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NSA CONSULTANT’S SON IS COMPUTER SABOTEUR



“Worm” came from graduate student

 

1. Read this news report and discuss the questions that follow.

A court heard today how a Cornell University graduate student, Robert T. Morris Jr. (25), infected a host of government and educational computer centres with a computer virus, known as a “worm”, which liter­ally brought all computational activi­ty to a halt in over 6,000 installations. Morris, the son of a prominent National Security Agency computer consultant, was sentenced for his offences yesterday. As punishment, he was required to spend no time in prison but, instead, serve three years' probation, contribute 400 hours of community service, and to pay a $10,000 fine along with associated court and probation costs.

 

1. How serious do you think Robert Morris's crime was?

2. Do you think the punishment was

- too severe?

- about right?

- not severe enough?

3. Do you know of any similar incidents of computer hacking?

 

2. The words and phrases below are taken from this unit. In pairs or groups, decide if they have a “protective” or a “destructive” meaning as they are used in the unit, then put them under the correct heading.

detonator infector erase pirated
infect write-protect tab worm virus scanner
hacker password smart card shield
signature cipher keyboard lock access control
protective   destructive
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

How many other ways can you think of to classify them?

Oxford English for Computing

UNIT 3.FUTURE TRENDS

 

Text 1

What is next?

 

Power and speed for PCs and the Internet

PCs have broken the barrier of 1 GHz, the DVD is included in most PCs, MP3 has become the standard to compress digital music on the Net; and CD-ROM players with MP3 music are available for the car.

 

New portals and free services are changing the face of the Internet. Thousands of webcams offer us live views of our planet, from fascinating landscapes and monuments to shopping centres and busy streets of big cities. Conventional modems are being replaced by ISDN, ADSL and satellite connections. ADSL is a form of Digital Subscriber Line that carries data, voice, and MPEG2 video. Its downstream data flow is between 1.5 and 9 megabits per second, so music and pictures will be downloaded in the blink of an eye.

 

New palmtops ― the office in your pocket

Hand-held PCs come with Microsoft Pocket Office pre-installed, so you can write your project while taking the train or make calculations in the plane. They are also equipped with software to handle e-mail and surf the Web. You can hear popular MP3 music or record your ideas through its built-in voice recorder. Once at home you can synchronise data with your desktop PC.

 

Mobile phones ― the future of mobile computing

Not long ago, mobile phones could just transmit voice and SMS messages. Now they can display Internet information thanks to the Wireless Application Protocol or WAP. On these Web-enabled phones you can read information such as stock prices, weather, business news and sports news.

 

Some hybrid models combine a phone with a PDA. They look like a regular phone with a dial pad and a small screen on its front. But if you flip up the front cover you find a larger screen that is touch-sensitive. Some include a virtual keyboard which pops up when you want to enter email text or a WAP address.

 

But the future is called “third-generation” (3G) mobiles. They will transmit a caller’s picture and voice simultaneously. From 2001 UMTS mobile phones will deliver users information, e-commerce, games and videoconferencing via fixed, wireless and satellite networks.

 

Wearable computers, aren’t they chic?

Can you imagine wearing a PC on your belt and getting e-mail on your eyeglasses?

 

This may sound science-fiction, but the trend is very real. Charmed Technology and other companies are using fashion shows to exhibit their innovative products.

 

Wearable computers are battery-powered systems worn on the user’s body ― on a belt, backpack or vest. They’re designed for mobile or hands-free operations, often incorporating a microphone and a head-mounted display for viewing Internet sites.

 

Users of wearable technology consider themselves “cyborgs”. This term comes from “cybernetic organism”, referring to a being that is part robot, part human.

 

 

GLOSSARY

GHzGigahertz, equivalent to one thousand megahertz

ISDNIntegrated Services Digital Network which provides speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second.

ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Typically the upstream data flow is between 16 and 640 kilobits per second while the downstream data flow is between 1.5 and 9 megabits per second .ADSL also provides a voice channel.

MPEG Moving Pictures Experts’ Group, a standard for compressing and decompressing images

PDA Personal Digital Assistant which includes an address book, a calendar, Internet access, etc.

SMS Short Message Service which allows you to send short text messages with maximum 160 characters to GSM mobile phones worldwide. GSM is the Global System for mobile Communication that allows transmission of voice and data on mobile phones.

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, used by 3G mobile phones

 

 

1.Read the texts and select the right choice.

 

1. One GHz is equivalent to

a) 100 MHz

b) 1,000 MHz

 

2. ADSL lets you

a) have quick, easy access to the Internet.

b) compress digital music.

 

3. A “palmtop” is the same as

a) a hand-held computer.

b) a laptop.

 

4. According to the text, WAP is

a) a hardware device that connects mobile phones to the Internet.

b) a protocol that enables mobile phones to access Internet information.

 

5. 3G mobile phones

a) will not support audio and video formats.

b) will handle multiple data types including voice and video.

