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Звездные стандарты и их обозначения.



Очень часто любители астрономии оценивают блеск комет по стандартам, которые есть у них в наличии и вообщем-то правы. Но звезды в них имееют блеск отличный от принятых, международных. Речь идет о тех, которые публикуются в ссылках на стандартах ICQ, что недопустимо при организации серьезных кометных наблюдений. Иногда случается, что астроном-любитель присылает мне наблюдения комет, где указывает стандарт SE - область альфа Персея. При этом блеск кометы он оценивает, как 11,7 m! Но согласно этого стандарта, самая слабая звезда имеет блеск 11,4 m ! Следите за этим моментом, когда оформляете свои наблюдения.

Внимание! При оценке блеска комет не используйте атлас A.A.V.S.O! Его использование не совсем желательно, так как в нем обнаружены значительные ошибки в блеске звезд...


АстроКА – Кометы и методы их наблюдений 39 Рекомендованные источники звезд сравнения при оценке блеска комет: AE Planetary magnitudes from the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (for use with bright comets) [ICQ 4, 105]; also star magnitudes from Astronomical AlmanacAT Arizona-Tonantzintla Catalog (publ. in July 1965 Sky & Telescope) [ICQ 2, 6; 4, 8]C Photovisual magnitudes from "Cape Photographic Catalogue for 1950.0", in Annals of the Cape Observatory, Vols. 17-22. [ICQ 9, 142]CA M44 standard sequence as published in Henden and Kaitchuck's Astronomical Photometry (1982, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold), pp. 301-302. [ICQ 9, 99]CD Open star cluster NGC 225 (R.A. = 0h43m.8, Decl. = +61 47', equinox 2000.0) photometry; star chart with magnitudes given (9.2 < V < 16.0) as published in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky (see ref. 'CL', below), p. 250.CE Open star cluster NGC 1647 photometry (8.5 < V < 16.4), in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky, p. 252 (see ref. 'CL', below).CF Open star cluster NGC 2129 photometry (11.2 < V < 16.1), in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky, p. 254 (see ref. 'CL', below).CG Open star cluster NGC 2422 (M47) photometry (7.7 < V < 14.3), in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky, p. 256 (see ref. 'CL', below).CH Open star cluster NGC 6494 (M23) photometry (9.3 < V < 13.9), in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky, p. 258 (see ref. 'CL', below).CI Open star cluster NGC 6823 photometry (9.4 < V < 16.0), in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky, p. 260 (see ref. 'CL', below).CJ Open star cluster NGC 6910 photometry (9.9 < V < 14.9), in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky, p. 262 (see ref. 'CL', below).CK Open star cluster NGC 7031 photometry (11.2 < V < 16.5), in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky, p. 264 (see ref. 'CL', below).CL Photometry by Hoag et al. (1961) from one of the open-star-cluster charts as published in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky, by Roger N. Clark (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990), pp. 250-266.CM Photovisual and photoelectric-V magnitudes from Cape Mimeograms (Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope). [ICQ 9, 142]CN Open star cluster NGC 7235 photometry (8.7 < V < 16.4), in Visual Astronomy of the Deep Sky, p. 266 (see ref. 'CL', above).CO UBV photometry for 39 stars in the range 11.7 < V < 18.7, from "A New Stellar Standard Sequence in the Comet Cluster of Galax- ies" (F. Boerngen and N. Richter 1978, Astron. Nach. 299, 117)CR V magnitudes of 13 stars surrounding NGC 3627 (M66), as given by Ciatti and Rosino (1977, A.Ap. 56, 62). The range in V is 13.8-16.9, and the stars are fairly red. [ICQ 11, 30]CS Catalogue of Stellar Identifications (1979, Strasbourg). Large compilation of many catalogues. For information, see F. Ochsenbein et al. (1981), A.Ap. Suppl. 43, 259, and Ochsenbein (1974), A.Ap. Suppl. 