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The Subjective Infinitive Construction. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот.

Запомните! Субъектный инфинитивный оборот состоит из:

а) существительного или местоимения в именительном падеже в функции подлежащего;

б) инфинитива, который следует за сказуемым.


Обратите внимание!Сказуемое может быть выражено:


а) глаголами в пассивном залоге:

to know (to be known) знать, устанавливать; известно
to see (to be seen) видеть
to say (to be said) говорить, утверждать
to believe (to be believed) полагать, считать
to expect (to be expected) ожидать, предполагать
to assume (to be assumed) полагать, допускать
to report (to be reported) сообщать
to think (to be thought) полагать, думать
to find (to be found) находить, устанавливать
to consider (to be considered) считать, полагать
to suppose (to be supposed) предполагать

б) глаголами в активном залоге:

to seem казаться
to appear оказываться, казаться
to turn out оказываться
to prove оказываться
to happen случайно оказаться
to chance случайно оказаться


в) выражениями:

to be likely вероятно
to be unlikely маловероятно
to be sure несомненно, обязательно
to be certain безусловно, непременно


Для узнавания субъектного инфинитивного оборота воспользуйтесь следующей инструкцией:

1. Если в предложении встретилось сказуемое, выраженное способами, упомянутыми в пунктах а) б) в), проверьте, следует ли за ним инфинитив.

2. Если за таким сказуемым следует инфинитив, знайте – в предложении имеется субъектный инфинитивный оборот.

3. Соблюдайте следующую последовательность при переводе:

а) начинайте перевод со сказуемого; переведите сказуемое неопределенно-личным предложением типа: говорят, что…; полагают, что…; считают, что… и др.

б) переведите подлежащее (существительное или местоимение);

в) переведите инфинитив глаголом в личной форме, согласовав его с подлежащим (существительным или местоимением).



This device is known to operate well. Известно, что этот прибор работает хорошо.
The output seems to have increased. Кажется, выпуск продукции увеличился.
The current is likely to decrease. Вероятно, ток понизится.


3. Оборот «for + сущ. + инфинитив». (For – Phrase)


Оборот состоит из предлога for, существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже и инфинитива.


He spoke loudly for them to hear him. Он говорил громко, чтобы они его слышали.


Обратите внимание! Оборот обычно переводится обстоятельственным придаточным предложением, вводимым союзом чтобы.


I. Insert the particle ′to′ where necessary.

1. I like ... play the guitar. 2. My brother can ... speak French. 3. We had ... put on our overcoats because it was cold. 4. May I ... use your telephone? 5. I would rather ... stay at home today. 6. Would you like ... listen to good music? 7. What makes you ... think you are right? 8. I shall ... do all I can ... help you. 9. I like ... dance. 10. Let me ... help you with your home work.


II. Use the Infinitive in its proper form.


А. → Passive or Active.

1. The lecturer wants ... . The student wants ... (to understand, to be understood). 2. We expected the meeting ... next month. He expected ... the attention of the audience (to hold, to be held). 3. Some changes had ... . He wanted ... some changes in the project (to make, to be made).

B. → Indefinite or Perfect.

1. She admits ... the same mistake in her previous paper (to make, to have made). 2. It’s good ... work on time (to finish, to have finished). 3. She confessed ... the man before (to see, to have seen).


III. Use the infinitive instead of the subordinate clause.


Model: I have no books which I can read.

I have no books to read.


1. He hopes that he will get the information tomorrow. 2. We should be sorry if we heard bad reports of him. 3. Do not promise that you will do it, if you are not sure of success. 4. He was sorry when he heard of your disappointment. 5. She was sorry that she had missed the beginning of the lecture. 6. There was nothing that he could do except going home. 7. Don’t forget that she has a baby whom she must take care of. 8. She is happy that she has found such a simple solution to this difficult problem.