 

6. Charmed Technology, Inc.

a) is trying to bring wearable computers into fashion.

b) produces laptops.

 

7. A “cyborg”

a) looks like being half machine, half human.

b) rejects wireless technology.

2.Language work: Compound adjectives.

A compound adjective is made up of two parts and usually describes appearance. The second part is frequently a past participle.

e.g. blue-eyedgirl = a girl who has got blue eyes.

voice-activated device = device which is activated by voice

sugar-free product = a product that uses no sugar

 

Find the following noun phrases in the text and explain their meaning as in the Examples:

hand-held PC, web-enabled phone, battery-powered systems, hands-free operations, head-mounted display.

Oxford English for Computing

 

Wearable computers

Charmed Technology

http://www.charmed.com/

This company tries to incorporate wearable systems (mobile computers, eyeglasses, necklaces, badges, toys, etc.) into fashion, lifestyle and health applications. Their devices allow individuals to access the Internet through wireless technology.

Enter the site and make a list of wearable devices produced by Charmed Technology.
See the BNUW section for details on fashion shows, including pictures and real video extracts. Go to the Brave New Unwired World Fashion Shows and find photos of models wearing computer devices. Print out those that you like most.

Alternative site:

The MIT Wearable Computing Web Page
http://www.media.mit.edu/wearables

Enter the site and click on the MIThril heading. Then go to the MIThril photos. Read the captions, print the page and paste it into your scrapbook.

 

 

Text 2

The Lucky Generation

  1. Predict one change that might happen in the following areas during the next fifty years.

space travel

robots and computers

work

education

life expectancy

the media

money

family life

 

  1. Compare your answers in groups. Are your predictions about the future generally optimistic or pessimistic?
  2. You are going to read a text which comes from a book about life in the year 2050. read the text quickly and match the topics above with a paragraph in the text.

aIt’s March 2050. Frank and Mary Smith wake up in their comfortable house overlooking the sea and switch on the bedroom computer to five them a news update. They used to take the Times, but changed to electronic newspapers many years ago.

bThere is the usual staff about space: another mission has returned from Mars and scientists have discovered a new planet. No big deal. There was great excitement back in 2027, when signals were received from Titan which indicated that there might be life on a remote moon, but efforts to make contact came to nothing and no aliens have appeared on Earth to say ‘hello’. The Catholic Church has elected a black Pope. Interesting, but religion does not play a significant role in their lives. Financial news: the Euro has risen sharply in Shanghai, one of the world’s leading business centres. Mary tells the computer to buy 5, 000 Euros, and there is instant confirmation that the transaction has been done. Not for the first time she wonders why Europe ever bothered to have so many currencies.

cAs they watch the screen, Frank and Mary take their usual weight control pills, and order one of the household robots to make coffee. Frank disappears into the study to join a live video conference with his colleagues around the world. He is a computer programmer, working for several companies on a contract basis. This is his third career: he used to be in marketing and then television.

dMary has a quick look at the shopping channels – the usual selection of electric cars, household robots and cheap travel offers – before picking up the video phone to talk to a colleague. She also has a job, which she shares with several others. They are doing research into genetic engineering, which has become a major industry. Both she and Frank used to have an office desk in London , but in 2014 they decided to move to the seaside and work from home.

eFrank and Mary have one child, Louise, who also has her own workstation in the family home. She goes to school only one day a week, mainly to play with other children. Classrooms vanished in 2030 because there was no longer any need for them: interactive communications systems have made it much easier to learn at home. Louse, now thirteen, is currently studying Chinese, which has become as important as English as a world language. Louse has many Chinese friends with whom she communicates by computer.

fAccording to medical experts, Louise will live to at least 130. She intends to work for a few decades and then devote her time to music and painting. Louise has given little thought to marriage, which she regards as an old-fashioned concept, and she is not sure whether she will ever want to have a child. She likes the idea of a serious relationship, and thinks there will probably be several during her lifetime, but why should she tie herself down to one person?

From The Lucky Generation by Williams Davis (1996)

 

  1. Read the text again. How many of the predictions in the text were the same as yours?
  1. From the text find two differences:

a) between domestic life in 2050 and the present day.

b) between working life in 2050 and the present day.

c) between a child’s life in 2050 and the present day.

 

  1. Work in pairs and discuss which aspects of the life described in the text:

a) seem more attractive than life nowadays.

b) seem less attractive than life nowadays.

Do you agree that people in 2050 will be “the lucky generation”? Why?/Why not?

Text 3

The look of screens to come

 

  1. Read the text and then decide whether the sentences below are true or false. (Don’t worry if you don’t know the abbreviations, they’re explained later.)

Have you noticed how much your computer screen flickers? This may be because your computer monitor uses CRT technology. This kind of technology offers colour and high-resolution pictures for relatively little money but the monitors are large, use a lot of energy, can flicker and emit electromagnetic radiation.

