Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 


Make up 5 general and 5 special questions to the text.




4.2. Give the negative and question form of the following sentences. Some sentences are false:

1. His grandfather was an aircraft designer.

2. From childhood he displayed an interest in constructing mechanical tools.

3. My friend attends classes every day.

4. The teacher will check our tests tomorrow.

5. His father was appointed the chief engineer of the big construction company.

6. These programmers are repairing an old computer now.

7. They were working on the term paper from 9 till 11 a.m.

8. Max will be downloading new programs the whole evening.

9. This matter is being discussed at the meeting now.

10. Ann will be in Moscow in a week.

4.3. Point out the sentences with the Passive Voice in the text.

V. Speaking

What autobiographical information have you learnt about Ivan Kulibin?

Speak about his inventions during 1764 – 1767.

Speak about Kulibin’s invention during 1770 – 1791.

Speak about the last years of his life.

5.5. Use the following phrases and word combinations to retell the text:

1. As I understood from the text ...

2. According to the text ...

3. According to the author ...

4. As it is described in the text ...

5. As it is said in the text ...

6. If I am not mistaken …

7. According to the figures (data, information) from the text ...

8. As for me I learnt that Ivan Kulibin …

5.6*. Read and translate the proverbs. Comment them:

1. He works best who knows his trade.

2. He who would catch fish must not mind getting wet.

3. No sweet without (some) sweat.

TEXT 2. KARL BENZ (1844 – 1929)

I. Before you read

1.1. Read the words correctly:

German, mechanical engineer, automobile, an internal-combustion
engine, enterprise, unreliable, fiancée, dowry, misfortune, development, revenue, genius, successive, ignition, power sparks, to improvise,
employee, horseless carriage, evaporative, vehicle, gasoline, pharmacy, quantity, simultaneously, laurel, scientific, nonprofit.

1.2. State the part of speech and translate it into Russian:

Internal, badly, unreliable, to marry, agreement, merely, to produce, opportunity, to generate, its, own, vehicle, nineteenth, the largest, horizontally, brand, design, to design, performance, now, facility, died, today,
simultaneously, through, momentum.

1.3. Give the nouns for these verbs:

To produce, to generate, to develop, to maintain, to agree, to invent,
to incorporate, to create, to transmit.

1.4. Match the columns:

1. internal-combustion engine 1. литейная мастерская, цех
2. fiancée 2. двигатель внутреннего сгорания
3. foundry 3. двухтактный двигатель
4. two-stroke engine      4. невеста
5. high performance engine 5. поставщик
6. to impound                6. оказываться
7. supplier             7. высокоэффективные двигатели
8. engine driver    8. машинист
9. to turn out         9. конфисковать
10. to buy out       10. приданое
11. dowry    11. доход, выручка
12. revenue           12. выкупить
13. spark plug       13. переключение передач
14. gear shift         14. появляться, возникать
15. to arise (arose, arisen) 15. свеча зажигания
16. to incorporate 16. вследствие, в результате
17. to withdraw (withdrew, withdrawn) 17. придумывать, организовывать         (что-л.) экспромтом
18. production costs      18. уходить, удаляться
19. to maintain               19. производственные затраты
20. due to              20. сохранять, поддерживать
21. to improvise   21. регистрировать, оформлять
22. to bring to smth.               22. удовлетворять свои желания
23. to indulge       23. приводить к чему-л.
24. horseless carriage 24. батарейное зажигание
25. to feature                  25. безлошадный экипаж
26. coil ignition             26. испаряющий; парообразующий
27. evaporative              27. содержать в себе как отличительный, особенный элемент
28. roller chain              28. привод
29. gear                 29. втулочно-роликовая цепь
30. unaided         30. исправлять
31. to rectify                  31. без посторонней помощи
32. opposed piston                 32. скорость движения, импульс, толчок
33. flat engine       33. противоположно движущиеся поршни
34. momentum     34. плоский (горизонтальный) двигатель
35. dead centre     35. объединять
36. to merge          36. правление, руководство, совет, коллегия
37. board               37. мертвая точка
38. remainder                 38. остроконечная звезда
39. pointed star              39. остаток
40. laurel               40. окружать
41. merger             41. лавр
42. nonprofit foundation 42. объявлять, называть
43. interim            43. слияние, объединение
44. to designate             44. некоммерческий фонд
45. to surround              45. промежуток времени

 

 

