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Explain in English and then translate the following words and expressions



Aeronauts remained at the mercy of the wind; to control the flight; invention; improvements; began to piece together the concept of force; the scientific method;

5. Find in the texts the English equivalents for the following expressions:

(1) движение воздуха, (2) силы, действующие на предметы, находящиеся в движении или в покое, (3) сопротивление воздуха, (4) давление на поверхности, (5) аэродинамические принципы полета, (6) подражая действиям птиц, (7) понимание полета, (8) понятие силы, (9) авиаконструкторы, (10) повысить безопасность самолетов, (11) создание новых идей, (12) наука воздухоплавания действительно начала развиваться, (13) физические явления, (14) практическое использование, (15) классификация и определение силы.

6. Complete the text with the words from the box

Early aeronautics

aeronautics air wings machines
scientists flight kites flew
engineering aerodynamics fly mechanism

The first mention of aeronautics in history came in the writings of ancient Egyptians who described the (1) of birds. Aeronautics also finds mention in ancient China where people flew (2) thousands of years ago. The medieval Islamic (3) were not far behind, as they understood the actual (4) of bird flight. Before scientific investigation (5) was started, people started thinking of ways to (6). In a Greek legend, Icarus and his father Daedalus built (7) of feathers and wax and (8) out of prison. When people started to study scientifically how to fly, people began to understand the basics of (9) and (10). Leonardo da Vinci studied the flight of birds in developing (11) schematics for some of the earliest (12) flying in the late fifteenth century.

7. Answer the following questions. Begin your answers with such introductory phrases as: as far as I know; as far as I remember; to my mind; certainly; it's hard to tell; probably; of course; if I am not mistaken etc.

1) How is aeronautics defined?

2) What does aerodynamics deal with?

3) What laws and concepts did Newton develop?

4) What principle did Daniel Bernoulli develop?

5) What contribution to the understanding of flight did the Asian cultures make?

6) What forces are involved in flight?

7) What do airplane designers do to improve airplane performance and safety?

8. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Наблюдения за летающими птицами дало человеку идею полета человека.

2. Первые научные принципы полета человека появились в 14-м веке.

3. В 1903 году братья Уилбер и Орвилл Райт построили свой самолет.

4. Самолет братьев Райт был самолетом с двигателем внутреннего сгорания.

5. В 1913 году русский конструктор Игорь Сикорский построил первый в мире многомоторный самолет.

6. В начале 20-го века был изобретен дирижабль.
7. Среди пионеров авиации имена авиационных конструкторов Туполева, Поликарпова, Сухого, Архангельского, Ильюшина, Яковлева и др.

Speaking

Give a 5-minute presentation on the following topics. Remember that communication skill is not something you are born with. Effective communication is a skill, which can be acquired.

1.Aerodynamics and Birds

2. The discovery of universal gravitation by Newton.

3. The contribution to the understanding of flight made by the Asian cultures.

4. The classification and definition of forces involved in flight.

5. Why do kites and balloons fly?

Communication Communication means sharing ideas and information. The speaker must: · be very clear about what information he wants to get across; · remember that communication is not a one-way process and that the feedback from the listener will show how his message was interpreted; · understand that communication is a dynamic, flexible process. The Basic Forms of Communication 1. Public Speaking · refers to presentation of a speech to an audience of more than one; · is characterized by one person’s holding central attention. 2. Group Speaking · takes place in committees, boards, task groups; · is restricted by a particular procedure or agenda; participants take turns in speaking. 3. Interpersonal Communication · refers to face-to-face interaction between two people in public or in private; · is controlled by generally accepted social rules of behavior.

Unit 2 Wright brothers

American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who achieved the first powered, sustained, and controlled airplane flight (1903). Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867, near Millville, Indiana, U.S.—May 30, 1912, Dayton, Ohio) and his brother Orville Wright (August 19, 1871, Dayton—January 30, 1948, Dayton) also built and flew the first fully practical airplane (1905).

Wilbur and Orville were the only members of the Wright family who did not attend college or marry. Orville, who had spent several summers learning the printing trade, persuaded Wilbur to join him in establishing a print shop. In addition to normal printing services, the brothers edited and published two local newspapers, and they also developed a local reputation for the quality of the presses that they designed, built, and sold to other printers. These printing presses were one of the first indications of the Wright brothers’ extraordinary technical ability and their unique approach to the solution of problems in mechanical design.

In 1892 the brothers opened a bicycle sales and repair shop, and they began to build bicycles on a small scale in 1896. They developed their own self-oiling bicycle wheel hub and installed a number of light machine tools in the shop. Profits from the print shop and the bicycle operation eventually were to fund the Wright brothers’ aeronautical experiments from 1899 to 1905. In addition, the experience of designing and building lightweight, precision machines of wood, wire, and metal tubing was ideal preparation for the construction of flying machines.

