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THE GERUND AND THE PARTICIPLE. СРАВНЕНИЕ ГЕРУНДИЯ И ПРИЧАСТИЯ



 

Помните! Герундий отличается от причастия настоящего времени (Participle I): а) по функции в предложении; б) по наличию предлога; в) по наличию притяжательного местоимения или существительного в притяжательном или общем падеже.

 

1. Герундий может быть любым членом предложения; причастие – только определением, обстоятельством или частью сказуемого.

 

Обратите внимание! Если предложение начинается словом с окончанием – ing, то это слово является герундием в функции подлежащего, если за ним следует глагол-сказуемое; или оно является причастием в функции обстоятельства, если за ним следует подлежащее.

 

Герундий Перед глаголом-сказуемым Причастие I Перед подлежащим
  Testing the motor is necessary.   Испытать мотор необходимо.     Testing the motor he saw many defects.   Испытывая мотор, он обнаружил много недостатков.

 

2. Перед герундием в функциях определения или обстоятельства, как правило, стоит предлог; перед причастием в функциях обстоятельства могут стоять союзы when или while.

 

 

Герундий Причастие
в функции обстоятельства
  After testing the motor they put down the results. После испытания двигателя они записали результаты.     While testing the motor they put down the results. Испытывая двигатель, они записывали результаты.  
в функции определения
  There are several ways of producing electricity. Имеется несколько способов выработки электричества.     The plant producing electricity is very powerful. Эта установка, вырабатывающая электричество, очень мощная.  

 

3. Пред герундием может стоять притяжательное местоимение или существительное в притяжательном или общем падеже.

 

The professor approved of my solving the problem.   Профессор одобрил мое решение задачи.
We know of copper being the best conductor. Мы знаем, что медь – лучший проводник.

 

EXERCISES

 

I. A. Form the Gerund Indefinite Passive from the following verbs:

to write, to stop, to study, to make.

 

B. Form the Gerund Perfect Active and Passive from the following verbs:

to test, to send, to build, to leave.

 

II. Define the functions of the gerund in the following sentences. Translate.

 

1. Learning English is not an easy thing. 2. His friend began learning French. 3. Russian scientists played an important part in solving the problem of atmospheric electricity. 4. Studying nature without making observation is useless. 5. Any noise prevents me from working. 6. He doesn’t like being praised, he is too modest. 7. We didn’t mind her helping us. 8. Reading aloud can help you to improve your pronunciation. 9. In speaking about Moscow one has no choice but to quote long figures. 10. Muscovites have a special manner of walking, working, resting, communicating with each other. 11. You can’t become a good specialist without being trained for a long time. 12. We heard of the experiment having been started last week. 13. They couldn’t help using this information. 14. We succeeded in building a flexible system. 15. We are at the beginning of a new way of working, shopping, playing and communicating. 16. Lately some students have stopped writing and have begun pointing and clicking. 17. In fact, communicating with people is an obvious way to use the Web, and students are already doing it all the time from making dates to buying stocks and auctioning cars.

 

III. Make up sentences according to the models

 

Model 1: I don’t mind seeing the film again.

(to take part in the conference, to stay in the country for another week)

Model 2: I can’t (couldn’t) help smiling.

(to tell you about it, to laugh when I see him)

Model 3: The book is (not) worth reading.

(the question – to discuss, the proposal – to consider)

Model 4: It’s no use doing it.

(to talk to them, to help him)

Model 5: Did you enjoy spending your holiday there?

(to watch the match, to visit the museum)

Model 6: I remember talking to him.

(to attend the lecture, to invite them to the party)

Model 7: We insisted on (his) going there.

(to make the report, to organize a conference)

Model 8: You can learn speaking English by speaking English.

(to read French, to swim)

Model 9: What about going to the club?

(to have a bite, to visit a museum)

Model 10: Instead of going home he went to the club.

(to answer my question – to ask me his question, to do one’s homework – to look through magazines)

 

IV. Choose the right Russian equivalent.

 

1. Oleg’s refusing our help is regrettable.

a) то, что Олег отказался…; b) то, что Олег отказывается …; c) то, что Олегу отказали …

2. She is upset of her son being accused of bad conduct at school.

a) … ее сына обвинили …; b) … ее сын обвиняет …; с) … ее сына обвиняют …

3. He apologized to the teacher for not having done his lessons.

a) … за то, что не сделал …; b) …за то, что не делает …; с) …за то, что не будет делать …

4. I don’t like being asked such questions.

a) …задавать такие вопросы; b) …когда мне задают …;

с) …когда мне задавали …

5. The teacher was surprised at your having made so many mistakes.

a) …что вы сделали …; b) …было сделано …; с) …делаете …

 

V. Open the brackets using the proper form of the gerund.

 

1. I decided to do everything myself instead of (to ask) for help. 2. She succeeded in (to speak) English fluently. 3. It’s no use (to cry) over spilt milk. 4. Science requires (to experiment). 5. (To define) a problem precisely requires patience. 6. We know of the work (to carry out) in this laboratory. 7. They insisted on the sample (to test) repeatedly. 8. He has developed a method for (to evaluate) this problem. 9. She turned pale on (to tell) the news. 10. Do you mind him (to examine) by a heart specialist? 11. I was angry at (to interrupt) every other moment. 12. The device needs (to repair).

