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M icrobostatic - inhibiting the growth of microorganisms.



Ecology of microorganisms. The effect on microbes of physical, chemical and biological factors. The concept of sterilization, disinfection, aseptic and antiseptic, conservation, their use in practice. Methods of sterilization. Equipment, mode, sterilizable material. Sterilization monitoring by physical, chemical and biological indicators .

Microorganisms are affected by physical, chemical and biological factors of the environment. Physical factors: temperature, radiant energy, drying, ultrasound, pressure, filtration. Chemical factors: the reaction of the medium (pH), substances of different nature and concentration. Biological factors are the interrelationships of microorganisms with each other and with a macroorganism, the influence of enzymes, antibiotics.

Environmental factors can have a positive effect on microorganisms (growth stimulation), a negative effect, and also a mutagenic effect.

The negative effects are:

1) microbicidal - killing microorganisms;

M icrobostatic - inhibiting the growth of microorganisms.

Agents which kill cells are called cidal agents; agents which inhibit the growth of cells (without killing them) are referred to as static agents. Thus the term bactericidal refers to killing bacteria and bacteriostatic refers to inhibiting the growth of bacterial cells and so on. A bactericide kills bacteria, a fungicide kills fungi, and so on (virulicide).

 These physical or chemical agents which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms are used for "control of growth" of microorganisms.

«Control of growth», as used here, means to prevent growth of microorganisms.

The control of microbial growth is necessary in many practical situations,
and significant advances in agriculture, medicine, and food science have been
made through study of this area of microbiology.



Classification of bacteria according to pH.

Neutrophiles- grow between pH 5.5 to 8.0. Alkalophiles- grow between pH range of 7.5 to 14. Acidophiles- grow between pH 0 and 5.5. Bacteria prefer media of pH near neutrality, and usually cannot tolerate pH values much below 4-5.

For most symbionts and causative agents of human diseases - a neutral, slightly alkaline or slightly acidic environment. With growth, the pH shifts more often to the acidic side, the growth of microorganisms is suspended at the same time. And then death comes. Mechanism: denaturation of enzymes by hydroxyl ions, disrupting the plasma membrane and membrane transport proteins.

Antimicrobial chemicals are used for disinfection, sterilization, antisepsis and conservation.

The use of physical and chemical methods in Microbial control.

 Although microorganisms are beneficial and necessary in human well-being, microbial activities have undesirable consequences such as food spoilage and disease. To minimize their destructive effects, it is essential to kill a wide variety of microorganisms or inhibit their growth. The goal is twofold, to destroy pathogens and prevent their transmission and to reduce or eliminate microorganisms responsible for the contamination of water, food and other substances.

Sometimes it is necessary to eliminate the microorganisms completely from an object, whereas sometimes only partial destruction may be required in other situations.

Hot Air Oven

 

6. I ntermittent boiling. This method is used for sterilization of the media with gelatin, vitamins, carbohydrates, for some drugs, which are spoiled at temperatures above 1000C.

As after a single boiling (T100 ° C) there is not killing of endospores, intermittent boiling is used: 20-30 min daily for 3 days. In the intervals between boiling, the material is kept at room temperature so that the endospores grow into vegetative forms, which will be killed with subsequent boiling.

Methods of intermittent boiling include tindalization. Tindalization is carried out in a water bath at 56 ° C for 1 hour 5-6 days. It is used to sterilize objects which are subjected to denaturation at a temperature of 100 ° C: serum, ascitic fluid, vitamins.

Methods of microbial control with heating also include pasteurization. It is carried out at a relatively low temperature once for the objects that lose their quality at high temperatures. The pasteurization does not refer to sterilization as endospores remain viable, so these products need to be stored in the cold (in a refrigerator).

Pasteurization is a process where many substances such as milk, are treated with heating at temperatures well below boiling (in honour of its developer Louis Pasteur). Milk, beer and many other beverages are now pasteurized. Pasteur examined the spoiled wine and detected the presence of microorganisms like bacteria which were responsible for the production of lactic acid and acetic acid fermentations which resulted in the spoilage of wine. He then discovered that brief heating at 55 to 60°C would destroy these microbes and preserve wine for long periods. Hence, pasteurization does not sterilize a beverage or milk but kills any pathogens present and slows spoilage by reducing the level of non-pathogenic spoilage microbes.

Milk in older methods of pasteurization (batch
method) was held at 63°C for 30 min. Kills most vegetative bacterial cells
including pathogens such as streptococci, staphylococci and
Mycobacterium tuberculosis .

Now, mostly two methods are used, flash pasteurization or high temperature short-term (HTST) pasteurization, which consists of quick heating t about 72°C for 15 sec and then rapid cooling. The other method used in dairy industry is ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) sterilization, where milk and milk products are heated at 140 to 150°C for 1 to 3 sec. The products pasteurized by this method needs no refrigeration and can be stored at room temperature for about 2 months.