 

In recent years flat screens have become increasingly popular. Users talk of benefits such as more desk space, how easy they are to adjust for tilt and height, crisper, clearer images and the total elimination of screen flicker. It’s like having a different PC, they say, a new window on the world.

 

Most flat screens are based on LCD technology which has a lot of benefits over CRT technology. Among them:

· LCDs are inherently flat, CRT monitors are not, so LCDs require much less space

· LCDs use less power than CRTs

· LCDs are distortion-free while typical CRTs are curved, which may cause image distortion

· most LCD displays use a TFT system offering a wider angle of vision and high-quality images.

 

But there is one major drawback to flat screens: their cost. They are expensive compared with CRT monitors. Prices are falling, however, and they’ll soon find their way into homes, schools and businesses.

 

Monitor manufacturers like Philips, Apple, Sharp or Panasonic offer compatible flat screens including built-in stereo speakers, headphone connection, and a USB port. Some models can also be removed from the stand and mounted on the wall. They come with stylish designs for a variety of applications. LCDs range from small-size PC screens and TVs to large-screen projectors.

 

  1. Now decide whether these statements are true or false. Correct those which are false.

a) Most computers still use CRT monitors.

b) Typical CRT-based displays occupy less space than LCD displays.

c) Liquid-crystal displays are curved.

d) Flat LCD screens are becoming very popular.

e) LCD technology consumes less power than CRT technology.

f) Flat screens are cheaper than CRT monitors.

g) Users of flat-screen monitors can’t adjust the angle of vision.

 

  1. Find the abbreviations in the text. Do you know what they stand for?

CRTw LCD w TV w PCw TFT w USB

 

Oxford English for Computing

 

Acronym Finder *Acronym Finder Database http://www.acronymfinder.com/

* Website about technical acronyms and abbreviations

Enter the site and find the meaning of these terms:
CD-RW IMAP MP3 RISC SMS
DVD-R MMS PCMCIA UMTS WAP

 

 

Text 4

The Internet on TV

  1. Discuss these questions.
1. What does the title the Internet on TV suggest to you? 2. Is it possible to have a TV set, a PC and the Internet all in one? 3. Would you like to access the Internet through your TV set? What would you do with it?

2.Read the text and find answers to the questions below.

1. What is Internet TV?

2. In the writer's opinion, what sort of people might find Internet TV useful?

3. Which company offered Internet services to TV viewers for the first time?

4. How can you access the Internet on the systems sold by WorldGate?

5. What WorldGate technology allows you to switch back and forth between TV programs and linked Web pages?

6. What can you do with Sega’s Net Link system?

 

TV surfing Internet TV is the concept of using a TV set as an Internet device. It allows you to surf the Web and have e-mail while you are watching television, or vice versa. Imagine watching a film on TV and simultaneously accessing a Website where you get information on the actors in the film. Internet TV is very easy to use and ideal for people who are reluctant to use PCs but are interested in the Internet. Internet through a set-top box WebTV was the first company which brought Internet services to television viewers through a set-top computer box. They licensed the technology to Sony and Philips Magnavox. Each box costs about $250 including a modem and a remote control. Users obtain Internet access through the WebTV Network at a monthly fee. The WebTV browser displays the Web pages with text and graphics that are easy to read on a television screen. Internet through cable TV WorldGate, supported by other members of the cable TV industry, offers conventional TV channels and cheap Internet access via a cable converter and a TV set.     To enter Web addresses and write e-mail you can use a remote control and an on-screen keyboard or an optional wireless keyboard. Your mail is stored at the cable headend, and a light on the converter indicates when you have new mail. The service offers data speeds at 192 kilobits - much faster than conventional modems. By clicking a button, you can also access chat rooms, adverts, local information, etc. With WorldGate’s Channel Hyperlinking technology you can go instantly to Websites that correspond to the programs you’re watching (e.g., when you watch a football match, you can click and access a linked Website with statistics and commentaries on the match). Other options Sega has a system, called Net Link, for its Saturn video game. It includes a modem and a browser which convert the game into an Internet TV device. You can play video games on-line, and chat about your favourite games. The model built by OEM Metec integrates a complete Windows PC and the Internet in a TV set, without the need for a separate set-top box. The next generation of Internet-enabled TVs will also incorporate a smart-card for home shopping, banking and other interactive services.

3.Find the words in the text that correspond to the following.

1. Navigate, explore (the Web).

2. Location on the Internet where a company puts Web pages.

3. Device used on top of the TV to gain access to Internet.

4. Without the use of wire(s).

5. One thousands bits.

6. Plastic card (similar to a credit card) containing a microprocessor that can process information.

4.Complete these sentences with the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets.

E.g., The Internet ................... (use) by millions of people all over the world.

The Internet is used by millions of people all over the world.