IV. State the forms and functions of the infinitive. Translate the sentences.


1. Our plan was to introduce new methods of research. 2. Here is an example to be followed. 3. They must continue their space exploration. 4. All you have to do is to write a letter. 5. He continued to read. 6. I didn’t ask to be told the news. 7. He has a lot of work to do. 8. I left my village to enter the university. 9. To make a choice between these two methods was quite difficult. 10. There are lots of contradictions to be found in your report. 11. The conference to be held tomorrow will be devoted to a dramatic breakthrough in astronomy.


V. Translate the sentences. Mind the infinitive.


1. To put it mildly, this work must be done. 2. This method is of great scientific value, to say nothing of its possible economic effect. 3. To tell the truth, we expected quite different results. 4. Our new boss is hard to please. 5. To cut a long story short, he didn’t pass his exam on physics. 6. Our neighbours are difficult to deal with. 7. It is very strange to say the least of it. 8. His behaviour leaves much to be desired. 9. To begin with, everybody makes mistakes. 10. This new actress is pleasant to look at.


VI. Change the sentences according to the model and translate them.


Model: Thomson was the first who discovered the electron.

Thomson was the first to discover the electron.

Томсон первым открыл электрон.


1. Lodygin was the first who invented the electric lamp. 2. Yuri Gagarin was the first who flew into space. 3. Samuel Morse was the first who produced a practical telegraph. 4. You will be the last who will answer at the exam. 5. James Chadwick was the first who discovered the neutron.


VII. Translate the groups of words with the passive infinitive.


Model: The data to be discussed...

Данные, которые нужно обсудить …

(Данные, которые будут обсуждаться) …


1. The problems to be solved ...

2. The measures to be taken ...

3. The stars to be observed ...

4. The decision to be made ...

5. The new words to be learnt ...

6. The new method to be introduced ...

7. The factor to be taken into consideration ...

8. The advice to be followed ...

9. The secret to be discovered ...

10. The conference to be held ...


VIII. Translate the sentences with the infinitive in the function of an attribute.


1. The problems to be discussed are of vital importance for our work.

2. The decision to be made is hardly an easy one.

3. There are some measures to be urgently taken.

4. Here are some new expressions to be learnt.

5. This is the issue to be debated in the Parliament.

6. The scientist spoke about the new method to be introduced.


IX. Read and translate the sentences. Mind the place of the infinitive and its functions.


1. To read English books is necessary.

2. To read this English book you will have to use a dictionary.

3. To harness solar energy for practical purposes is the task facing engineers.

4. To harness solar energy for practical purposes the engineers will have to make a lot of experiments.

5. To develop national economy is the main task of the government.

6. To develop national economy the people have to use the natural resources of the country most efficiently.

7. To expand old universities is much cheaper than to build new ones.

8. To expand old universities is a versatile problem.

9. To take correct measurements is not an easy task.

10. To take correct measurements it is necessary to use accurate instruments.


X. Translate the sentences with the construction for + noun (pronoun) + infinitive.


Model: It is desirable for you to know it.

Желательно, чтобы вы это знали.


1. He waited for the paper to be published.

2. There is only one thing for you to do.

3. Here are a few books for you to read.

4. Everybody waited for the lecture to begin.

5. It is difficult for him to solve this problem.

6. It is not advisable for you to keep late hours.

7. High temperature is needed for the reaction to start.

8. Much experimental work is needed for these phenomena to be explained.


XI. Complete the sentences. Use the infinitive.


1. It is necessary for her ... .

2. It is advisable for them ... .

3. They waited for us ... .

4. It was important for them ... .

5. There was no reason for him ... .

6. For the experiment ... he had to do much work.

XII. Translate the sentences with the Objective Infinitive Construction.


1. We know J. Kepler to have stated the laws of planetary motion. 2. In ancient times people believed the atom to be indivisible. 3. Bohr considered the atom to consist of two parts: the nucleus and electrons. 4. I’d like you to read about the latest discoveries made in the field of astronomy. 5. I didn’t see the professor enter the room. 6. The new method permitted these phenomena to be investigated thoroughly. 7. The professor wanted the post-graduate to find the articles on the latest discoveries in astronomy. 8. The telescope enables scientists to examine celestial bodies. 9. It is necessary to utilize the immense supply of free solar energy to make our star, the Sun, serve mankind. 10. I have never heard anyone give so much interesting information in one report. 11. The engineer wants them to use new methods in their work. 12. We saw the skilled worker assemble the tiny devices very quickly.