In later years the Wrights dated their fascination with flight to a small helicopter toy that their father had brought home from his travels when the family was living in Iowa. A decade later, they had read accounts of the work of the German glider pioneer Otto Lilienthal. By 1899 the brothers had exhausted the resources of the local library and had written to the Smithsonian Institution for suggestions as to further reading in aeronautics. The following year they wrote to introduce themselves to Octave Chanute, a leading civil engineer and an authority on aviation who would remain a confidant of the brothers from 1900 to 1905.

Their first experiments with “wing warping,” as the system would be called, were made with a small biplane kite flown in Dayton in the summer of 1899. Discovering that they could cause the kite to climb, dive, and bank to the right or left at will, the brothers began to design their first full-scale glider using Lilienthal’s data to calculate the amount of wing surface area required to lift the estimated weight of the machine and pilot in a wind of given velocity.

They selected Kitty Hawk, an isolated village on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, which offered high average winds, tall dunes from which to glide, and soft sand for landings.

Tested in October 1900, the first Wright glider was a biplane featuring 165 square feet (15 square metres) of wing area and a forward elevator for pitch control. The glider developed less lift than expected, however, and very few free flights were made with a pilot on board. The brothers flew the glider as a kite, gathering information on the performance of the machine that would be critically important in the design of future aircraft.

Eager to improve on the disappointing performance of their 1900 glider, the Wrights increased the wing area of their next machine to 290 square feet (26 square metres). Establishing their camp at the foot of the Kill Devil Hills, 4 miles (6.5 km) south of Kitty Hawk, the brothers completed 50 to 100 glides in July and August of 1901. As in 1900, Wilbur made all the glides, the best of which covered nearly 400 feet (120 metres). The 1901 Wright aircraft was an improvement over its predecessor, but it still did not perform as well as their calculations had predicted. Moreover, the experience of 1901 suggested that the problems of control were not fully resolved.

They designed and built a four-cylinder internal-combustion engine with the assistance of Charles Taylor, a machinist whom they employed in the bicycle shop. Recognizing that propeller blades could be understood as rotary wings, the Wrights were able to design twin pusher propellers on the basis of their wind-tunnel data.

The brothers returned to their camp near the Kill Devil Hills in September 1903. They spent the next seven weeks assembling, testing, and repairing their powered machine and conducting new flight tests with the 1902 glider. Then, at about 10:35 on the morning of December 17, 1903, Orville made the first successful flight, covering 120 feet (36 metres) through the air in 12 seconds. Wilbur flew 175 feet (53 metres) in 12 seconds on his first attempt, followed by Orville’s second effort of 200 feet (60 metres) in 15 seconds. During the fourth and final flight of the day, Wilbur flew 852 feet (259 metres) over the sand in 59 seconds. The four flights were witnessed by five local citizens. For the first time in history, a heavier-than-air machine had demonstrated powered and sustained flight under the complete control of the pilot.

Determined to move from the success of 1903 to a practical airplane, the Wrights in 1904 and 1905 built and flew two more aircraft from Huffman Prairie, a pasture near Dayton. They continued to improve the design of their machine during these years, gaining skill and confidence in the air. By October 1905 the brothers could remain aloft for up to 39 minutes at a time, performing circles and other maneuvers.

 

Exercises

Vocabulary

1. You should always check the pronunciation of key words. Transcribe the words:

pioneers, scientific, persuaded, extraordinary, unique, aeronautical, authority, designing, lightweight, machines, featuring, exhausted

2. Match the words from the texts (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

to install A the way that something has been planned and made, including its appearance, how it works
design B to fix something that is damaged, broken, split, or not working properly
machine tool C a tool for cutting and shaping metal, wood etc. usually one that uses electricity
profit D a full-scale drawing, model etc. is the same size as the thing it represents
full-scale E to put all the parts of something together
performance F a machine, system etc. that existed before another one in a process of development
predecessor G to travel a particular distance
to assemble H to put a piece of equipment somewhere and connect it so that it is ready to be used
to cover I money that you gain by selling things or doing business
to repair J how well a car or other machine works

 

3. Match the words from the texts (1-5) with their synonyms (A-E):

improve A roll
fascination B agent
confidant C attraction
bank D calculated
estimated E develop

4. Explain in English and then translate the following words and expressions into Russian:

powered, sustained, and controlled airplane flight; on a small scale; a bicycle sales and repair shop; had exhausted the resources of the local library; a biplane featuring 165 square feet.