Sega's Internet TV system ................... (call) Net Link.
This year Internet TV ................... (support) by several companies of the cable TV industry.
Internet services ................... (bring) by Web TV through a computer box set on top of the TV.
The technology of WebTV ................... (license) to Sony and Philips Magnavox last year.
In the near future, a smart card ................... (incorporate) into Internet-enabled TVs.  

Oxford English for Computing

Language focus

Word formation: prefixes

 

Exercise 1. Study these tables. Try to find additional examples, using your dictionary if necessary.

Negative prefixes

Prefix Meaning Examples
un- in- im-   il- ir     non- mis- mal-   Not     bad, wrong unmagnetized incomplete impossible illegal irregular irrelevant   non-programmable misdirect malfunction
dis-   not connected with disagree disconnect
anti- de- under-   opposite feeling opposite action antiglare demagnetize decode underestimate
re- over do again too much reorganize overload

 

Prefixes of size

Prefix Meaning Examples
semi- half, partly semiconductor
equi- equal equidistant
mini- small minicomputer
micro- very small microcomputer
macro- mega- large, great megabyte

 

Prefixes of location

Prefix Meaning Examples
inter- between, among interface, interactive
super- over supersonic
trans- across transmit, transfer
ex- out exclude, extrinsic
extra- beyond extraordinary
sub- under subschema
infra- below infra-red
peri- around peripheral

 

Prefixes of time and order

Prefix Meaning Examples
ante- pre- before antecedent prefix
prime- first primary, primitive
post- after postdated
retro- backward retroactive

 

 

Prefixes of number

Prefix Meaning Examples
semi- half semicircle
mono- one monochromatic
bi- two binary
tri- three triangle
quad- four quadruple
penta- five pentagon
hex- six hexadecimal
sept(em)- seven September
oct- eight October
dec- ten decimal
multi- many multiplexor

 

 

Other prefixes

Prefix Meaning Examples
pro- before, in advance forward program progress
auto- self automatic
co- con- together, with co-ordinate connect

Exercise 2. Read the following sentences and circle the prefixes. For each word that has a prefix, try to decide what the prefix means. Refer back to the table if you need help.

  1. Floppy disks are inexpensive and reusable.
  2. If a printer malfunctions, you should check the interface cable.
  3. The multiplexer was not working because someone had disconnected it by mistake.

4. Improper installation of the antiglare shield will make it impossible to read what is on the screen.

  1. After you transfer text using the ”cut and paste” feature, you may have to reformat the text you have inserted.

6. You can maximize your chances of finding a job if you are bilingual or even trilingual.

  1. Peripheral devices can be either input devices (such as keyboards) or output devices (such as printers).
  2. Your pay rise is retroactive to the beginning of June and you will receive a biannual bonus.
  3. The octal and hexadecimal systems are number systems used as a form of shorthand in reading groups of four binary digits.

10. As the results are irregular, the program will have to be rewritten.

 

Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps with the correct prefix from the following list.

auto de dec inter

maxi mega micro mini

mono multi semi s ub

  1. Most people prefer a colour screen to a ______ chrome screen.
  2. ______ script is a character or symbol written below and to the right of a number or letter, often used in science.
  3. A ______ byte equals approximately one million bytes.
  4. Once you finish your program, you will have to test it and ______ bug it to remove all the mistakes.

5. The introduction of ______ conductor technology revolutionized the computer industry.

  1. If a computer system has two or more central processors which are under common control, it is called a ______ processor system.
  2. The ______ decimal system is a number system with a base of 10.
  3. When the user and the computer are in active communication on a graphics system, we refer to this as ______ active graphics.

 

 

Language focus

Word formation: suffixes

 

Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs
-ance -ence -or -er -ist -ness -ize -ate -fy -en -ify -able -ibie -less -ic -ical -ish -ive -ly

 

Exercise 1. Study these tables and try to make additional Examples. Use your dictionary necessary.

Noun-forming suffixes

Suffix Meaning Examples
-ance state performance
-ence quality of independence
-er,-or a person who a thing which programmer, operator, compiler, accumulator
-ist, -yst -ian a person who analyst, typist electrician
-tion, -ation the act of compilation
-ness condition of readiness
-ion action/state conversion
-ing activity multiplexing
-ment state, action measurement
-ity state, quality electricity
-ism condition/state magnetism
-dom domain/condition freedom
-ship condition/state relationship, partnership

Verb-forming suffixes

Suffix Meaning Examples
-ize/-ise -ate -ify -en   to make automate, activate, calculate simplify harden, widen

 

Adverb-forming suffix

Suffix Meaning Examples
-ly in the manner of electronically, logically, comparably. helpfully

Adjective-forming suffixes

Suffix Meaning Examples
-al , -ar, -ic, -ical having the quality of computational, logical circular magnetic, automatic electrical
-able, -ible capable of being comparable , divisible
-ous like, full of dangerous
-ful characterized by/ with helpful
-less out careless
-ish like yellowish
-ed , -ive having the quality of computed, interactive

Note: words ending in -ing are formed from verbs. The -ing form may be used as a noun, part of a noun phrase, or part of a verb.

