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Ex. 7. Translate the following sentences paying attention to different functions of the infinitives.

1. Modern railways are completely automated to provide high-speed mass transportation. 2. High-speed traffic requires signaling to be widely used on railway lines. 3. The automatic train operation is expected to increase the traffic capacity of lines, making two tracks do the work done by four today. 4. Signaling is used to control and regulate the movement of trains. 5. To drive a train strictly to schedule and at a high speed, an engine driver should always look ahead, size up the situation quickly, set the necessary engine operation mode, use braking devices. 6. When the new CTC is completed it will be used to control the entire trunk line. 7. As for local station panels will then be used only for shunting movements when required and to act as a reserved control system. 8. To go for a walk was the only thing to do. 9. He’s got a headache. He claims to have been working on the computer all day. 10. I would sooner be hungry than ask him for a piece of bread. 11. To ride with a careless driver is dangerous.     12. Is it difficult to operate this machine? 13. This story is easy to believe. 14. I demand to know who is responsible. 15. It’s not a question to be discussed now. 16. To do well is better than to speak well. 17. To help the driver get information while concentrating on the road the most important data will be projected on the windscreen.18. Signals to be measured must be strong enough.19. In order to understand this phenomenon the laws of motion should be considered. 20. To understand this problem you must read this article. 21. To understand this problem is impossible. 22. To answer this question we studied a lot of publications. 23. To make this experiment without special equipment is absolutely impossible. 24. The method to be chosen in any particular case depends on many factors. 25. The term “radar” is known to be composed of the first letters of “radio detection and ranging”.

Ex. 8. Match the words and word combinations in column A with their Russian equivalents in column B.

1) to generate frequency a) допустимая скорость
2) in an emergency b) надежный
3) push-button switches c)экран телевизора
4) fail-safe d) МПС
5) research institutes e) полуавтоматический
6) a screen of a TV set f) в случае аварии
7) permissible speed g) с этой целью
8) Railways Ministry h) опознавать себя
9) semi-automatic i) замыкать цепь
10) for this purpose j) читать вслух
11) to identify oneself k) вырабатывать частоту
12) to complete the circuit l) кнопочные переключатели
13) human error m) научно-исследовательские институты
14) to read aloud n) человеческий фактор


Text A. Read and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary.

Railway Automation

(1) At present control of high-speed trains is semi-automatic since they are automatically forced to comply with permissible speeds at any instant. Stops at station platforms are under the driver’s control.

(2) The whole line in Japan, for example, is directly controlled from Tokyo and for this purpose is divided into four systems. The state of the line is continuously surveyed and information is transmitted at high speed to the control centre. Each train automatically identifies itself by generating a unique frequency as it passes fixed ground equipment and the information is displayed on the control panel at Tokyo. Trains entering stations automatically set the points system according to classification, i.e. whether super express, express or freight.

(3) One interesting but simple safety feature enables the operator on the line to stop the train in an emergency. It consists of push-button switches placed at intervals of 50m. Operation of the switch completes the circuit, and the consequent indication in the driver’s cab of an approaching train causes the brakes to be applied automatically at an appropriate distance from the danger position. All the circuits are fail-safe, and the possibility of an accident due to human error has been virtually eliminated.

(4) Great work is being carried out in order to improve circuits performance. It means introduction of such techniques as programmed control, obstacle detection by a guided radar, controlled braking to a fixed point and centralized computer control. Extensive research is under way in our country to utilize television technique in industry, science and agriculture. Some years ago one of the research institutes of our country designed a television apparatus which is now used in railway transport to record the serial numbers of freight cars arriving at a station. As a train pulls in at a station, somewhere at a distance of ten kilometers an operator sees this train on a screen of his television set. The operator reads aloud the serial number of the freight cars and they are recorded by a tape recorder. On another television set the operator can see all the railway lines in a station. The operator only has to press the button and another station will appear on the screen. These installations are used in classifications yards for shunting operations.

(5) The Central Research Institute of the Railways Ministry is designing a new television apparatus which will enable engine drivers “to see” the condition of the freight car even when it is dark.


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