5. Find in the texts the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

(1) автоматическая смазка ступицы колеса велосипеда, (2) площадь поверхности крыла, (3) четырех-цилиндровый двигатель внутреннего сгорания, (4) лопасти винта, (5) аэродинамическая труба, (6) проведенииe новых летных испытаний, (7) успешный полет, (8) первая попытка, (9) устойчивый полет под полным контролем пилота, (10) приобретать навыки и уверенность в воздухе, (11) улучшить конструкцию своих машин, (12) оставаться в воздухе, (13) выполнять маневры, (14) проблемы управления, (15) машина тяжелее воздуха.

6. Complete the text with the words from the box

The Flyer flew!

control yaw move wing
glider tilt roll elevator
pitch shape attach warping

 

Orville and Wilbur could use Lilienthal’s charts to build their own (1). But the Wrights would not fly until they knew how to (2) their machine. Aircraft (3) in three ways. They turn right or left. That’s called (4). They also (5) side to side. That’s called (6). Aircraft move up or down too. That’s called (7). Pitch was the easiest to solve. They could (8) a small extra (9) to the front of the glider. The wing is called an (10). But how could they change the (11) of a wing while the glider was flying? They could build wings that twisted like the box. Twisting the wings would change their shape. And changing their shape would change lift. If the lift were greater on one end of the glider than the other, the glider would tilt. This idea is called wing (12). The kite tilted just as he had planned. The test was a success!

7. Answer the following questions. Begin your answers with such introductory phrases as: as far as I know; as far as I remember; to my mind; certainly; it's hard to tell; probably; of course; if I am not mistaken, etc.

1) What were the first indications of the Wright brothers’ extraordinary technical ability?

2) What experience did the Wright brothers get at a bicycle sales and repair shop?

3) What inspired the Wright brothers to reading in aeronautics?

4) What did the Wright brothers discover during their first experiments?

5) Why did they select Kitty Hawk for the first flight?

6) Why did the Wrights increase the wing area of their next machine in 1901?

7) How long did the first flight last?

8. Match the questions in list A to their answers in list B.

List A

1. What was aeronautics/air travel like before the invention of the airplane?

2. What lead up to the Wright Brother's invention of the airplane?

3. How has life changed since the Wright's Invention of the
airplane?

4. What is the future of airplanes?

5. How has the airplane affected the transportation industry?

6. How has the airplane affected warfare?

7. What happened after the invention of the airplane and before World War I that advanced airplane technology and why did it happen?

8. After the plane was invented, how was it used for transportation?

9. Right after the plane was invented, what did people think it would be used for?

10. I read in an encyclopedia that the Wrights thought the airplane would stop warfare. Why did they think this? (If I am wrong about this fact, please tell me.)

11. How has the airplane shaped our culture?

12. What are the main frontiers that were opened by the airplane?

List B

a)Prior to the invention of the airplane, there was not much air travel going on. There were however, many people were experimenting with gliding and ballooning.

b)The airplane has changed how war is fought. No longer do you have to invade a country or send troops to do battle. Countries were able to fly overhead to keep watch and bomb one another. Planes also allowed for quicker invasions.

c)The Wrights' invention of the airplane change life dramatically. No longer does it take weeks to travel to other parts of the world. Essentially, it has made the world seem like a smaller place.

d) Many people had been studying human flight including DaVinci, Alexander Graham Bell, Otto Lilienthal, and Samuel Langley to name a few. Flying fascinated the Wrights when they were children. As adults, their interest grew and they began studying the work of others working/experimenting in the field of aeronautic. Using the information gathered by others and their own genius, they developed the flyer.

e)Travel by train and boat certainly has diminished. The airplane allows for fast and easy transportation to many parts of the world.

f) Immediately following the invention, the plane was not used for transportation. It was still in a very experimental phase. It was not until after World War II when air travel became commonplace.

g)Many improvements were made in the development of airplanes, such as the automatic stabilizer, hydroplanes, and wing flaps during this time period.
As I mentioned earlier, many people had been trying to fly for years. The Wrights proved that human flight was possible. However, the Wrights' first flight was only 12 seconds long. This was not very practical. Therefore, improvements were necessary.

h) Airplanes have come a long way in the past 100 years. It is rather hard to imagine what the next 100 years might bring. I am certain we will see an emphasis on safety with all the recent airplane tragedies. We also will see faster planes for everyday customers. We live in a fast paced world and people desire travel to be even faster than it already is.

i) It was thought that planes would be used mostly for military applications. Some far thinking people believe that flying would be available to everyone in a matter of time.

j) It was a common belief that air flight would inhibit warfare. The idea was that you could no longer surprise attack your enemy. Also, that you would be aware of what they were doing at all times. In fact, the Wrights won the International Peace Award in 1908.

k) The airplane has brought our world closer together. Making us more familiar with far away people, land, and their culture. It gives us the opportunity to live in a world where we have access to worldwide travel in a matter of hours.

l)The main frontiers that were opened were air travel, aeronautics, and expanded business opportunities

 

Speaking






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