 

VI. Explain the difference between the sentences in each pair. Translate them.

 

1. He insisted on going there. He insisted on our going there.

2. I don’t mind cleaning the dishes. I don’t mind her cleaning the dishes.

3. She is not interested in collecting stamps. She is not interested in his collecting stamps.

4. We are fond of singing. We are fond of their singing.

 

VII. Find out the sentences with the gerundial construction. Translate.

 

1. The thunder is caused by heating the air by a spark. 2. A lightning conductor is a means of protecting buildings from the strokes of lightning. 3. We know of this house being destroyed by a stroke of lightning. 4. The professor knew about the students’ going to the power station. 5. Seeing is believing. 6. She cannot read English without consulting a dictionary. 7. His having asked such a question shows that he did not prepare the text. 8. I remember my having told her about the experiment. 9. Lomonosov’s having studied atmospheric electricity contributed to the development of science. 10. There are many methods of learning a foreign language. 11. On coming home he began watching TV. 12 A lot depends on your making the right choice.

 

VIII. Translate the sentences. Mind the construction with the gerund.

 

1. Their having overheated the gas changed the results of the experiment. 2. The investigator mentioned his testing this material for strength. 3. We heard of our engineer having left for the international symposium. 4. We insisted on the experiment being repeated. 5. In spite of the gases being compressed they return to their original volume as soon as the applied force stops acting. 6. Newton’s having stated the laws of motion is very important for modern science. 7. We knew of Newton’s having developed the principles of mechanics. 8. We knew nothing of their having been met at the station. 9. Franklin’s having worked in the field of electricity is known all over the world. 10. They didn’t know of his having been given new materials. 11. We know of Faraday’s having stated the law of electromagnetic induction. 12. We heard of the new computer having been put into operation.

 

IX. Complete the following by translating what is given in brackets. Use the gerund. Insert prepositions or other words where necessary.

 

1. Why do you deny … (что встречалась с ним раньше)? 2. He will succeed … (поступить в университет). 3. He couldn’t get used … (чтобы над ним смеялись). 4. I don’t feel … (звонить ей). 5. She gave up … (играть в теннис) and started … (бегать по утрам). 6. Do you mind … (я открою окно)? 7. We couldn’t … (не смеяться) looking at her clumsy movements. 8. They were proud of themselves … (что впервые сконструировали этот прибор). 9. Don’t avoid … (навещать заболевших знакомых). 10. Excuse me … (что я пришел, не позвонив).

 

X. Complete the following sentences using the gerund.

 

1. Do you prefer …? 2. Your clothes need … . 3. Thank you for … . 4. Do you mind … . 5. He looks forward to … . 6. We are tired of … . 7. I don’t object to … . 8. What is your idea of …? 9. She is fond of … . 10. They accused him of… . 11. Who is responsible for ….? 12. The teacher continued … . 13. The article is worth…. 14. Have you finished …? 15 The student is good at … .

 

XI. Translate into English using the gerund.

 

1. Вы не возражаете, если я воспользуюсь вашим телефоном? 2. Стоит обдумать предложение еще раз, чтобы избежать ошибок. 3. Простите, что я снова беспокою вас. 4. Могу я положиться на то, что вы сделаете все возможное в этой ситуации? 5. Его раздражало, когда его прерывали на каждом слове. 6. Ваша машина нуждается в ремонте, и чем скорее вы его сделаете, тем лучше. 7. Прежде, чем что-либо сделать, тщательно обдумайте все последствия. 8. Я не одобряю того, что вы тратите много времени понапрасну. 9. Многие люди используют Интернет только для получения и отправления писем. 10. Миллионы людей пользуются Интернетом, и их число постоянно растет.

 

РАБОТА С ТЕКСТОМ

Text A. THE INTERNET

 

The Internet, a global computer network, embracing millions of users all over the world, began in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet switching. Owing to this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out (by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such packet-switching network already survived a war. It was the Iraqi computer network, which was not knocked out during the Gulf War.

Most of the Internet host computers (more than 50%) are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet; there are millions, their number growing by thousands each month worldwide.

The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, having access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading USENET News, using the World-Wide Web, telnet, FTP, and Gopher.

In many developing countries the Internet may provide business people with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunication systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the world and do it very cheaply. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who actually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple: a user pays his/her service provider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards its costs to connect to a larger service provider. And part of the fee got by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless stations.

But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will drastically increase. For example, some western architecture companies and garment centres already transmit their basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and refined by skilled – but inexpensive – Chinese computer-aided-design specialists.

However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. In spite of the fact that there are many strong encoding programmes available, nearly all the information being sent over the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding, i.e. “in the clear”. But when it becomes necessary to send important information over the network, these encoding programmes may be useful. Some American banks and companies even conduct transactions over the Internet. However, there are still both commercial and technical problems, which will take time to be resolved.