XIII. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence.


Model: My father said I could use his car.

My father allowed me to use his car.


1. I was surprised that it rained.

I didn’t expect ...

2. Don’t stop him doing what he wants.

Let ...

3. He looks older when he wears glasses.

Glasses make ...

4. I think you should know the truth.

I want ...

5. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister.

Remind ...


XVI. Translate the folowing sentences into English using the substitution table given below:


1. Мы хотим, чтобы вы рассказали нам о солнечной энергии. 2. Я хочу вам рассказать о солнечной энергии. 3. Он пришел сюда, чтобы рассказать нам о солнечной энергии. 4. Она показала мне эти проекты. 5. Мы знаем, что солнечные лучи приносят огромное количество энергии. 6. Я полагал, что этот ученый уже провел такой опыт. 7. Мы видели, как она проводила опыт.




We showed you these designs. about the solar energy.
I know her to tell us
He watched me to tell you
    the sun’s rays to bring a tremendous amount of energy.
She came this scientist to have made such an experiment.  
  believed   making an experiment.  


XV. Put a form of “make” or “lеt” and a suitable verb into each gap.


Model: Thе teacher let me go home early because I fell ill.


1. My children usually go to bed early but I __________ them _________ TV till 10.00 at the week-end.

2. I don't like the sight of blood. It _________ me _________ ill if I see it.

3. My parents weren't strict with me at all. They _______ me ________what I wanted.

4. But they thought that education was very important, so they______ me______ hard for my exams.

5. It was a very sad film. The ending ________ me _______.

6. My parents_________me_______ the piano for two hours every day. I hate it.

7. My brother________me________his car sometimes, but I have to pay for the petrol.


XVI. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Subjective Infinitive Construction. Mind the verb-predicates which are used in the Passive Voice.


1. These students are considered to conduct research rather well. 2. One of the students is said to be conducting a research work now. 3. That student is supposed to have conducted research last year. 4. This research is supposed to have been conducted by our best students. 5. These students are believed to have been conducting this research since last year. 6. All bodies are known to possess weight.


XVII. Translate the following sentences. Mind the verb-predicates which are used in the Active Voice in the Subjective Infinitive Construction.


1. This student seems to know English well. 2. His knowledge of English appears to be improving. 3. This discovery proved to be of spe­cial value for the development of electronics. 4. The student's answer seemed to satisfy the examiner. 5. This planet appears to possess tre­mendous humidity. 6. I happened to meet some of our students in the museum. 7. They didn't appear to be satisfied with our work. 8. These students proved to be very capable researchers.


XVIII. Translate the following sentences. Mind the words which are used as predicates in the Subjective Infinitive Construction.


1. The weather is likely to change by tomorrow. 2. These students are likely to take part in this discussion as the main problem to be discus­sed is on their speciality. 3. He is certain to make a good report at the conference, for he read a lot of technical journals while preparing for it. 4. He is sure to come in time, he will be the first to make a report. 5. They are sure to be sent to some construction site after graduating from the Civil Engineering Institute.