RECOMMENDED USE OF HEAT TO CONTROL
MICROBIAL GROWTH

Treatment Temperature Effectiveness
Incineration >500°C Vaporizes organic material on nonflammable surfaces but may destroy many substances in the process
Boiling 1OO°C 30 minutes of boiling kills microbial pathogens and vegetative forms of bacteria but may not kill bacterial endospores
Intermittent boiling 100°C Three 30-minute intervals of boiling, followed by periods of cooling kills bacterial endospores
Autoclave and pressure 121°C/15 minutes Kills all forms of life including bacteria]
cooker (steam under pressure) at 15# pressure endospores. The substance being sterilized must be maintained at the effective T for the full time
Dry heat (hot air oven) 160°C/2 hours For materials that must remain dry and which are not destroyed at T between 121°C and 170°C Good for glassware, metal, not plastic or rubber items
Dry heat (hot air oven) 170°C/1 hour Same as above, Note increasing T by 10 degrees shortens the sterilizing time by 50 percent
Pasteurization (batch method) 63°C/30 minutes Kills most vegetative bacterial cells including pathogens such as streptococci, staphylococci and Mycobacterium tuberculosis    
Pasteurization (flash method) 72°C/15 seconds Effect on bacterial cells similar to batch method; for milk, this method is more conducive to industry and has fewer undesirable effects on quality or taste

 

Filtration:

In order to sterilize solutions which is heat sensitive, filtration is an excellent way to reduce the microbial population. The filters simply remove the microbes instead of killing them. Depth filters consists of fibrous or granular materials that have been bonded into a thick layer filled with twisting channels of small diameter. The solution is passed through the filter which is sucked through this layer under vacuum and microbial cells are removed. The material used mostly is unglazed porcelain, asbestos or other similar materials. Membrane filters are also used and have replaced depth filters in recent times. These filters are made up of cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate, polycarbonate, polyvinylidene fluoride, and other synthetic materials. These filters vary in size with pore sizes mostly of 0.2 to 0.5 µm in diameter and used to remove most vegetative cells, but not viruses, from solutions ranging in volume from 1ml to many litres. These filters are mostly used to sterilize pharmaceuticals, ophthalmic solutions, culture media, oils, antibiotics and other heat sensitive solutions.



The other way this method is used is in the laminar flow biological safety cabinets where the air is sterilized by filtration. These cabinets contain high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, which remove 99.97% of 0.3µm particles. The safety cabinets are most useful as the culturing of any organisms requires contamination free air to reduce the growth of other undesired organisms or for the preparation of media, examining tissue cultures etc (Fig. 10).

Radiation:

§ We have discussed about the effects of radiation on the growth of microorganisms earlier. The radiations like ultraviolet and ionizing can be used for sterilizing objects. Ultraviolet radiation around 260 nm is quite lethal but does not penetrate glass, dirt films, water and other substances very effectively. UV radiation is used as a sterilizing agent only in a few specific situations, like UV lamps are placed on the ceilings of rooms or in biological safety cabinets to sterilize air and other exposed surfaces. Commercial UV units are available for water treatment. Pathogens and microorganisms are destroyed when a thin layer of water is passed under the lamps (water purifiers). Ultraviolet radiation are safe to the operator of sterilization, they can be used even at the door entrances to prevent entry of live microbes through the air.

Ionizing radiation penetrates deep into objects and is an excellent sterilizing agent. It destroys bacterial endospores and vegetative cells of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin but not against viruses. Gamma radiation from a cobalt 60 source is used in the cold sterilization of antibiotics, hormones, sutures and plastic disposable supplies such as syringes, and Petri dishes, dressings, blood transfusion systems. Used for sterilization of objects that are not resistent for thermal and chemical treatment methods. It does not change the quality of the product, does not cause denaturation of the constituent parts of the product.

Also, ultra sound waves are being tested for sterilization. Though it is not as effective as other methods, it was found to be useful in tissue cultures. Here the aim is to sterilize or even prevent the growth of bacteria during culturing of tissue. For ultrasonic sterilization, special ultrasonic transducers are used. Sterilize food products (their nutritional value is kept as much as possible), vaccines and some objects of laboratory equipment that spoil under the influence of high temperature and chemical sterilization





Preservatives:

1.Aldehydes (formaldehyde)

2.Guanidine derivatives (chlorhexidine derivatives)

3.Inorganic acids and their salts (boric acid, sodium sulfite)

4.Organic acids, their salts (benzoic acid, salicylic acid, sorbic acid)

5.Mercury compounds (merthiolate, phenylmercury nitrate).

Ecology of microorganisms. The effect on microbes of physical, chemical and biological factors. The concept of sterilization, disinfection, aseptic and antiseptic, conservation, their use in practice. Methods of sterilization. Equipment, mode, sterilizable material. Sterilization monitoring by physical, chemical and biological indicators .

Microorganisms are affected by physical, chemical and biological factors of the environment. Physical factors: temperature, radiant energy, drying, ultrasound, pressure, filtration. Chemical factors: the reaction of the medium (pH), substances of different nature and concentration. Biological factors are the interrelationships of microorganisms with each other and with a macroorganism, the influence of enzymes, antibiotics.

Environmental factors can have a positive effect on microorganisms (growth stimulation), a negative effect, and also a mutagenic effect.

The negative effects are:

1) microbicidal - killing microorganisms;

m icrobostatic - inhibiting the growth of microorganisms.

Agents which kill cells are called cidal agents; agents which inhibit the growth of cells (without killing them) are referred to as static agents. Thus the term bactericidal refers to killing bacteria and bacteriostatic refers to inhibiting the growth of bacterial cells and so on. A bactericide kills bacteria, a fungicide kills fungi, and so on (virulicide).

 These physical or chemical agents which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms are used for "control of growth" of microorganisms.

«Control of growth», as used here, means to prevent growth of microorganisms.

The control of microbial growth is necessary in many practical situations,
and significant advances in agriculture, medicine, and food science have been
made through study of this area of microbiology.







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