15, 215. The visual magnitudes with colons (:) should be avoided if possible. [ICQ 10, 35]D Dutch Comet Halley Handbook (E. P. Bus) [ICQ 7, 96]E One of Everhart's 3 Selected Area charts (1984, Sky Telesc. 67, 28)EA Selected Area 51: From Everhart (1984, Sky Telesc. 67, pp. 28-30).EB Selected Area 57: From Everhart (1984, see EA, above) [ICQ 7, 51]EC Selected Area 68: From Everhart (1984, see EA, above) [ICQ 7, 51]40 АстроКА – Кометы и методы их наблюдений FA V photometry by Harold Ables, U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, "Region No. 6", unpublished (stellar V magnitude range 11.1-15.8 photoelectric and 13.7-21.6 electronographic). [ICQ 9, 99]GA Guide Star Photometric Catalog - I, in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Volume 68, Number 1 (1988 September). Contains nearly 1500 stars with V magnitudes and convenient finder charts throughout the sky. [ICQ 10, 124; 15, 60] *** NOTE: this is VERY different from the GSC on CD, which has reference code 'HS' and which is a POOR source of comparison-star magnitudes! ***GP [apparently same as 'HE'; see below]HD Henry Draper Catalog (Harvard Coll. Obs. Annals) [ICQ 2, 39]HE Harvard E Regions (declination -45 deg), Kron-Cousins V photometry for nine fields; stars range generally between 7 < V < 16 (Graham 1982, P.A.S.P. 94, 244) [ICQ 10, 124] HI Hipparcos Input Catalogue (C. Turon et al. 1992, European Space Agency Special Publication SP-1136; derived V magnitudes (118,000 stars brighter than mag 13, with the distribution peak around V = 9); see also HJHJ magnitudes in the Hipparcos photometric system, Hp (see code HI, above); peak of Hp is closer to true visual than to Johnson V, though it has a long red wingHK H_p magnitudes from the Hipparcos Catalogue (ESA SP-1200).HP Harvard Photometry (Harvard College Obs. Annals) [ICQ 4, 8]HR Harvard Revised Photometry (H.C.O. Annals) [ICQ 1, 42; 4, 8]HV Johnson V magnitudes from Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200.JT Cousins VRI magnitudes of stars in M67 (M. Joner and B. Taylor 1990, PASP 102, 1004)L Landolt V Photoelectric Sequences (AJ 78, 959) [ICQ 6, 37]LA Landolt photoelectric sequences (1992, AJ 104, 340)LB Landolt (1983, AJ 88, 439 and 853) sequences as published by Christian Buil in ASTRONOMIE CCD (1989, Societe d'Astronomie Populaire), p. 261LC Landolt (1975, PASP 87, 379) magnitude sequence for 33 stars near V1057 Cyg (V magnitude range 5.5-15.5)MC Carlsberg Meridian Catalogue (1989). Volume 4. La Palma. More than 50,000 stars with visual magnitudes down to V = 13; do not use stars with magnitudes given to less than 0.01 mag.ME V photometry by Tedesco, Tholen, and Zellner (1982, A.J. 87, 1585); mag range 6-13 [ICQ 8, 77]MK V magnitudes for M67 in LE GUIDE PRATIQUE DE L'ASTRONOMIE CCD P. Martinez and A. Klotz 1994; Adagio press), p. 270MP McCormick Photovisual Sequence (Univ. of Virginia) [ICQ 3, 15]MS From "McCormick Photovisual Sequences", by C. A. Wirtanen and A. N. Vyssotsky (1945, Ap.J. 101, 141-178). [ICQ 9, 142]MT Visual magnitudes of stars in M67 as published by B. E. Schaefer (1989, SKY TEL. 77, 332); after work by Racine and Gilliland.MV From Publ. Leander McCormick Obs., Vol. VI, Part II, pp. 201-306 ("Magnitudes and Coordinates of Comparison Stars in Regions of Long-Period Variables, by S. A. Mitchell, 1935) or Vol. IX, Part V, pp. 59-88 ("Sequences for Fifty Variable Stars", by Mitchell and C. A. Wirtanen, 1939). [ICQ 9, 142]NH North Polar Sequence as published by Henden and Kaitchuck (1982, Astronomical Photometry, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold), p. 305.NN NGC 2129/6531/1342 cluster photometry, in Publ. U.S.N.O. Vol.