1.5. Analyze the use of modal verbs and their equivalents. Translate the following sentences:

1. Who can help me to translate this article?

2. Nobody could solve this task.

3. He ought to do this work at once.

4. He is to go home at 9 p.m.

5. The students were permitted to do this test again.

6. I asked him to help me, but he wouldn't listen to me.

7. They should visit her, she is in the hospital.

8. Last semester we would often go to the swimming pool.

9. He will be able to do this project next week.

10. Karl Benz had to enlarge the factory.

11. Your friend should give up smoking.

12. May I leave for a while? – Yes, you may.

13. She should be more attentive at the lessons.

14. Must I attend this meeting? - No, you needn't.

15. You needn't download this program.





II. Reading

 

In 1885 German mechanical engineer, Karl Benz designed and built the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine.

Karl Friedrich Benz was born in 1844 in Baden Muehlburg, Germany (now part of Karlsruhe). He was the son of an engine driver. Benz attended the Karlsruhe grammar school and later the Karlsruhe Polytechnic University. In 1871 he founded his first company with partner August Ritter, the Iron Foundry and Machine Shop, a supplier of building materials.

The enterprise's first year went very badly. Ritter turned out to be
unreliable. The business's tools were impounded. The difficulty was
overcome when Benz's fiancée, Bertha Ringer, bought out Ritter's share in the company using her dowry. In 1872 Karl Benz and Bertha Ringer
married, later having five children.

Despite such business misfortunes, Karl Benz led in the development of new engines in the early factory he and his wife owned. To get more revenues, in 1878 he began to work on new patents. First, he concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable gas two-stroke engine. Benz finished his two-stroke engine on December 31, 1878, New Year's Eve, and was granted a patent for it in 1879.

Karl Benz showed his real genius, however, through his successive
inventions registered while designing what would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz soon patented the speed regulation system, the ignition using white power sparks with battery, the spark plug, the carburetor, the clutch, the gear shift, and the water radiator.

Problems arose again when the banks at Mannheim demanded that Bertha and Karl Benz's enterprise be incorporated due to the high production costs it maintained. The Benz's were forced to improvise an association with photographer Emil Bühler and his brother (a cheese merchant), in order to get additional bank support. The company became the joint-stock company Gasmotoren Fabrik Mannheim in 1882.

After all the necessary incorporation agreements, Benz was unhappy because he was left with merely five percent of the shares and a modest position as director. Worst of all, his ideas weren't considered when designing new products, so he withdrew from that corporation just one year later, in 1883.

Benz's lifelong hobby brought him to a bicycle repair shop in Mannheim owned by Max Rose and Friedrich Wilhelm Esslinger. In 1883 the three founded a new company producing industrial machines: Benz&Cie. Quickly growing to twenty-five employees, it soon began to produce static gas engines as well.

The success of the company gave Benz the opportunity to indulge in his old passion of designing a horseless carriage. He used similar techno-logy when he created an automobile. It featured wire wheels (unlike
carriages' wooden ones) with a four-stroke engine of his own design between the rear wheels, with a very advanced coil ignition and evaporative cooling rather than a radiator. Power was transmitted by means of two roller chains to the rear axle. Karl Benz finished his creation in 1885 and named it the Benz Patent Motorwagen

It was the first automobile entirely designed as such to generate its own power. Benz began to sell the vehicle (advertising it as the Benz
Patent Motorwagen) in the late summer of 1888, making it the first commercially available automobile in history.

Early customers could only buy gasoline from pharmacies that sold small quantities as a cleaning product. The early-1888 version of the
Motorwagen had no gears and could not climb hills unaided. This limitation was rectified after Bertha Benz made her famous trip driving one of the vehicles a great distance and suggested to her husband the addition of another gear.

The great demand for stationary, static internal combustion engines forced Karl Benz to enlarge the factory in Mannheim, and in 1886 a new building was added. Benz & Cie. had grown in the interim from 50 employees in 1889 to 430 in 1899. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with
572 units produced in 1899.

In 1895 Benz designed the first truck in history, with some of the units later modified by the first motor bus company: the Netphener, becoming the first motor buses in history.

In 1896 Karl Benz was granted a patent for his design of the first flat engine. It had horizontally opposed pistons, a design in which the corresponding pistons reach top dead centre simultaneously, thus balancing each other with respect to momentum.

This design is still used by Porsche, Subaru, and some high perfor-mance engines used in racing cars.

