосудами.

11. Артерии – это сосуды, которые несут кровь от сердца.

12. Плотные кости пронизаны кровеносными и нервными сосудами и нервами.

13. Костный мозг губчатых костей вовлечен в создание кровяных клеток.

14. Кости образованы костной тканью, которая относится к соединительной (connective).

15. Снаружи печень окружена двуслойной оболочкой.

 

Ex. 5. Find mistakes in the sentences. Correct them.

1. The brain is connect to the rest of the body by the spinal cord.

2. Anatomical methods is occasionally applicable to study human diseases.

3. For some months after the injury, breakdown products of myelin will be saw under the microscope.

4. The world are estimated to have 5 to 30 million species of living organisms.

5. Global warming is sometimes refers to as the greenhouse effect.

6. DNA testing will be using to determine if Kennewick Man's DNA is similar to that of other Native Americans.

7. Though the heart have been regarded throughout history as a vital organ, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system has been misunderstood for a large segment of that time.

8. She has just being allowed to take the exam.

9. There are two cranial (черепных) nerves that are innervate the tongue and are used for taste.

10. Cestoda are often been called tapeworm of their flat, slender but very long bodies.

11. The name “cestode” is derive from the Latin word “cestus”, which means “tape”.

12. Sugars, is obtained by photosynthesis, are then used as the building blocks for plant growth.

13. When animals have being eating plants, the sugars produced by the plant are used by the animal.

14. Energy is also requiring during movement of material across the cell membrane.

15. The energy-rich phosphate groups have stored in the form of ATP.

 

Ex. 6. Put the words in the right order to make correct sentences (active or passive).

1. Most | are | composed | of | fungi | many | cells | of.

2. Our | occupied | is | by | kinds | of | diverse | organisms | living | planet | Earth.

3. The | heart | divided | a | right | is | side | and | into | a | side | left.

4. The | walls | constructed | in | a | way | such | of | veins | as | to enable | them | to expand | are | or | contract.

5. Energy | also | expended | motion | is | during.

6. Energy | anabolic | cells | during | the | expended | reactions | of | the | is | primarily.

7. ATP | to | the | as | is | the | “energy currency” | referred | of | cell | often.

8. The | ATP | in | cell | present | amount | a | is | usually | of | small.

9. Living | are | system | by | organisms | protected | the | immune.

10. In | the | rediscovered | anti-smallpox | the | century, | vaccine | was | the |18th | in | west.

11. Fleming | in | when | penicillin | he | in | a | 1928 | discovered | lab | contaminated | accidentally | culture plate | his.

12. Marine worms | in | or | summer, | breed | and | then | mature | spring | once | die.

13. The | larvae | develop | short | marine worms | a | that | of | from | have | fertilized eggs | planktonic life.

14. In insect, | understood | sex pheromones | for | been | several | have | decades.

15. With | animals | into | bodies | a few exceptions, | have | differentiated | separate | tissues.

 

Ex. 7. Supply the necessary English equivalents for the Russian fragments in brackets in passive voice.

1. All toxic gases that (вдыхаются человеком во время курения) damage the lining of the lungs.

2. Very tiny hairs that can be seen only under a microscope cover the lining of the breathing tube and lungs and (их называют ресничками).

3. The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package the macromolecules such and proteins and lipids (которые синтезируются клеткой).

4. Vacuoles are spaces which (заполнены жидкостью) and (окружены мембраной).

5. Worn-out organelles (перевариваются лизосомами) with digestive enzymes.

6. Respiration in the cell (осуществляется митохондриями).

7. The cell nucleus is the most noticeable organelle (которую можно обнаружить в эукариотической клетке).

8. Molecules (транспортируются эндоплазматической сетью).

9. Ribosomes (используются, чтобы синтезировать белки) from amino acids.

10. Food to have a taste (должна быть растворена) in water.

11. Receptor cells can live only 1 or 2 weeks and then (заменяются) by new receptor cells.

12. Taste information (передается) to limbic system.

13. The actual organ of taste (называется) “taste bud” [сосочек].

14. A fifth basic taste (называемый) “Umami” (открыт) recently.

15. “Umami” is a taste that occurs when foods with glutamate (едят).

 

Ex. 8. Remember the following words and expressions, translate the sentences with them.

 

Favour - благоприятствовать

to agree upon - договориться

look after - присматривать за

refer to - ссылаться на, относиться к, отсылать к

send for - посылать за

think of as - думать как о, считать

answer - отвечать на

follow - следовать за, следить за, следовать чему-либо

watch - наблюдать за, следить за

to call attention to - обращать внимание на

give attention to, pay attention to - уделять внимание кому-либо, чему-либо

to do away with - покончить с, отказаться от

make attempt - делать попытку, пытаться

make mention of- упоминать о

make reference to - ссылаться на

make use of- использовать

take account of- принимать во внимание, учитывать

take advantage of - использовать, воспользоваться преимуществом

take care of- заботиться, стараться, учитывать

take notice of- замечать, обращать внимание на

 

1. Optional conditions were agreed upon.

2. For further details the reader is referred to the second edition of this symposium.

3. Incomplete virus may be thought of as deformed one (virus). .

4. The above mentioned test animals had to be carefully looked after.

5. The doctor was sent for.

6. The operation was watched by many young surgeons.

7. Changes in valency can be watched spectroscopically.

8. This statement was followed by a long discussion concerning the meaning and application of the theory.

9. Their experiments were soon followed by the discovery of RNA in the cell cytoplasm.

10. Mention was made of the new achievements in this field.

11. Special attention has been paid to different effects of temperature on tissue.

12. Much care is being taken to avoid overheating.

13. Out-of-date methods are being gradually done away with.

14. Advantage is taken of the effect of light on photosynthesis.

15. Reference has been made only to the recently published works.

16. An attempt was made to review the vast amount of new facts obtained in this field.

17. Attention was called to finest particles.

18. Use was made of a complex nucleus in the process of disintegration.

19. No attempt was made by the authors to investigate different cavities separately.

20. Notice has been taken of important physiological processes in the soil in which anaerobic bacteria take an active part.

 

UNIT 8

GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH.

TEXTS: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. NUTRITION.

 







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