XIX. Read the following English sentences and find their Russian equi­valents in the right column:


1. These techniques allow the new data to be investigated thoroughly. 1. Мы не могли заставить его повторить этот эксперимент.
2. This causes the components to be separated. 2. Эти вещества вызывают изменение состава жидкости.
3. These substances cause the composition of the liquid to be changed. 3. Эти приемы позволяют тщательно исследовать новые данные.
4. We could not get him to repeat this experiment. 4. Трение вызвало остановку тела.
5. Friction caused the body to stop. 5. Эти приемы позволяют исследовать эти явления осно­вательно.
6. These techniques permit those phenomena to be investigated thoroughly. 6. Они заставили его пересмотреть свой вывод.
7. They made him reconsider his conclusion. 7. Он приказал отремонтировать эти приборы как можно скорее.
8. New techniques allowed the properties of this substance to be changed. 8. Новые приемы позволили изменить свойства этого вещества.
9. He ordered these devices to be repaired as soon as possible. 9. Это вызывает (влечет за собой) разделение составных частей.


XX. Translate the following sentences into English using the substitution table given below:


1. Известно, что этот аспирант пишет интересную книгу о кометах. 2. Говорят, что он пишет эту книгу с прошлого года. 3. Он, кажется, изучил этот вопрос основательно. 4. Он, вероятно, будет делать доклад об этой книге на научной конференции. 5. Полагают, что две главы этой книги уже были написаны в прошлом году. 6. Эта книга, по-видимому, представляет большой интерес не только для астрономов.

Two chapters of this book is said to have studied this problem thoroughly.
  is known to have been writing this book since last year.
He are believed to be writing an interesting book on comets.
This book seems to make a report on this book at a scientific conference.
This post-graduate appears to be of great interest not only for astronomers.
  is likely to have been written last year.


XXI. Read the following Russian phrases and find their English equivalents in the right column:



1. Утверждают, что этот метод ... 1. This method is considered to ...
2. Находят, что этот метод ... 2. These phenomena are held to ...
3. Предполагают, что эти явления ... 3. This method is claimed to ...
4. Считают, что этот метод ... 4. This method is found to …
5. Полагают, что они ... 5. These phenomena are assumed to ...
6. Полагают, что эти явления … 6. These phenomena are supposed to ...
7. Допускают, что эти явления … 7. They are thought to ...
8. Сообщают, что эта теория … 8. This theory is stated to ...
9. Говорят, что эта теория ... 9. This theory is reported to ...
10. Констатировано, что эта теория … 10. This theory is said to ...



1. Он, вероятно, ... 1. Не is unlikely to ...
2. Он наверняка ... 2. She seems to know ...
3. Они, несомненно, ... 3. He is likely to ...
4. Вряд ли он ... 4. He proved to be capable ...
5. Маловероятно, что они ... 5. He appears to have written ...
6. Он, по-видимому, знает ... 6. He is sure to ...
7. Она, кажется, знает ... 7. He appears to know ...
8. Он оказался способным ... 8. He seems to have forgotten ...
9. Он, по-видимому, написал ... 9. They are unlikely to ...
10. Он, кажется, забыл ... 10. They are certain to ...



1. По-видимому, эти данные были уже давно исследованы. 1. To investigate these data is not difficult.
2. Чтобы исследовать эти данные, надо применить новые методы. 2. То investigate these data one has to apply new techniques.
3. Мы хотим исследовать эти данные. 3. We expect these new data to be investigated very soon.
4. Сообщают, что эти данные будут исследованы в кратчайшее время. 4. We want to investigate these data.
5. Исследование этих данных несложно. 5. We have to investigate these data.
6. Эти данные вряд ли будут исследованы скоро. 6. These data are reported to be investigated in the shortest time possible.
7. Мы должны исследовать эти данные. 7. These data are unlikely to be investigated soon.
8. Эти данные, несомненно, будут исследованы в кратчайшее время. 8. These data proved to be reliable.
9. Эти данные оказались надежными. 9. These data appear to have been investigated long ago.
10. Мы ожидаем, что эти новые данные будут исследованы очень скоро. 10. These data are certain to be investigated in the shortest time possible.


