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Complete the text with the words from the box



system cabin floated horizon task stars sky space voice flight difficulty weightlessness sensation jets

Gagarin accustomed himself to (1). He wrote notes on a pad, and when he finished, it (2) free and lodged under the seat. An hour into the (3) and he was over Cape Horn, South America. Night fell:

I have never forgotten it. The (4) were so clearly visible—blindingly bright and full-bodied. The (5) was blacker than it ever appears on earth, with the real slate blackness of (6).

The automatic guidance (7) locked on. Gagarin’s next (8) was to test the ability of a man to eat and drink in space. He took away some tubes from their racks, squeezed them and found no (9). Little water droplets floated around the (10). Vostok flashed into daylight and the Sun marched over the eastern (11). Gas (12) hissed in the vacuum. Vostok turned around to prepare for retrofire. All this time Gagarin reported back his every move, his every (13). His (14) came through the mushy crackly short wave.

Translate into Russian

manned flight; manned space flight; manned space vehicle; manned spaceship;

manned orbiting spacecraft; manned space program = manned man-in-space program; manned satellite; manned artificial satellite; manned space exploration

manned program; manned space activities; manned space complex

5. Translate the following text into English:

В декабре 1959 года Юрий Гагарин написал заявление с просьбой зачислить его в группу кандидатов в космонавты. Через неделю его вызвали в Москву для прохождения медицинского обследования. В начале следующего года последовала ещё одна специальная медкомиссия, которая признала Гагарина годным для космических полётов. В марте 1960 годаГагарин был зачислен в группу кандидатов в космонавты. Он вместе с семьёй выехал к новому месту работы. С 25 марта начались регулярные занятия по программе подготовки космонавтов.

12 апреля1961 годас космодромаБайконурвпервые в мире стартовал космический корабль «Восток» с пилотом-космонавтом Юрием Алексеевичем Гагариным на борту. За этот полёт ему было присвоено звание Героя Советского Союза и воинское звание майора. Начиная с 12 апреля 1962 года, день полёта Гагарина в космос был объявлен праздником Днём космонавтики.

Complete each sentence (1-10) with one of the endings (A-J)

When a space rocket blasts off, A in orbit around a small star.
In 1957 the Soviet Union launched B has people in it who are operating its controls.
The planet is probably C a large building in which aircraft are kept.
The satellite was called Sputnik, D six manned Soviet orbiting spacecraft, the first of which, launched in April 1961, carried the first man in space.
A manned vehicle such as a spacecraft E between Mercury and the earth at an average distance of 108 million km from the sun.
A hangar is F the first satellite to orbit the earth.
Vostok is a series of G and was awarded many medals and titles, including Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest honour.
Unmanned vehicles such as spacecraft H it leaves the ground at the start of its journey.
Venus orbits I the Russian word for ‘companion’.
Yuri Gagarin became an international celebrity, J do not have any people in them and operate automatically or are controlled from a distance.

7. Find proper definitions (second column) for the words and word combinations (first column):

reliable A showing or involving great activity or vitality
capable B having made a firm decision and being resolved not to change it
energetic C an opening of restricted size allowing for passage from one area to another, in particular.
ambitious D the ability to continue with an unpleasant or difficult situation, experience, or activity over a long period of time.
determined E having the ability, fitness, or quality necessary to do or achieve a specified thing
porthole F able to be trusted
endurance G having or showing a strong desire and determination to succeed
blastoff H the first stage of a rocket or spacecraft, used to give initial acceleration and then jettisoned.
hatch I a small window on the outside of a ship or aircraft
booster J the launching of a rocket or spacecraft

Speaking

Give a 5-minute presentation on one of the following topics. Use the Memorized Method of Delivery.

1) The Idea of Manned Space Flight

2) Russian Cosmonauts

3) American Cosmonauts

4) European Cosmonauts

 

The Memorized Method of Delivery It involves: · Writing out the speech word for word; · Committing it to memory. Advantages: if you have a good memory the memorized method of delivery might seem the best way to present your speech. Disadvantages: when you try to recite from memory, all your energy will be focused on remembering the exact wording and phrasing instead of projecting your message to the audience.

