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Decentralization of Planning and Control in a cellular flexible manufacturing system (3)
The functions of a cell controller are logically decomposed into three groups. These groups are: 1) factory level planning, 2) cell level planning, 3) cell level control.
Factory level planning. The interface modules in the cell controller request or accept input from CAD and business subsystem to trigger (запускать) functions in this group. It is noted that the functions in this group are not performed by an individual cell controller in isolation. This requires departing (отступление) from standard centralized formulation of the factory level planning functions.
Cell level planning. In this group a major task is to maintain status (состояние) information of the respective cell by acquiring real time information from cell interface modules (модуль всех ячеек). On the basis of strategic decision made by the previous level, the cell level planning functions are carried out. These functions require relatively less cooperation from other cell controllers.
Cell level control. This group of functions is for real time control of activities of machines within the cell. The various tasks include preparing processing steps, allocation of resources, monitoring of activities and reporting of status information.
The model presented by us is essentially a distributed real-time processing system with heterogeneous components. Realization of the above system imposes (налагать) special requirements on the software technology: distributed programming, distributed data bases, real-time programming. We have designed a distributed object oriented programming language. Its basic implementation is nearing completion (близок к завершению).
7. Ответьте на вопросы.
1) How are the functions of the cell controller decomposed?
2) What does factory planning represent?
3) What does cell level planning represent?
4) What does cell level control represent?
5) What model is presented by the researchers of the center?
6) What are the characteristics of the software of the system presented?
8. Подберите термины (unmanned machining; recovery procedure; safety system) к следующим определениям .
1) System of automatic supervision which either prevents break-down or minimizes the damage caused by break-down.
2) Method of operation after break-down which allows manufacturing to recommence.
3) Machining in an automatic manufacturing system (cell), without an operator.
Переведите слова, обращая внимание на значение приставок.
misorientation, abnormalities, over-simple, decommission, non-stationary, in-process, disjoint, retract, misinterpretation, displacement, reset, disconnect, unstructured
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Tool chipping (истирание) means that the small parts of the active cutting edge are removed. This is usually a sign of unfavourable cutting condition or that the tool grade used was not the best choice. Tool chipping may sometimes be detected by signal analysis of dynamic component of the cutting force. The tool will usually continue to function for a while, but larger and larger chipping will ultimately lead to catastrophic failure. Some systems are able to analyse this phenomenon.
Tool collision is a state in which the numerical control programmer has omitted to take the geometrical limitations of the workpiece into consideration. A tool collision means that forces in the tool will increase drastically, very fast and permanently. The action taken is usually to shut the whole system off, since fast reaction is needed and the strategy to retract the tool is usually difficult to analyse.
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