XXII. Read and translate the sentences with the infinitive constructions.


1. The University of Cambridge is said to have originated in the 12th centry. 2. We consider silver to be the best of conducting materials. 3. The first type of a solar battery appears to have been demonstrated in 1954. 4. The chemist allowed this substance to be experimented with. 5. The manager knew the work to be under way. 6. For the experiment to be successful he had to do much work. 7. I heard him mention my name. 8. The expeditions to the planets of the solar system are likely to take off from the orbital stations. 9. Many times we heard our lecturer refer to the data obtained by physicists. 10. The workers are certain to achieve good results if they employ new techniques. 11. Everybody knows Mendeleyev to have studied the properties of elements before he arranged them in a Table. 12. It is for you to choose which of the two methods to use. 13. Newton was the first to realize elliptical paths of comets. 14. Nearly a month is required for the Moon to circle the Earth. 15. The history of computers is believed to have started with Charles Babbage who was a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University.


XXIII. Make a written translation of the sentences. Use the infinitive constructions.


1. Сообщают, что открыли новую звезду. 2. Известно, что наука изменила условия жизни современного человека. 3. Наши ученые обязательно примут участие в конференции по астрономии. 4. Древние астрономы считали, что Солнце и звезды движутся вокруг Земли. 5. Крайне важно, чтобы вы прочитали эти книги по астрономии. 6. Предполагают, что Вселенная начала существовать примерно 15 миллиардов лет назад. 7. Мы знаем, что Солнечная система состоит из 9 планет и их спутников, астероидов, комет и их метеоритов. 8. Известно, что каналы на Марсе были обнаружены в 1877 году.




A star is a body of luminous gas, like the sun. But as stars are much farther away from the earth than the sun, they appear to be only small points of twinkling light. With the naked eye it is possible to see about 2,000 stars at any one time or place but with the most powerful telescope over 1,000 million stars are visible. Although light travels at 186,000 miles a second, the light from the stars takes many years to reach the earth.

Stars are not fixed in space, but are traveling in different directions at different speeds. Seen from the earth, these movements appear to be so small that groups of stars, or constellations, seem to have a permanent relationship. The star patterns we see in the sky are almost the same as those seen by our ancestors hundreds, or even thousands of years ago.

The sizes of stars vary tremendously, from less than the diameter of the sun to thousands of times its size. Most stars appear white when looked at with the naked eye, but some are bluish-white, yellow, orange and red. The varied colours are due to differences in surface temperature. The brilliant, white stars are hottest with surface temperatures of several hundred thousand degrees. The less brilliant, orange and red stars have surface temperatures of about 2, 000 degrees.

There are exceptions, however. The red giant, Betelgeux, in the constellation (or group) of Orion, appears to be brilliant because of its size. Its diameter is 250 million miles, which is greater than the diameter of the earth's orbit round the sun.

Shooting stars which are sometimes seen moving across the night sky for a few seconds are really meteors. These small particles flare up as they strike the earth's atmosphere and usually burn out.



luminous, a светящийся
point, n точка
twinkle, v мерцать, сверкать, мигать
naked, a голый, обнаженный
with the naked eye невооруженным глазом
visible, a видимый
reach, v достигать, доходить до
space, n пространство, космос
constellation, n созвездие
permanent, a постоянный, неизменный
relationship, n отношение, связь, расположение относительно друг друга
pattern, n рисунок, узор
ancestor, n предок
size, n размер
tremendous, a огромный, громадный
due to, a обусловленный, вызванный чем-либо
surface, n поверхность
flare up, v ярко вспыхивать
strike, v (struck, struck) ударять (-ся)
burn out, v (burnt, burnt) выгореть, сгореть



I. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:


luminous, earth, surface, orange, giant, diameter, meteor, farther, naked, ancestor, tremendously.


