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THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ



 

Сослагательное наклонение (The Subjunctive Mood) употребляется:

1) в придаточных предложениях подлежащих, начинающихся с союза that, после главных предложений, содержащих составное именное сказуемое с оценочным словом:

 

it is possible возможно
it is probable вероятно
it is important важно
it is strange странно
it is necessary необходимо
it is desirable желательно
it is required требуется
it is a miracle удивительно
it is essential важно

 

Запомните! Сказуемое придаточного предложения имеет форму should + инфинитив без частицы to (или только инфинитив без частицы to).

 

It’s essential that the meeting be held at once. Очень важно, чтобы встреча была проведена немедленно.  
It’s strange that you should say it. Странно, что вы это говорите.

 

2) в придаточных дополнительных предложениях, начинающихся с союза that после глаголов:

 

to suggest предлагать
to insist настаивать
to propose выдвигать предложение
to order приказывать
to command командовать
to request просить
to recommend рекомендовать
to demand требовать

 

Сказуемое придаточного предложения также имеет форму should + инфинитив без частицы to (или только инфинитив без частицы to).

 

He suggested that I should speak to the dean. Он предложил мне поговорить с деканом.

 

Сослагательное наклонение после вышеуказанных глаголов употребляется только в том случае, если главное и придаточное предложения имеют разные подлежащие.

Сравните:

 

I insist that she should do the work herself. Я настаиваю, чтобы она делала работу сама.  
I insist on doing the work myself. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы делать работу самому.
 
I demand that the dean should see me.   Я требую, чтобы декан меня принял.
I demand to see the dean. Я требую, чтобы меня пропустили к декану.
 
He suggests I should accept the post. Он предлагает мне занять этот пост.  
He suggests going to the cinema. Он предлагает сходить в кино.  

3) в придаточных предложения, начинающихся с союзов

 

as if как будто
as though как если бы
in order that для того, чтобы
so that так, чтобы
lest чтобы не

 

The Earth behaves as if it were a large magnet. Земля ведет себя так, как если бы она была огромным магнитом (как огромный магнит).  
He must hurry lest he should be late. Он должен торопиться, чтобы не опоздать.

 

EXERCISES

 

I. Read and translate the following conditional sentences.

 

A. 1. If you ask him, he will help you. 2. If you listen to me, you will succeed. 3. If you want to achieve good results, you’ll have to work hard. 4. If a body is heated, it will usually expand. 5. In case the temperature is raised, the reaction will proceed more rapidly.

B. 1. If he changed his opinion, he would be more successful. 2. If we asked him to help would he agree? 3. If I only knew the facts, I could make a decision. 4. If we used this method, we should obtain better results. 5. He would improve this device if he had time.

C. 1. If the weather had been fine, we should have played outside. 2. If he had worked hard, he would have achieved great progress. 3. If they had known it before, they would have taken measures. 4. If they had completed the research, the results would have been discussed at the conference. 5. We should have applied these sensitive instruments if they had been manufactured by that time.

 

II. Translate the sentences with the inversion. Use the model.

 

Model: Had you listened to me, you would have succeeded.

Если бы ты послушался меня, ты бы добился успеха.

 

1. Had you told him, he would have known about the meeting of the staff. 2. Had the equipment been provided in time, we could have introduced the new technology. 3. Were I you, I should discuss this problem again. 4. Had I had this information before, I should have acted differently. 5. Were the air composed only of nitrogen, burning would be impossible. 6. Had the students been more careful, they wouldn’t have broken the new apparatus. 7. Had he known the subject better, he wouldn’t have failed in his exam.

 

III. Transform the sentences according to the model.

 

Model: If I had more time, I should read this book.

Had I more time, I should read this book.

 

1. If you had asked him, he would have helped you. 2. If I were you, I should consider this matter again. 3. If it were not so late, we should stay a little longer. 4. If the manager had been at the office yesterday, I should have spoken to him. 5. If you were allowed to visit the laboratory, you would see much interesting. 6. I could have finished my work if it had not been so late. 7. If the engineer had been informed of the results before, he would have allowed you to repeat the test. 8. If we had used new methods, we would have saved a lot of time.

 

IV. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the forms of the verbs in the subordinate clauses.

 

A. 1. It is necessary that she should come in time. 2. It is important that this substance should remain liquid at the lowest temperature. 3. It is required that many new alloys (should) be developed. 4. It is desirable that the engine should combine high efficiency and lightness. 5. It is essential that he (should) inform us about the results of his research.

B. 1. We suggested that his project be discussed in details. 2. The engineer demanded the construction materials (should) be carefully tested. 3. We insist that the results of this research be published. 4. They proposed that his report be illustrated in diagrams. 5. The manager demanded that the engineer accomplish the design by next month.

C. 1. The man spoke as though he were an expert on this subject. 2. You must be careful with this device so that it should operate without failure. 3. The driver examined the car in order that the engine should run properly. 4. You must put down this rule lest you should forget it. 5. This woman behaves as if she were a child.

