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Classification of disturbances and supervisory functions
There are many possible ways of classifying disturbances in manufacturing. From the point of view of supervisory functions the most important one is based on the consequences of the disturbances.
Disturbances may lead to break-down “production” of rejects or non-optimal production. Break-downs are caused by the class of disturbance that does not permit further operation of the manufacturing system. Another class includes disturbances that lead to the production of rejects – the manufacturing system may still work but its operation is inefficient because the results are unacceptable. Disturbances belonging to the third class lead to the least serious consequences: products are acceptable but production is suboptimal which means that all possibilities of improvement have not been exploited.
Different supervisory functions are needed in manufacturing. In the case of disturbances leading to break-downs, the main supervisory function is to prevent failure. However, if it is not possible, the supervisory system should attempt to reduce losses, probably by switching off the machine tool as quickly as possible, and then to perform a recovery procedure which brings manufacturing back to the successful state.
In cases of disturbances that lead to manufacturing products which cannot be accepted, the supervisory function is to prevent production of rejects. However, if it can only make corrections, it must change the manufacturing process in such a way that the parameters of the products are within the required tolerances. In case of successful production, the role of supervision is to optimize, that is to make success even greater by increasing the quality index.
Supervisory functions may be performed by humans, built into automatic control system of the working cycle or need a special supervisory system.
13. Ответьте на вопросы
1) What are the three types of the consequences of the disturbances?
2) What is the main supervisory function in manufacturing?
3) What are the supervisory functions in manufacturing if the failure cannot be prevented?
4) What is the supervisory function if the disturbances lead to manufacturing unacceptable products?
5) What is the role of supervision in the cases of successful production?
Заполните пропуски нужной глагольной формой (prevents, performs, belong, lead, includes).
1) This class…………disturbances which…………to the production of rejects.
2) Disturbances which…………to this class…………to the least serious consequences.
3) The supervisory system…………failures.
4) The supervision…………the production process.
Переведите текст письменно со словарем.
Monitoring is on-line diagnosing of a system or of a process with the aim of recognizing malfunctioning or non-optimal functioning.
Supervision is control dealing with disturbances, in order to safeguard against a catastrophic failure, assure correct operation or achieve the best results of the supervised process.
Diagnose determines the situation from the point of view of the correct operation of the system (the machine) or the highest quality index of the process on the basis of observation of symptoms. Diagnosis may concern the present situation, the future situation or the cause of the breakdowns (or failures in operation which causes a stoppage of the process) which has already occurred.
Выпишите из словаря транскрипцию и перевод следующих слов. Запомните их произношение и значения.
ensure (v), send (v), carry out (v), establish (v), occur (v), determine (v), evaluate (v), record (n), (v), choose (v), chosen (a), gather (v), multifunction (n)
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