II. Match the adjectives and nouns:


Adjectives Nouns
powerful particles
visible telescope
different eye
permanent relationship
naked speeds
small stars


III. Read and translate the words of the same root. Pay attention to suffixes:


A. to differ - difference - different;

to relate - relation - relationship;

to vary - variety - various;

to move - movement - movable;

to direct - direction - directly;

to except - exception - exceptional.

B. real - really;

usual - usually;

tremendous - tremendously;


careful - carefully.



IV. Read and translate the words with the component tele - Mind! The Greek word "tele" means "far, at a great distance":


telegraph, television, telescope, telephone, telefax, telepathy, telemetry.


V. Memorize the following word combinations:

small points of twinkling light маленькие точки мерцающего света
with the naked eye невооруженным глазом
with the most powerful telescope с помощью самого мощного телескопа
a permanent relationship постоянное расположение относительно друг друга
a star pattern звездный узор
a shooting star падающая звезда


VI. Read the text ‘What is a star?’. Answer the questions below:


1. What is a star? Find the definition in the text.

2. How many stars can a man see with the naked eye? With the most powerful telescope?

3. How long does it take the light from the stars to reach the earth?

4. Stars are not fixed in space, are they?

5. What do we call groups of stars?

6. How do the sizes of stars vary?

7. What are the varied colours of stars due to?

8. Which stars are the hottest?

9. What surface temperatures do the hottest stars have?

10. What are meteors?


VII. Complete the sentences.


1. A star is ... .

2, It is possible tо see ... .

3. The light from the stars takes ... .

4. Stars are traveling ... .

5. Constellations seem to have ... .

6. The sizes of stars ... .

7. The varied colours of stars ... .

8. Shooting stars are ... .


VIII. Find in the text ‘What is a Star?’ the sentences with the Subjective Infinitive Construction. Translate them.


IX. Say what you have learned from the text about:


a) the number of visible stars;

b) the speed of light;

c) the sizes of stars;

d) the colours of stars;

e) shooting stars.


X. Imagine you are a teacher of astronomy. Deliver a lecture on the topic ‘What is a Star?’.




Exploration of outer space in the 20th century has produced discoveries and inventions that will forever change the way people live, learn and interact.

The dream of space travel is as old as history but it was in the 20th century when the dream became reality. The first aeroplane (airplane) flight occurred in 1903 and in 1926 the first liquid-fuelled rocket was launched that traveled 200 feet.

After World War II, the superpower opposition between the USA and the Soviet Union stimulated rocket research and development. Both nations realized that large rockets can be used to attack an enemy from thousands of miles away and that satellites put into orbit around the Earth by rockets could transmit messages.

The Soviet launch of sputnik, the first man-made object to overcome gravity, began the space age. The Soviet Union soon achieved many other firsts. In 1961, the Soviet Union put the first man, Yuri Gagarin, into space. The first long space flights, a woman in space and space walk were all Soviet achievements. The Soviet Union made great progress in the peaceful application of space exploration. In its Salyut 6, it investigated such vital matters as the causes of cancer, since cells are studied in gravity-free space. The construction of metals that can resist gravity has resulted in tools of incredible hardness; improved seeds have been developed in Salyut.

In the early 1960s the United States organized the Apollo space program. This research program concentrated on landing a man on the moon. Two Americans, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, walked on the lunar surface in July 1969.

Since the first moon landing many nations have developed programs of space exploration. A network communication satellites made world-wide television and telephone service possible. Space shuttles allowed regular trips between the Earth and space. Scientific satellites were put in the Earth's orbit. Voyages to Venus were made by the Soviet spaceships, voyages to Mars, Jupiter and Saturn - by the American spaceships.

This scientific progress has since resulted in hundreds of benefits for mankind, from the weather satellites whose information we see in our daily newspapers and on TV, to determining from outer space where fish is, where natural resources are hidden in the earth and in discovering areas which are becoming deserts.