Examples:

  1. Programming is an interesting job. (noun)
  2. Programming in C is interesting. (part of noun phrase)
  3. He isworking as a programme. (part of verb)

 

Exercise 2. Read the following sentences and circle the suffixes. Underline the stem if it can be used on its own. The first one has been done for you.

1. A programmer designs, writes, and tests programs for performing various tasks on a computer.

  1. A systems analyst studies organizational systems and decides what action needs to be taken to maximize efficiency.
  2. Laser printers are preferable to other types of printing devices because of their speed and quietness.
  3. The microcomputer we have purchased does not have a FORTRAN compiler. It is programmable in BASIC only.

5. We have found that operators who have the freedom to take short breaks during the day greatly improve their performance.

  1. The number of shipments will increase over the coming months.
  2. We decided to computerize the entire plant to give each division more independence.
  3. Spooling is a way of storing data temporarily on disk or tape until it can be processed by another part of the system.
  4. Turning your office into a paperless environment may be expensive at the beginning but can produce big savings in the long run.
  5. Software developers are producing increasingly sophisticated applications for a growing global market.

Now, for each word that has a suffix, indicate what part of speech the word is (e.g. noun, verb, etc.).

 

Text 4

Shaping the Internet Age

Internet Policy Institute, December 2000

By Bill Gates
Chairman and Chief Software Architect, Microsoft Corp.

Less than a quarter of a century ago, the Internet was an obscure network of large computers used only by a small community of researchers. At the time, the majority of computers were found in corporate information technology (IT) departments or research laboratories, and hardly anyone imagined that the Internet would play such an important role in our lives as it does today. In fact, the very idea of a "personal computer," much less millions of them connected by a global network, seemed absurd to all but a handful of enthusiasts.

Today, the Internet is far from obscure--it's the center of attention for businesses, governments and individuals around the world. It has spawned entirely new industries, transformed existing ones, and become a global cultural phenomenon. But despite its impact, today's Internet is still roughly where the automobile was during the era of Henry Ford's Model T. We've seen a lot of amazing things so far, but there is much more to come. We are only at the dawn of the Internet Age.

In the years ahead, the Internet will have an even more profound effect on the way we work, live and learn. By enabling instantaneous and seamless communication and commerce around the globe, from almost any device imaginable, this technology will be one of the key cultural and economic forces of the early 21st century.

Why is the Internet such a powerful and compelling technology? First and foremost, from its conception in the academic community (largely as a result of government-sponsored research) to its subsequent development and commercialization by the private sector, the Internet has evolved into a uniquely independent information exchange--one that is able to grow organically, can operate reliably with little centralized management, and is built entirely on common standards.

It is those common standards that helped make the Internet so successful. From TCP/IP (the technological protocol that is the "traffic cop" for Internet data) to HTML and XML (the twin lingua francas of the World Wide Web), common standards have opened up the Internet to anyone who speaks its language. And since the language of the Internet is universal and easily grasped, any business can create products and services that make use of it. That openness has produced amazing technological competitiveness. To thrive on the Internet, every business has to make its products, services and interface more attractive than competitors that are only a few mouse-clicks away.

The "killer application" that transformed the Internet into a global phenomenon was the World Wide Web. Developed in the late 1980s at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) from research by Tim Berners-Lee, the Web was initially created to share data on nuclear physics. By using hyperlinks and graphical "browsing" technology, the Web greatly simplifies the process of searching for, accessing, and sharing information on the Internet, making it much more accessible to a non-technical audience.

As the Web's popularity surged among students, researchers and other Internet enthusiasts, an entirely new industry emerged to create software and content for the Web. This explosion of creativity made the Web more compelling for users, which encouraged more companies to provide Internet access, which encouraged still more individuals and businesses to get connected to the Internet. As recently as 1994, there were only 500 fairly modest Web sites worldwide; today the Web has close to 3 billion pages. We can expect this growth cycle to continue and even accelerate, thanks to more powerful and cheaper computers, higher-speed Internet access on a wider range of devices, and advanced software that makes it all work together.

Breaking Down Barriers

The main advantage of any new technology is that it amplifies human potential. In the 20th century, electricity, the telephone, the automobile and the airplane all made the world more accessible to more people, transforming our economy and society in the process. The Internet has the same revolutionary impact--individuals and businesses can overcome geographical, cultural and logistical barriers and improve the way they live and work. Because it amplifies our potential in so many ways, it's possible that the long-term impact of the Internet could equal that of electricity, the automobile and the telephone all rolled together. How?