Writing

Do some research and write a 100-200 word history of space flight. Organize your material into a definite structure. Read the text aloud using the correct pronunciation. Look through this list of words and phrases for new ideas on how to begin and end paragraphs in your paper.

Details
as follows especially in detail
in particular including namely
specifically to enumerate to explain
Example and illustration
an illustration of as an illustration as follows
by way of illustration e.g. (for example) even
for example for instance in other words
in particular namely specifically
such as the following example thus
Sequence
afterward at first at the same time
earlier finally first of all
first for now for the time being
in conclusion in the first place in the meantime
in time in turn last
later on later meanwhile
next simultaneously soon
subsequently the next step then
to begin with ultimately while
         

Unit 6 Airports

Also known as: Aerodromes, airfields, landing strips

Definition: An area of land that provides for the taking off, landing, and surface maneuvering of aircraft.

Significance: Although airports mark the beginning and ending points of aircraft flights, they are more than mere runways or grass areas for takeoffs and landings. Airports are facilities that provide for the maintenance and servicing of aircraft, serve as exchange points for passengers and cargo, and host the various navigational aids used by pilots to guide an aircraft in flight.

Nature and Use

An airport is defined by the type of aircraft it serves and by where it is located. Airports range in size from large commercial air carrier airports, such as Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport, with more than 30 million passengers per year, to small, privately owned grass landing strips in rural areas with landings of only a few small aircraft each year. In the United States, there are about 15,000 airport landing facilities, only 5,000 of which are open to the public. Even fewer, about 3,000, are served by commercial air carrier service. The other airports are small, general aviation airports in private or public ownership.

Types of Airports

Although airports may be classified in a number of different ways, the broadest categories are general aviation and commercial service airports. General aviation airports are those that do not receive regularly scheduled passenger service but rather have a primary purpose of serving the aviation interests and needs of small or outlying communities. General aviation includes such activities as corporate and business transportation, recreational flying, aircraft instruction and rental, aerial observation, skydiving activities, and other special uses.

Landing Facilities

An airport’s landing facilities generally consist of a runway or landing strip along with related taxiways and parking areas. A runway is a graded or paved area suitable for the taking off or landing of aircraft. Although most runways in developed nations serving small to large commercial aircraft are paved, there are still many airports that are either grass or dirt strips. These types of landing strips usually serve small piston- or turbine-engine aircraft in rural or undeveloped areas of a country or in developing nations.

Runways

In the early days of aviation, dirt and grass runways were the norm. They tended to be wide open field areas that allowed pilots to take off and land in whichever direction the wind was blowing. This is because aircraft weighed relatively little and needed only a short distance to take off. As aircraft and pavement technology developed and the weight of aircraft increased, the need for longer and stronger runway surfaces emerged. The previously open fields were soon developed into graded areas oriented in the direction of the prevailing winds. These graded areas were then paved. If strong winds occasionally blew from a direction different to that of the paved runway, crosswind runways might also be graded and paved. Aircraft are designed to land into the wind. When winds blow from a different direction than the orientation of the primary runway, some aircraft are unable to handle the side forces of the wind when landing or taking off. A secondary crosswind runway built to accommodate the occasional crosswind is then used instead of the primary runway.