========================= VOCABULARY ===================


exploration, n исследование
outer space открытый космос
occur, v случиться
to launch a rocket запустить ракету
superpower opposition противостояние великих держав
satellite, n спутник
man-made object искусственный объект
overcome, v преодолевать
investigate, v исследовать
to resist gravity противостоять притяжению
space shuttle космический корабль многоразового использования



I. Make sure you know the words to text B.


II. Read the text ‘Space Exploration’. Combine elements from column 1,2,3 and 4 so as to get meaningful sentences corresponding to what is said in the text. All elements should be used.


(a) Space exploration is rocket research in 1954
(b) Soviet scientists organized discoveries and inventions into space in 1961
(c) Two Americans put as old in Jully, 1969
(d) The dream of space travel stimulated the first man between the Earth and space
(e) The superpower opposition walked regular trips for mankind
(f) The United States allowed the first sputnik in the early 1960s
(g) Space shuttles has resulted the Apollo space program and development
(h) The scientific exploration of space has produced in a lot of benefits as history
(i) The Soviet Union launched on the lunar surface that change our life


a) Write out the complete sentences:


e.g. Space exploration has produced discoveries and inventions that change our life.

b) Arrange these sentences in a logical sequence corresponding to the text.


III. Look through text В and find the English equivalents to the Russian word combinations:


исследование открытого космоса;

вызвать открытия и изобретения;

мечта о космических путешествиях;

полет на самолете;

запустить ракету на жидком топливе;

противостояние великих держав;

стимулировать исследования и изобретения;

нападать на противника с расстояния в ... миль;


запустить что-либо на орбиту при помощи ракет;

передать сообщение;

преодолеть земное притяжение;

открыть космическую эру;

сделать что-либо впервые;

запустить в космос первого человека;

длительный космический полет;

выход в космос;

сохранить лидерство в какой-либо области;

мирное применение чего-либо;

причины возникновения рака;

пространство, где не действуют силы притяжения;

высадка человека на Луну;

пройти по поверхности Луны;

разработать программу исследования космоса;

сеть спутников связи;

сделать возможным международное телевидение и телефонную связь;

сделать возможным регулярное сообщение;

научный спутник;

принести человечеству выгоды;

метеорологический спутник;

определять из открытого космоса;


IV. Answer the following questions:


1. How has the space exploration changed the life of mankind?

2. In what way has the superpower opposition stimulated the space research?

3. What "firsts" in space exploration has the Soviet Union achieved?

4. What peaceful applications of space exploration can you name?

5. What did the US Apollo space program concentrate on?

6. What benefits for mankind has space exploration brought?


V. Translate into English. Consult text B, if necessary.


1. Мечта человека об исследовании космоса стала реальностью в XX веке.

2. Примерно через 20 лет после первого полета на аэроплане была запущена первая ракета на жидком топливе.

3. После Второй Мировой войны сверхдержавы разработали программы исследований в области запуска ракет.

4. Ракеты можно использовать в целях нападения с больших расстояний, спутники, запущенные на орбиту Земли, можно использовать для передачи сообщений.

5. Эпоха освоения космоса началась с запуска Советским Союзом искусственного спутника - первого искусственного объекта, преодолевшего земное притяжение.

6. Советский Союз первым запустил человека в космос, первым осуществил длительный космический полет и выход человека в открытый космос.

7. США в 1960-х годах разработали программу «Аполлон», главной целью которой был выход человека на поверхность Луны.

8. Советский Союз сделал многое в области мирного использования результатов исследования космоса.

9. Была создана сеть спутников связи, осуществлены полеты космических кораблей на Марс, Юпитер, Сатурн, Венеру.

10. Освоение космоса принесло человечеству многочисленные выгоды.

11. Метеорологические спутники дают возможность предсказывать погоду.

12. Из космоса можно увидеть, где находятся месторождения полезных ископаемых.

13. С помощью спутников можно проводить исследования в различных областях науки.


VI. Read the following selection. Find the Infinitives, state their forms and functions. Make a written translation of the selection.


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