The Internet makes the world smaller. The ability to communicate and exchange information instantaneously and across vast distances has enabled more individuals and businesses to participate in the economy, regardless of their location. Large companies can connect with employees, suppliers, and partners around the globe, and small businesses can find their customers anywhere in the world. Businesses can hire knowledge workers almost regardless of where they are, greatly expanding employment opportunities for people in the United States, and giving developing nations the ability to become economic powerhouses by providing information technology services to the rest of the world. The Internet, along with other computer technologies, is literally enabling some developing countries to "leapfrog" the industrial revolution and jump straight to the Internet Age.

The Internet brings people closer together. Before the Internet, it was possible to keep in touch with relatives and friends across the country or around the world--but it was also expensive. Today, communicating with a friend in Japan is as easy and cheap as communicating with a friend across town, and families regularly use the Internet to keep in touch with far-flung relatives. Millions of people with shared interests--no matter how obscure--exchange information and build communities through Web sites, email and instant-messaging software. Using innovative accessibility aids, people with disabilities can use the Internet to help overcome barriers that prevent them from leading more productive and fulfilling lives.

The Internet makes the world simpler. For businesses, the Internet breaks down logistical barriers, offering greater flexibility and power in the way they do business. It shrinks time and distance, simplifies complex business processes, and enables more effective communication and collaboration--a giant corporation can now be as nimble as a tiny startup, while a family firm located in a remote rural village now has the world as its marketplace. Combined with advanced productivity software, the Internet enables individual knowledge workers to use their time more efficiently, and to focus on more productive tasks. And it gives consumers the ability to shop smarter, to find the best products at the right prices. In fact, it empowers them in ways that once were available only to large companies, enabling them to join with others to buy products at lower prices, and bid competitively around the world.

What's Next?

The Internet has already revolutionized the way we live and work, but it is still in its infancy. In the coming years, a combination of cheap and powerful computing devices, fast and convenient Internet access, and software innovations could make the Internet as common and powerful a resource as electricity is today.

Today, most people access the Internet through their home or office PC, but as microprocessors become cheaper and more powerful, Internet access will also be available from a wider range of smart devices, from tablet-sized PCs to smart cellular phones--even familiar household appliances. People will be able to share information seamlessly across devices and interact with them in a more natural way, using speech, handwriting and gestures. Eventually, they will be able to interact with a computer almost as easily as they do with each other.

And all this computing power will be interconnected, as high-speed Internet access becomes available in more areas and in many different ways, both wired and wireless. Advances in communications technologies, along with increasing public demand for Internet access, will eventually ensure that Internet connectivity will be commonplace at home, at work or on the move.

Communication between devices on the Internet will be greatly enhanced by new Internet standards such as XML, which offers a way to separate a Web page's underlying data from the presentational view of that data. Whereas HTML uses "tags" to define how data is displayed on Web pages, XML uses tags to provide a common way of defining precisely what the underlying data actually is. XML "unlocks" data so that it can be organized, programmed and edited. This makes it easier for that data to be shared across a wider range of PCs, servers, handheld devices, and "smart" phones and appliances. While today's Internet consists of isolated "islands" of data that are difficult to edit, share and integrate, tomorrow's Internet will break down those barriers and enable people to access and share the information they need--regardless of whether they're accessing the Internet from their PC or any other device.

All these advances will soon create a ubiquitous Internet--personal and business information, email, and instant messaging, rich digital media and Web content will be available any time, any place and from any device.

Opportunities and Challenges

Whenever a new technology emerges with the potential to change the way people live and work, it sparks lively debate about its impact on our world and concern over how widely it should be adopted. Some people will view the technology with tremendous optimism, while others will view it as threatening and disruptive. When the telephone was first introduced, many critics thought it would disrupt society, dissolve communities, erode privacy, and encourage selfish, destructive behavior. Others thought the telephone was a liberating and democratizing force that would create new business opportunities and bring society closer together.

The Internet brings many of these arguments back to life. Some optimists view the Internet as humanity's greatest invention--an invention on the scale of the printing press. They believe the Internet will bring about unprecedented economic and political empowerment, richer communication between people, a cultural renaissance, and a new era of economic prosperity and world peace. At the other extreme, pessimists think the Internet will result in economic and cultural exploitation, the death of privacy, and a decline in values and social standards.

If history is any guide, neither side of these arguments will be proved right. Just as the telephone, electricity, the automobile, and the airplane shaped our world in the 20th century, the Internet will shape the early years of the 21st, and it will have a profound--and overwhelmingly positive--impact on the way we work and live. But it will not change the fundamental aspects of business and society--companies will still need to make a profit, people will still need their social framework, education will still require great teachers.

Protecting intellectual property. The Internet makes it possible to distribute any kind of digital information, from software to books, music, and video, instantly and at virtually no cost. The software industry has struggled with piracy since the advent of the personal computer, but as recent controversy over file-sharing systems such as Napster and Gnutella demonstrates, piracy is now a serious issue for any individual or business that wants to be compensated for the works they create. And since the Internet knows no borders, piracy is now a serious global problem. Strong legislation such as the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), cooperation between nations to ensure strong enforcement of international copyright laws, innovative collaboration between content producers and the technology industry, and standards developed by organizations like the Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI) that can prevent or deter piracy have already made an impact on addressing this problem. But as more and more digital media becomes easy to distribute over the Internet, the government and private sector must work together to find appropriate ways to protect the rights of information consumers and producers around the world.