АстроКА – Кометы и методы их наблюдений 41 XVII, parts VII, VIII (1961), pp. 406, etc.. [ICQ 8, 130]NO U.S.N.O. Photoelectric Photometry Catalogue [ICQ 2, 6; 4, 8]NP North Polar Sequence (publ. by the A.A.V.S.O.); 3 charts showing stars w/ useful range mv = 5.0 and fainter [ICQ 1, 17; 3, 7]NS "Magnitudes and Colors of Stars North of +80 ", by Seares, Ross, and Joyner (1941, Carnegie Inst. Publication 532) [ICQ 4, 80]PA M45 sequence, Johnson & Mitchell (1958, Ap.J. 128, 31) [ICQ 8, 77]PB Pleiades chart in Sky and Telescope 70, 465 (1985). [ICQ 8, 77]PC Pleiades sequence, Henden and Kaitchuck (1982, Astronomical Photo- metry; N.Y.: Van Nostrand Reinhold), pp. 298-300 [ICQ 8, 130]PI IC 4665 sequence as found in Henden and Kaitchuck (1982, Astronomical Photometry, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold), pp. 302-304. [ICQ 10, 35]RB "Photoelectric Magnitudes and Colours of Southern Stars", A. W. J. Cousins and R. H. Stoy (1963), in Royal Observatory Bulletin No. 64 (Royal Greenwich Obs.), Series E3, pp. E101-E248. [ICQ 9, 142]RC "Standard Magnitudes in the E Regions", A. W. J. Cousins and R. H. Stoy (1962), in Royal Observatory Bulletin No. 49 (Royal Greenwich Obs.), Series E2, pp. E1-E59. [ICQ 9, 142]SD V magnitudes of members of the globular cluster M15 in the range 13 < V < 22 [and also nearby field stars for 40 stars of mag 7.64, 10.42-11.15, and 12.9 < V < 18.8], by A. Sandage (1970, Ap.J. 162, 841)SE V magnitudes of 134 stars of the II Persei Association (stars of spectral types A and B, mag range 5.1-11.4; C. K. Seyfert et al., Ap.J. 132, 58). [ICQ 11, 30]SM V magnitudes from "A Visual Atlas of the Small Magellanic Cloud", by Mati Morel (1989), Rankin Park, N.S.W., AustraliaSP Skalnate-Pleso Atlas Catalog (Atlas Coeli Cat.) [ICQ 2, 6; 4, 10]SS Various regions covering declination -60 deg to +10 deg, with stars having general range 12 < V < 24; Stobie et al. (1985), Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 60, 503SW Four half-degree fields with finder charts and UBV photometry, range 10 < V < 15 (except field IV, which has a gap between 11.5 < V < 13.5), published by W. Saurer et al. (1992) in Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 93, 553. The four fields average about 40 stars each, roughly centered at the following R.A. and Decl. (B1950.0): I, 1h27m, +58.2 deg; II, 3h24m, +45.2 deg; III, 7h15m, -10.1 deg; IV, 21h31m, +50.2 deg.TG CCD magnitudes on the Thuan-Gunn system; comparison standard stars in Thuan and Gunn (1976, PASP 88, 543).TI Tycho Input Catalogue; more than three million stars brighter than V = 12.1 prepared for the needs of the Tycho mission (Hipparcos satellite; see D. Egret et al. 1992, Astron. Astrophys. 258, 217); available upon request from the Strasbourg Data Center (France; e-mail address question@simbad.u-strasbg.fr)TJ Tycho Catalogue Johnson V magnitudes from ESA SP-1200.TK Tycho-2 Catalogue (Hog et al. 2000, A.Ap., in press); NOTE: *only* Tycho-2 V_T magnitudes (labeled VT) from the *main* catalogue should be used. The supplements contain a mix of V-like magnitudes from the original Tycho catalogue and should not be taken from here.42 АстроКА – Кометы и методы их наблюдений TS Field of 13 stars (R.A. 22h02m, Decl. -19.1 deg, equinox 1950.0), V magnitudes with finding chart, 9.7 < V < 19.2, by Tritton et al. (1984), MNRAS 206, 843-847.TT Tycho/Hipparcos Catalogue V_T magnitudes from ESA SP-1200.VG Japanese variable-star charts edited by K. Gomi and based on charts drawn by Y. Kawanishi, publ. in 1970 by Koseisha Co. as a spiral-bound book; its preface states that the magnitudes of comparison stars are taken from Harvard Annals (Vols. 37, 50, 54, and 57) and from Skalnate Pleso II (Atlas Coeli). Akimasa Nakamura, who reported this reference to the ICQ, says that his comparison of Gomi charts with AAVSO charts show that the comparison-star magnitudes are very close to each other.Y Yale Bright Star Catalogue [ICQ 1, 42; 4, 8]YF Yale Bright Star Catalogue, fourth edition (should now be used instead of earlier editions)YG Yale Bright Star Catalogue, fifth edition

 







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