Exercises

Vocabulary

1. Transcribe the words:

Aerodromes, maneuvering, scheduled, aerial, designed, technology, surface although, commercial

2. Match the words from the texts (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

take-off A the way something or someone moves, faces, or is aimed:
landing B the amount of physical power with which something moves or hits another thing
runway C a wind that blows across the direction that you are moving in
cargo D the surface which an aircraft drives on to get to and from the runway
taxiways E the action of bringing an aircraft down to the ground after being in the air
crosswind F
the sport of jumping from a plane and falling through the sky before opening a parachute    

 

skydiving G a long specially prepared hard surface like a road on which aircraft land and take off
force H someone who is travelling in a vehicle, plane, boat etc., but is not driving it or working on it
direction I the goods that are being carried in a ship or plane
passenger J the time when a plane leaves the ground and begins to fly

3. Match the words from the texts (1-5) with their synonyms (A-E):

to provide for A to show up
to host B diapason
range C to take in
purpose D to make arrangements
to emerge E objective

4. Explain in English and then translate the following words and expressions into Russian:

airport landing facilities, pavement technology, prevailing winds, private or public ownership, recreational flying, graded or paved area, primary and secondary runway.

5. Find in the texts the English equivalents for the following expressions:

(1) вести воздушноe судно в полете, (2) регулярные пассажирские перевозки, (3) воздушное наблюдение, (4) прыжки с парашютом, (5) взлетно-посадочная полоса, (6) летательные аппараты с поршневым или турбинным двигателем, (7) асфальтированная взлетно-посадочная полоса, (8) боковой ветер, (9) взлет и посадка воздушных судов, (10) различные навигационные средства, (11) маневрирования воздушных судов, (12) техническое обслуживание и ремонт воздушных судов, (13) крупные коммерческие авиаперевозчики, (14) корпоративные и бизнес-перевозки, (15) авиация общего назначения.

6. Complete the text with the words from the box

Airport structure

landside taxiways runways airside
roads terminals ramps parking lots
gates air traffic control on-site hotels customs

 

Airports are divided into (1) and (2) areas. Landside areas include (3), public transportation train stations and access (4). Airside areas include all areas accessible to aircraft, including (5), (6) and (7). Passengers on commercial flights access airside areas through (8), where they can purchase tickets, clear security check, or claim luggage and board aircraft through (9). Due to their high capacity and busy airspace, many international airports have (10) located on site. Airports with international flights have (11) and immigration facilities. Some airport structures include (12) built within or attached to a terminal building.

7. Answer the following questions. Begin your answers with such introductory phrases as: as far as I know; as far as I remember; to my mind; certainly; probably; of course; if I am not mistaken, etc.

1) What do airport facilities provide for?

2) How do airports range in size?

3) What does general aviation include?

4) What do an airport’s landing facilities consist of?

5) How did the first runways differ from the modern ones?

6) When are some aircraft unable to handle the side forces of the wind?

7) Why is a secondary crosswind runway built to?

8. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. В каждой стране есть аэропорты.

2. С непрерывным увеличением воздушного стало необходимым построить новые здания терминала и построить новые аэропорты.
3. Правила управления воздушным движением были созданы в интересах безопасности полетов.

4. Современный аэропорт представляет собой сложную структуру.

5.Тысячи людей работают в аэропортах.
6. Любой аэропорт можно разделить на две основные части: район посадки (взлетно-посадочные полосы и рулежные дорожки) и район аэродрома (здания, участки для парковки, ангары и т.д.).

Speaking

Conversation Questions: “Airplanes”. Work with a partner and discuss these questions:

1. How old were you when you went on your first flight? Where did you go?

2. Do you like to travel by airplane?

3. What was the longest flight you have ever taken?

4. What seat do you prefer: window, center or aisle?

5. What are three things you're supposed to do before the flight takes off?

6. What do you like to do during the flight? Does the plane provide anything to do to pass the time?

7. What do you do when you experience turbulence?

8. What should be done with obese people who practically take up two seats?

9. Can you sleep during the flight?

10. Have you ever seen a female pilot? Why do you think most pilots are men?

11. Would you like to be a flight attendant? What are the benefits and /or downfalls?

12. Are most flight attendants female? Is being a flight attendant considered a good job in your country? What do you think are the qualifications?

13. Are planes really safer than cars? (A study shows that flying is 176 times safer than walking, 15 times safer than driving and 300 times safer than a motorbike).