Regulating global commerce. Hal Varian and Michael Armstrong's contributions to this project detail another major challenge the Internet poses to governments around the world: how can we regulate Internet commerce--or should we do it at all? Because the Internet offers people an easy way to purchase goods and services across state and national borders--generating tremendous economic growth in the process--it makes global commerce even more challenging to tax or regulate effectively. But since the Internet's economic effects result largely from the "friction-free" commerce it enables, any regulation that gets in the way comes at a price: lost economic growth. As more and more business transactions take place on the Internet, governments and businesses must cooperate to find innovative ways to regulate and derive tax revenue from Internet commerce without interfering with the economic benefits it can provide.

Protecting individual privacy. In the coming years, people will increasingly rely on the Internet to share sensitive information with trusted parties about their finances, medical history, personal habits, and buying preferences. At the same time, many will wish to safeguard this information, and use the Internet anonymously. Although technology has placed individual privacy at risk for decades--most consumers regularly use credit cards and exchange sensitive information with merchants over the telephone--privacy will become a far more pressing issue as the Internet becomes the primary way for people to manage their finances or keep in touch with their physician. The use of personal information by retailers wishing to provide personalized service and advertisers that want to target very specific audiences--some of whom have resorted to gathering information from consumers without notifying them--has greatly increased public concern over the safety of personal information. It has also left many people reluctant to trust the Internet with their data.

Private industry and many in government currently favor self-regulatory tools and privacy-enhancing technologies as the best way to protect privacy. Today, several independent organizations enforce commonly accepted "fair information practices" that ensure honesty and accountability among companies that gather and use personal information. But as Ellen Alderman and Caroline Kennedy's contribution to this project explains, it is still unclear whether this approach is fully effective. Nonetheless, protecting individual privacy is a major barrier that must be overcome--as soon as possible--in order to keep the Internet moving forward.

Keeping the Internet secure. Security has always been a major issue for businesses and governments that rely on information technology, and it always will be. Much the same is true for individual security--long before the Internet, people were happily handing their credit cards to restaurant waiters they had never met before, and that too is unlikely to change. But as our economy increasingly depends on the Internet, security is of even greater concern. Widely publicized incidents of Web site hacking, credit card fraud and identity theft have given the Internet a largely unjustified "Wild West" reputation. In order to keep the Internet a safe place to do business, software companies have a responsibility to work together to ensure that their products always offer the highest levels of security. And the judicial system and the law enforcement community must keep pace with technological advancements and enforce criminal laws effectively and thoroughly.

Protecting our children. The Internet can revolutionize education, giving children the opportunity to indulge their intellectual curiosity and explore their world. But while it helps them to learn about dinosaurs or world history, it can also expose them to obscene, violent or inappropriate content. And since the Internet is an unregulated global medium, it is hard to "censor" in any traditional way. The private sector has already made great strides in giving parents and teachers more control over what children can see and do on the Internet, through filtering software that blocks access to objectionable Web sites; industry standards such as the still-evolving Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) that enable helpful rating systems; and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that voluntarily regulate the activities of their customers. Government has also played a part, encouraging the growth of the market for child-safety tools, and increasing law enforcement's role in policing and prosecuting online predators. So far, the issue of protecting children on the Internet has served as an excellent Example of how governments and the private sector can work together to tackle problems on the Internet.

Bridging the "digital divide." The Internet can empower and enrich the lives of disadvantaged people around the world--but only if they have access to it. Robert Knowling and Ernest Wilson's contributions to this project clearly show that the digital divide is a global problem. In the United States, where a large percentage of the population has access to the Internet, it¹s easy to forget that most of the world has never made a phone call, much less browsed the Web.

In the 1930s, the United States government helped bridge the "electrical divide" by forming the Rural Electrification Administration, which brought power to rural areas that could benefit most from electrification. Similarly, "universal service" programs have helped some remote areas and disadvantaged communities have access to inexpensive telephone service. These efforts have been largely successful in the United States, but on a worldwide scale there's still plenty of work to be done before the Internet can make a real difference. It's important to remember that much of the world is still without adequate electrical power, telephone service, or even quality healthcare and education‹bridging the digital divide is but one of the many ways we can improve the quality of life worldwide. However, the benefits of widespread access to the Internet and communications technology are clear enough that governments now need to decide whether a similar principle should be applied to ensure that nobody is left behind in the Internet Age.

What is government's role? The Internet is a constantly changing global network that knows no borders, presenting a unique problem for governments that need to address the many challenges it presents. In the coming years, governments will have the opportunity to develop thoughtful and innovative approaches to policies that protect their citizens while nurturing the openness, flexibility, and economic opportunities that make the Internet such a compelling technology.