1903 sales of Benz & Cie. reached 3,480 automobiles, and the company remained the leading manufacturer of automobiles. 1926 Benz & Cie.
and Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG) finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company and gave the model of the DMG automobiles the name Mercedes Benz. The name of that DMG model had been selected after ten-year-old Mercédès Jellinek, the daughter of Emil Jellinek who had set the specifications for the new model. Between 1900 and 1909 he was
a member of DMG’s board of management and long before the merger Jellinek had resigned.

Karl Benz was a member of the new Daimler Benz board of management for the remainder of his life. A new logo was created, consisting of
a three pointed star (representing Daimler’s motto: engines for land, air,
and water) surrounded by traditional laurels from the Benz logo, and the brand of all of its automobiles was labeled Mercedes Benz. Model names would follow the brand name in the same convention as today.

1929 Karl Benz died at home in Ladenburg at the age of eighty-four. The Benz home now has been designated as historic and is used as a scientific meeting facility for a nonprofit foundation, the Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz Foundation, that honors both Bertha and Karl Benz for their roles in the history of automobiles.













III. After you have read

3.1. Say what is true and what is false. Correct the false statements:

1. Karl Friedrich Benz was born in 1844 in Baden Muehlburg,
Germany.

2. He was the son of an engineer.

3. Benz attended the Karlsruhe grammar school and later the Karlsruhe Polytechnic University.

4. In 1881 he founded his first company with partner Emil Jellinek.

5. Karl Benz concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable gas
four-stroke engine.

6. Benz soon patented the speed regulation system, the ignition using white power sparks with battery, the spark plug, the carburetor, the clutch, the gear shift, and the water radiator.

7. The success of the company gave Benz the opportunity to indulge in his old passion of designing a electric car.

8. The early-1888 version of the Motorwagen had no wheels and could not move unaided.

9. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899.

10. The name of that DMG model had been selected after the daughter of Karl Benz.

11. A new logo was created, consisting of a three pointed star (representing Daimler's motto: engines for land, air, and water) surrounded by traditional laurels from the Benz logo.

3.2. Fill in the blanks with words from the text:

1. In 1885 ... , Karl Benz … and … the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an … engine.

2. In 1871 he … his … company with partner August Ritter, the …
a supplier of building materials.

3. The difficulty ... overcome when Benz's ..., Bertha Ringer, ... out Ritter's share in the company using her ... .

4. Despite such ..., Karl Benz ... in the development of new engines in the early factory he and ... owned.

5. Benz ... his ... on December 31, 1878, New Year's Eve, and ... a pa-tent for it in 1879.

6. The name of that DMG model ... after ten-year-old Mercédès Jellinek, the daughter of Emil Jellinek who ... the specifications for the new model.

7. A new logo ..., consisting of a three pointed star (representing Daimler's motto: engines for land, air, and water) ... by traditional laurels from the Benz logo, and the brand of all of its automobiles ... Mercedes Benz.

8. The Benz home now ... as historic and is used as a scientific meeting facility for a ... foundation.

3.3. Substitute the modal verbs for the possible equivalents:

1. The special commission of engineers must test a new device.

2. My friend can play tennis very well.

3. The students may attend the scientific conference.

4. We can’t prepare this report in time.

5. You make take my laptop till tomorrow.

6. She must go to Nizhniy Novgorod for several days.

3.4. Insert the modal verbs may or can:

1. The mechanic ... repair the brakes tomorrow if no one bothers him any more.

2. ... we come and see the head engineer next Monday at four o'clock in the afternoon?

3. What time is it? — It ... be about five o'clock, but I am not sure.

4. Only a person who knows the language very well ... answer such
a question.

5. Let me look at your diploma project. I ... be able to help you.

6. The computer class is quite free, and anyone who likes ... work there.

7. ... I take your text book on Higher Mathematics till tomorrow?

8. Take your umbrella with you: it ... rain today.

9. Do you think you ... draw these diagram?

10. My grandfather … very well when he was 10 years younger.

3.5. Insert the necessary modal verb or its equivalent:

1. I ... not go to the cinema with them yesterday, I ... to work on my term paper.

2. My friend lives not far from the university and ... go by foot.

3. All of us ... be in time for classes.

4. ... you ... to work hard to do well in special subjects?

5. One … know a foreign language.

6. My friend … to make a report at the conference at 10 a.m.

7. Nobody … answer my question.

8. The scientist … … to carry on this experiment in the university laboratory.

9. … you … to start this program at once?

10. This is the most necessary information you … to know.





IV. Grammar Review





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