======================VOCABULARY===================

 


access, n доступ
communicate, v общаться
embrace, v охватывать
encode, v расшифровывать, декодировать
fee, n оплата
garment, n одежда
global/ worldwide network всемирная сеть
host, adj узловой
knock out здесь: поражать
message, n сообщение, послание
packet switching пакетная коммутация
provider, n здесь: поставщик электронных услуг
reliable, adj надежный
route, n путь, курс, маршрут
route around, v обойти
router, n распределитель
send over, v отправлять
survive, v выжить, пережить

======================================================

 

I. Read the following international words. Guess their meaning. Consult a dictionary if necessary.

 

Computer, experiment, design, information, technology, million, popular, service, alternative, telecommunication, system, commercial, local, distance, architecture, company, centre, concept, specialist, problem, special, programme, technical.

 

II. Read and translate the following word combinations:

 

all over the world, to stay in touch, owing to, to survive a war, to pay a fee, to save money, computer-aided design, to send over.

 

III. Match the English phrases with their Russian equivalents:

 

1) global network а) почасовая оплата
2) garment center b) развивающаяся страна
3) developing country c) благодаря этому
4) shortest path available d) глобальная сеть
5) growing number e) центр изготовления одежды
6) hourly fee f) кратчайший свободный путь
7) owing to this g) возрастающее число
8) to resolve problems h) экономить деньги
9) to receive messages i) пережить атомную войну
10) to intercept a message j) направляться
11) to survive a nuclear war k) общаться по
12) to be in touch l) получать сообщения
13) to embrace millions of users m) поддерживать контакты
14) to count accurately n) катастрофически возрастать
15) to communicate over o) проводить сделки
16) to increase drastically p) решать проблемы
17) to save money q) точно подсчитать
18) to conduct transactions r) включать миллионы пользователей
19) to be directed to s) перехватить сообщение

 

IV. Read the text ‘The Internet’.

a) Find the English equivalents to the following Russian phrases:

значительно увеличиться, опытный специалист, иметь доступ, пережить войну, поддерживать связь, проходить через сеть, направлять данные, войти в компьютер, переданное сообщение, проводить сделки, узловые компьютеры, во всем мире.

b) Find all the ing-forms in the text. State whether they are gerunds or participles. Define their functions.

 

V. Complete the following sentences. Consult the text ‘The Internet’.

 

1. Information sent over the Internet … .

2. Any two computers on the Internet … .

3. Nobody knows exactly … .

4. The Internet may provide … .

5. Commercial use of the network will greatly increase if … .

6. Routers are … .

 

VI. Agree or disagree. Give your reasons.

 

1. The Internet began in the United Kingdom in 1969.

2. If some computers on the network are knocked out information will route around them.

3. Most of the Internet host computers are located in more than 100 countries.

4. There are thousands of people using the Internet, and the number is constantly growing.

5. The most popular Internet service is e-mail.

6. Communication over the Internet is very expensive and unreliable.

7. Business people can make money from the Internet.

8. There is a possibility to get into any computer and change the data being sent over the Internet.

9. There are no encoding programmes available.

 

VII. Think and answer.

 

1. What is the Internet?

2. How did it start?

3. How many Internet users are there in the world?

4. What is the path of the information sent over the Internet?

5. What is the most popular Internet service?

6. Are the Internet services expensive?

7. Why is it possible to intercept or even change the data, while they are travelling to the point of their destination?

8. Is information sent over the Internet coded?

9. What can be done with the help of the Internet?

 

VIII. Translate the following sentences into English.

 

1. Интернет – глобальная компьютерная сеть, которая насчитывает миллионы пользователей во внешнем мире.

2. Сеть появилась в результате военного эксперимента, который начался в США в 1969 г.

3. Целью эксперимента было выживание в ходе ядерной войны.

4. Информация, посылаемая по Интернету, идет от одного компьютера к другому по возможному кратчайшему пути.

5. Никто не может точно подсчитать, сколько людей в мире пользуются Интернетом, ибо их миллионы, и число это ежемесячно возрастает на несколько тысяч.

6. Большинство людей, которые имеют доступ к Интернету, используют сеть только для передачи и получения сообщений.

7. Но есть и другие услуги, предоставляемые Интернетом.

8. Во многих развивающихся странах Интернет может обеспечить бизнесменов надежной связью, в отличие от дорогих и ненадежных систем телекоммуникации.

9. Кто же на самом деле оплачивает отправку сообщений по Интернету на дальние расстояния? Ответ прост: пользователь платит ежемесячную плату фирме – поставщику электронных услуг (провайдеру).

10. Все остальные вопросы решает провайдер.

11. Экономия денег – не единственное преимущество Интернета.

12. В настоящее время многое можно осуществлять через Интернет, в том числе проведение сделок.

 

IX. Think over the plan of the text ‘The Internet’. Write it down. Retell the text according to your plan.

 






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