The light hand of government regulation has created an environment that has encouraged the Internet to flourish, and enabled companies to bring their innovations to consumers at breathtaking speed. Over the next few years, governments worldwide will find it rewarding to pursue policies that speed the building of the infrastructure that will make it possible to bring the benefits of the Internet to more people. This includes finding ways to speed the implementation of broadband technologies, deregulate where necessary to stimulate competition, resist the temptation to enact new regulations, and redouble our efforts to protect content on the Internet by strengthening and enforcing intellectual-property rights.

The Internet gives people the opportunity to put their knowledge to work and take advantage of greater opportunities to lead productive and fulfilling lives. It is the gateway to vast amounts of knowledge, art and culture. It provides equal access to information and communications, allowing the formation of rich communities and forging real connections between people. It breaks down barriers between (and within) nations, opening up economies and democratizing societies. And as cheap computing power becomes more pervasive, the Internet can bring all these benefits to more and more people around the world.

Ensuring that the Internet can have the broadest and most positive impact on the greatest possible number of people will be a tremendous challenge for our political and business leaders. There are some key issues that need to be overcome to realize the Internet's full potential, but although they are challenging, they are not entirely new and definitely not insurmountable.

And it's clear that these are challenges worth facing--like the printing press, the telephone, electricity or the automobile, the Internet is a revolutionary technology that is transforming our world.


СПИСОК использованной литературы

1. Charles P. Oxford English for Computing / P. Charles Brown, Keith Boeckner. - Oxford University Press, 1993.

2. Clockwise : [журнал для изучающих английский язык]. – 1994 – 1996.

3. Computer User High-Tech Dictionary [Electronic resource]. –http://www.computeruser.
com/resources/dictionary/.

4. Cunningham S. Cutting Edge. Intermediate / Sarah Cunningham, Peter Moor. – Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1999.

5. Evans V. Enterprise. Elementary. Grammar / Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. - Express Publishing, 1998.

6. First Certificate Organiser. – Обнинск: Титул, 1997.

7. Glending E. Basic English for Computing / Eric H. Glending. - Oxford University Press, 1993.

8. Infotech: English for Computer Users. - Cambridge University Press, 2003.

9. IT Workshop. - Oxford University Press, 2000.

10. Reader on Science and Technology.

11. TechDictionary [Electronic resource]. – http://www.techdictionary.com/.

12. The AVP Virus Encyclopedia [Electronic resource]. – http://www.avp.ch/avpve/.

13. Wavelength. Pre-Intermediate. Reader / Kathy Burke, Julia Brooks. – Longman, 2000.

14. Webopedia [Electronic resource]. – http://www.webopedia.com/.

15. http://www.learnthenet.com.

16. http://www.longman-elt.com.


Vocabulary

A access n доступ affectv воздействовать, поражать allowv позволять, давать возможность amountn количество appliancen устройство arean зона, область, район, участок artificiala искусственный; Intelligenceискусственный интеллект availablea доступный, имеющийся в распоряжении   B bar codeуниверсальный торговый код binarya двоичный bitn бит boardn плата boot v загружать built-ina встроенный buttonn клавиша byte n байт   C capacity n емкость charactern знак, символ, цифра chargen заряд chip n кристалл, чип circuitn цепь, схема circuitryn схемы commandn команда commerciala промышленный commona обычный; общий; распространенный compliern компилятор connectv соединять countv считать createv создавать G generation n поколение K keyboard n клавиатура L lap v накладывать letter n буква level n уровень link v подсоединять, подключать list n список loadвводить, загружать   M memory n память message n сообщение mode n режим modem n модем monitor n монитор mouse n мышь O operate v действовать, работать, управлять output n вывод P password n пароль pattern n рисунок; образец; структура performv делать, выполнять, исполнять pointer n курсор print v печатать process v обрабатывать информацию program n программа operating ~операционная программа provide v обеспечивать, снабжать R rate n скорость D datan данные, информация debugging n отладка designv проектировать, разрабатывать delete v удалять developv развивать devicen устройство digit n цифра dimension n diskn магнитный диск ~ driveдисковод hard ~жесткий диск displayv отображать, представлять download v загружать E еditv редактировать equipmentn оборудование erase v стирать error n ошибка F failure n fault n неисправность, дефект fibre opticsоптико-волоконный file n файл floppy diskдискета   H hardware n аппаратное обеспечение I identify v опознавать, определять input n ввод interaction n взаимодействие interface n интерфейс remove v перемещать, убирать restore v восстанавливать   S satellite n спутник screen n экран set n набор, комплект shield n защита software n программное обеспечение specifications n технические характеристики storage n хранение; накопление, память store v накапливать, запасать, хранить switch n переключатель T target n цель technician n специалист track n дорожка, канал tool n инструмент, орудие труда U unit n блок W warningnпредупреждение

Glossary






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