14. What are the advantages of traveling by airplane? What are the disadvantages?

15. Do you know someone who is afraid of flying in an airplane?

16. What questions should you ask when buying airplane tickets?

17. What is a charter flight?

18. What things can you see in an airport?

19. What questions do they ask you when you check-in at the airport?

20. What questions do they ask you when going through immigration and customs at the airport?

How to emphasize words To strengthen your proposal, you can emphasize words that are often contracted and/or add and stress auxiliary verbs (do, does, did). The words in bold are stressed: · We shouldnot worry about these drawbacks through as the advantages far outweigh the advantages. · Clients will get to our offices more easily from the airport and we are going to build an underground garage so that there willbe more visitor parking. · In addition, you do find good accommodation around the airport. [Presentations in English, 2012]

Writing

Compose a written report. Give several reasons and mention various counter- arguments of travelling by plane. Use the following transitional phrases

Continuation Conclusion Contrast Comparison/Illustration
Again Also Similarly Besides Furthermore In addition Moreover Likewise As a result Consequently Hence So Therefore Thus Accordingly In short In conclusion Because But However On the contrary On the other hand Yet Instead Conversely In spite of Still Nor Even though Unfortunately For example That is In other words In fact As a matter of fact

Unit 7

Forces of flight

Definition: The so-called four forces—gravity, drag, lift, and thrust—that act upon an airplane in straight and-level unaccelerated flight.

Significance: Weight and drag are forces of nature inherent of any object lifted from the ground and moved through the air. The forces of lift and thrust are artificially caused to overcome the forces of weight and drag and enable an airplane to fly.

Humans’ first attempts to fly, inspired by birds, were limited until humans realized they could not fly like birds. Birds, with their very light weight, great strength, and complex biological design, can use their wings to create both lift and thrust to overcome the natural forces of weight and drag, and to maintain control. Humans, in contrast, had to invent a different approach to meet any success in aviation. The functions of lift and thrust had to be separated. For that, wings and engines were introduced. While wings produce lift, engines produce thrust. Following the first flights made by Orville and Wilbur Wright in December, 1903, the pace of aeronautical development accelerated, and the progress made in overcoming the natural forces in the aviation industry in following decades was dramatic. The understanding of natural forces is thus as important for an airplane’s aerodynamics as the creation of artificial forces to counterbalance these natural forces. The engine and propeller combination is designed to produce thrust to overcome drag. The wing is designed to produce lift to overcome weight, or gravity. In unaccelerated, straight-and-level flight, which is coordinated flight at a constant altitude and heading, lift equals weight and thrust equals drag. Nevertheless, lift and weight will not equal thrust and drag. In everyday vocabulary, the upward forces balance the downward forces, and forward forces balance the rearward forces. This statement is true whether or not the contributions due to weight, drag, lift, and thrust are calculated separately. Any inequality between lift and weight will result in the airplane entering a climb or descent. Any inequality between thrust and drag while maintaining straight-and-level flight will result in acceleration or retardation until the two forces become balanced.

However, there are a couple of paradoxes surrounding this information. The first paradox is that in a low-speed, high power climb, the amount of lift is less than the amount of weight. In this situation, thrust is supporting part of the weight. The second paradox is that in a low-power, high speed descent, the amount of lift is again less than the amount of weight. In this situation, the drag is supporting part of the weight. In light aircraft, the amount of lift ordinarily is approximately ten times the amount of drag. The motion of an aircraft through the air depends on the size of these four forces. The weight of an airplane is determined by the size and material used in the airplane’s construction and on the payload and fuel that the airplane carries.

The lift and drag are aerodynamical forces that depend on the shape and the size of the aircraft, air conditions, and the flight speed and direction relative to the air velocity. The thrust is determined by the size and type of the propulsion system used in the airplane and on the throttle setting selected during the flight.