 

V. Read and translate the following sentences. Mind the different meanings of the word “provide”:

 

provide, v снабжать, обеспечивать; предоставлять, давать
provide for, v предусматривать
provided, cj при условии;
providing, cj в том случае, если

 

1. Provided we use the necessary instruments, the measurement will always be correct. 2. Automation provided the control of whole shops and even factories. 3. Our plant is provided with the best up-to-date machinery. 4. Safety measures must be provided for at every plant. 5. Provided this complex mechanism were applied, the problem under investigation would be solved. 6. We could use that apparatus for various kinds of tests provided it were in our laboratory. 7. Ohm’s law gives the possibility of determining resistance provided the voltage and current are known. 8. The electrical properties of this substance may be changed provided the latter is exposed to light.

 

VI. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood.

 

1. You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much.

2. If you (read) the instructions carefully, you wouldn't have answered the wrong question.

3. I could repair the roof myself if I (have) a long ladder.

4. Unless they turn that radio off, I (go) mad.

5. If you were made redundant, what you (do)?

6. I'll probably get lost unless he (come) with me.

7. You (not have) so many accidents if you drove more slowly.

8. Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road, somebody (fall) into it.

9. You'll get pneumonia if you (not change) your wet clothes.

10. If they (hang) that picture lower, we would be able to see it.

 

VII. Finish the sentences in writing.

 

1. If only........... you wouldn't now be in such a difficult position.

2. If......... tell him I'm out.

3. I can't understand why........... unless he thinks we are Gods.

4. Is there any point in your coming with us if...............?

5. How............, if you didn't know the address?

6. If.............., I shall blame you for it.

7. If you know the answer, why......................?

8. When................ supposing we left immediately?

9. How I wish.......................

10. If you really have been studying English for so long, it's about time you...........................

 

VIII. Transform the sentences using if construction.

 

Model: You didn't tell me we had run out of bread, so I didn't buy any.

If you had told me we had run out of bread I'd have bought some.

1. We got a lift, so we reached the station in time.

2. You washed it in boiling water; that's why it shrank.

3. We missed the train because we were using an out-of-date timetable.

4. They were driving very quickly. That's why the accident was so terrible.

5. It was raining. That's the only reason I didn't take the children to the beach.

6. It rained all the time. Perhaps that's why he didn't enjoy his visit.

7. I didn’t work hard at school, so I didn’t get a good job when I left.

8. They asked him to leave the dining-room because he wasn't wearing a shirt.

9. It took us a long time to find his house because the streets were not clearly marked.

10. We didn't go by air only because we hadn't enough money.

 

IX. Translate into English.

 

1. Если бы вы ложились спать раньше, вы не чувствовали бы себя таким усталым.

2. Если бы я хорошо её знал, я позвонил бы ей домой.

3. Если бы у меня было 50 000 долларов, я смог бы совершить кругосветное путешествие.

4. Если бы Борис лучше знал английский, он смог бы получить хорошую работу.

5. Если бы Борис хорошо знал английский, он получил бы хо­рошую работу.

6. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я стал бы изучать компьютер­ное дело.

7. Если бы Смиты меня пригласили, я пошел бы на вчерашнюю вечеринку.

8. Если бы мне был известен ваш адрес, я бы вам написал.

9. Если бы вчера вечером не шел дождь, мы пошли бы к нашим друзьям.

10. Если бы Джордж пришел вовремя, он смог бы мне помочь.

11. Если бы вы знали, что пойдет дождь, вам следовало бы взять с собой зонтик.

 

X. Fill in the blanks and finish the following sentences.

 

1. Did you go to the company picnic last Saturday? Yes, I did, and it was terrible. I wish I ................There were a lot of things I could have done that day. I wish I .............................. something else.

2. I wish more people from our department ............... at the picnic. I didn't know very many people at all. If I ........................................... more people at the picnic last Saturday I ................................ so lonely and I........................... so out of place.

3. Why weren't the employees from the Greenville office at the picnic? I expected them to come. If they..................... invited to the picnic, it ................................ much livelier.

4. I wish I...................... forget people's names all the times. Can you believe it? At the picnic last Saturday, I couldn't remember Harry's wife's name, and I had met her a dozen times before! I wish I hadn't....................her name. After all, if she................ forgotten my name, I................ liked it.

 

XI. Open the brackets using Conditionals.

 

1. I wish I (can) speak several languages.

2. I wish I (have) a car.

3. She wishes her parents (approve) of her boy friend.

4. I wish I (be) older.

5. I wish you (like) pop music.

 

XII. Finish the sentences.

 

1. Her life might have been saved if.................................

2. The grass would look better if.....................................

3. Unless it is a nice day...............................................

4. He would lend it to you if.......................................

5. If the storm becomes worse....................................

6. If your uncle sees you.............................................

7. If you didn't shake the camera so much, your photographs..........

8. If you don't like the picture...................................................

9. If the fire had been noticed earlier...............................................

10. You would have been angry if...............................................

 

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