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VI. Have you ever seen the bridges described in the photos?



VII. How are the following names and things connected to Tower Bridge? Say some words about each of them.

· A Special Bridge or Subway Committee

· the Tower of London

· Horace Jones

· Wolfe-Barry

· the Prince of Wales

· Cornish granite and Portland Stone

· A “Behind the Scene” tour

Imagine you are Horace Jones, the City Architect. You have to convince A Special Bridge or Subway Committee to approve your design. Describe the design you’ve submitted keeping in mind the following points:

Location of the Bridge Time of construction

Type of the Bridge Materials to be used

Characteristics of the Bridge Costs (including labour force)

Style of the Bridge Its being necessary to the city

VI. Make the plan of the text Tower Bridge.

VII. Write down the key-words to expand the plan.

VII. Make an abstract of the same text.

Text 7: Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel

Lead-in

Look at the picture and answer the following questions

1. Why is the bridge-tunnel considered unique?

2. What do you think about the length of the complex?

3. What is the main purpose of the bridge-tunnel complex?

Brief information:

Location: Cape Charles and Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA

Completion Date: 1964

Cost: $200 million

Length: 89,760 feet (total length); 79,200 feet (bridge length)

Type: Beam, tunnel

Purpose: Roadway

Materials: Steel, concrete

Longest Single Span: 100 feet

Engineer(s): Sverdrup & Parcel

Distinguished as an "Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement" by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1965, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel is nothing short of a modern engineering wonder. Dipping over and under open waters with a complex chain of artificial islands, tunnels, and bridges, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge provides a direct link between Southeastern Virginia and the Delmarva Peninsula.

The bridge-tunnel complex is 17.6 miles long from shore to shore, and it cuts 95 miles off the journey between Virginia Beach and points north of Wilmington, Delaware. The majority of the bridge-tunnel complex is above the water, supported by more than 5,000 piers. But due to the importance of shipping in the bay, the crossing was sunk deep beneath the bay in two mile-long tunnels to allow the passage of ships. Four artificial islands, each with approximately 10 acres of surface, provide the portals by which the road enters the tunnels. The original Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel 2-lane crossing consists of 12.5 miles of low level concrete bridge trestles, two tunnels each about one mile long, two high-level steel bridges, four man-made portal islands each 1,500 feet long, 1.5 miles of earthfill causeway across Fisherman Island, and about 5.5 miles of land approach highway. The roadway on the bridge portions is 28 feet wide.

The individual components of the Bridge-Tunnel are not the longest or the largest ever built; however, the total project is unique in the number of different types of major structures included in one crossing and the fact that construction was accomplished under the severe conditions imposed by northeasters, hurricanes, and the unpredictable Atlantic Ocean. It's quite an eerie experience to be driving along and see the road you're on disappear into the bay. Since it opened (1965), more than 67 million vehicles have crossed the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel. It's possible that many just crossed it for the thrill of it! It is mandatory that the bridge be checked and serviced every five years. Since servicing the bridge takes about five years, the work never stops.

Fast Facts:

· Following its opening in 1964, the Bridge-Tunnel was selected as "One of the Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World" in a worldwide competition that included more than 100 major projects.

· Since it opened in 1965, more than 67 million vehicles have crossed the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel.

· One artificial island actually has a gift shop, restrooms, and a parking lot to allow drivers to stretch, relax, and enjoy the scenic view.

· Four artificial islands, each with approximately 10 acres of surface, provide the portals by which the road enters the tunnels.

COMPREHENSION CHECK

I. Decide whether the following statements are true or false according to the text:

1. The Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel has nothing to do with a modern engineering wonder.

2. The Bridge-Tunnel is both the longest and the largest ever built.

3. The bridge-tunnel complex is about 32.6 km long from shore to shore.

4. The bridge-tunnel complex is mostly under the water.

5. On the way of the bridge-tunnel complex there are five artificial islands, each with approximately 10 acres of surface.

6. The roadway on the bridge portions is about 890 m wide.

7. The Bridge is not serviced less than once in 5 years period.

8. Artificial island are big enough to house shops, parking lots, restaurants etc.

9. The Bridge-Tunnel was selected as "The second of the Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World" in a worldwide competition that included more than 1000 major projects.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Why was the bridge-tunnel complex distinguished as "Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement"?

2. How long is the complex?

3. What components does the bridge-tunnel have?

4. Is the complex mostly above or under the water?

5. Why was the crossing sunk deep beneath the bay in two mile-long tunnels?

6. What conditions hindered constructing the bridge-tunnel complex?

7. How many times a decade is the Chesapeake serviced?

8. The Bridge-Tunnel was selected as "One of the Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World". Was the competition fierce?

9. What are artificial islands provide?

III. Complete the sentences:

1. The Chesapeake Bay Bridge provides …

2. The bridge-tunnel complex is …

3. The majority of the bridge-tunnel complex is above …

4. Four artificial islands provide …

5. The total project is unique in …

LANGUAGE FOCUS

IV. Make the collocations and make up the sentences with them:

complex chain of deep beneath the bay
to provide earthfill causeway
to be accomplished a direct link
to be sunk under the severe conditions
concrete artificial islands
1.5 miles of bridge trestles

V. Fill in the correct prepositions:

Society … Civil Engineers; to dip … and … waters; a link … smth and smth; some miles long … shore … shore; to be done … conditions; to be unique … the number … different types; to cross … the thrill … it.

VI. Say in other words (if very complicated, use the words after the text):

The Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel is a 23-mile, open-water drive across the influx of Chesapeake Bay. This highway system traverses a series of shorter spans in which most of the spans are of similar length, raised roads or path across wet ground or through water, bridges, artificial islands, and tunnels to link the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula with the Norfolk-Virginia Beach area. The at-sea a particular place or position also makes this the best place in Virginia to watch sea birds. The road over the water is broken up by two underwater passages. A stop at the restaurant and fishing vertical structure which supports the ends of a multi-span superstructure at a location between abutments 4 miles out at sea on one of the manmade pieces of land completely surrounded by water gives you the possibility to walk out over the water to look at birds, ocean-going ships, and views of the distant land along the edge of a large area of water.

(island, opportunity, complex, connect, location, drive, trestles, tunnels, pier, vessels, mouth, causeways, manmade, shore)

VII. Complete the text with suitable letters or words:

A bridge-tunnel is a water c…sing that uses a combina…. of bridge and tunnel structures. For water crossings, a …nel is generally more costly to c….ruct than a brid... . Ho..ver, navigational considerations at some l….ions may limit the use of high …dges or drawbridge spa.. when crossing shipping ch….ls, necessitating the use of a tu..el. In other instances, when lon..r ..stances are involv.., a combination of … and …nels may be less c….y and easi.. to ventilate than a single very long tunnel. This situation may oc..r when more eco….cal d..wbri..es are not allowed for one reason or ……. . Examples include the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel and the Chesapeake …Bridge-Tunnel, a 37 km long …ucture (including ap…ach highways) that …sses the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay with a com…….. of bridges and tunnels across two widely separ…d shipping channels, using four a……..l islands built in the bay as …tals. Tunnels had to be used instead of ..awbrid... because the waterw… they cross are critical to mil…ry naval operations and could not a..ord to be blocked off by a bridge co…pse in the event of the ….ster or war.

FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES:

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Famous bridges.

Famous bridges in Belarus.

 






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