The relative wind velocity acting on the airplane contributes a certain amount of force, called total aerodynamic force. This force can be resolved into two components perpendicular to each other along the directions of lift and drag. Lift is the component of aerodynamic force directly perpendicular to the relative wind velocity. Drag is the component of aerodynamic force acting parallel to the relative motion of the wind. Weight is the force directed always downward toward the center of the earth. It is equal to the mass of the airplane multiplied by the acceleration due to the gravity, or the strength of the gravitational field. Thrust is the force produced by the engine and is usually more or less parallel to the long axis of the airplane.

 

Exercises

Vocabulary

1. Transcribe the words:

thrust, artificially, aeronautical, strength, inequality, aerodynamical, perpendicular, axis, propulsion

2. Match the words from the texts (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

gravity A the things carried by a vehicle with scientific instruments and crew
drag B the pressure of air that keeps something such as an aircraft up in the air
lift C the reaction force that pushes an aircraft forward
thrust D flight path
force E the force of air that pushes against an aircraft or a vehicle that is moving forward
weight F the height of an object or place above the sea
altitude G how heavy something is when you measure it
heading H the rate at which an object changes position
velocity I a force that pulls objects
payload J a push or pull t that causes, accelerates, or stops the motion of objects

3. Explain in English and then translate the following words and expressions into Russian:

straight and-level unaccelerated flight, the pace of aeronautical development, to counterbalance these natural forces, the drag is supporting part of the weight

4. Match the words from the texts (1-5) with their synonyms (A-E):

inherent A keep
retardation B essential
maintain C impressive
dramatic D deceleration
rearward E backward

5. Find in the texts the English equivalents for the following expressions:

(1) для преодоления силы тяжести и сопротивления, (2) позволяет самолету летать, (3) аэродинамика самолета, (4) рассчитываются отдельно, (5) примерно в десять раз больше сопротивления, (6) в последующие десятилетия, (7) создание искусственных сил, (8) уравновесить природные силы, (9) комбинация двигателя и винта, (10) координированный полет с постоянной высотой и направлением, (11) любое неравенство между подъемной силой и силой тяжести, (12) самолет набирает высоту или снижается, (13) размер и тип двигательной системы, (14) выбранный во время полета, (15) относительная скорость ветра.

6. Complete the text with the words from the box

Forces

push amount forces motion accelerate Scientists opposite speed
direction zipper engines pull

How do you make something (1)? How do you make it move, change its (2) or (3) or stop? You give it a (4) or a (5). Pushes and pulls are examples of what scientists call (6). When you pull (7) at the on your jacket, you are using force. (8) designing a Moon rocket have to take into account all the forces that will act on it. These include not only the forces generated by its (9) to make it go, but also other forces that affect its (10), such as gravity. Force is described by the (11) of push or pull. It is also described by the direction of the push or pull. When you push on a door, you are using force in one direction. When you pull on that same door, you are using force in the (12) direction.

7. Answer the following questions. Begin your answers with such introductory phrases as: as far as I know; as far as I remember; to my mind; certainly; it's hard to tell; probably; of course; if I am not mistaken, etc.

1) What forces act upon an airplane in straight- and-level unaccelerated flight?

2) How do birds create both lift and thrust to overcome the natural forces of weight and drag?

3) What forces do wings and engines produce?

4) What will any inequality between lift and weight result in?

5) What will any inequality between thrust and drag result in?

6) What is weight of an airplane determined by?

7) What is weight equal to?

8. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Подъемная сила, сила сопротивления, сила тяги и вес действуют на самолет в полете.

2. Самолет находится в состоянии равновесия, когда сила тяга и сопротивление равны и противоположны по направлению.

3. Самолет будет продолжать двигаться вперед с той же равномерной скоростью.

4. Если сила тяги или сопротивления становится больше, чем противоположная сила, самолет теряет свое состояние равновесия.

5. Если тяга больше сопротивления, самолет будет ускоряться.

6. Если сопротивление больше тяги, самолет теряет скорость и в конечном итоге снижается.

7. Если подъемная сила больше веса, самолет будет подниматься.

Speaking

Conversation Questions: “Force”






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