Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Text D. SENSATIONAL DISCOVERY RELATING
TO ELECTRONICS AND MEDICINE
Since time immemorial scientists have dreamed about eliminating disease. Medieval alchemists believed that doing so would result in human immortality. But it was only in 1912 that Austrian scientist Nager introduced the term "geriatrics", marking the beginning of the science of aging.
The works of Botkin and Mechnikov confirmed the assumption of ancient physicians. By the middle of the 20th century scientists established that the coordinated work of all internal organs depends on the hypothalamus — a special part of brain. It processes the information, and sends signals to organs. It became known that these driving pulses are of electric nature, and interruptions in this system have catastrophic consequences. Never did medicine have the means to influence this system.
Late in the 1970s Soviet military electronics made fantastic progress. No wonder that it was in this sphere that the discovery at the junction of electronics and medicine was made. Having investigated the characteristics of signals sent from the brain to all the organs of a healthy organism, electronics experts made a tiny microprocessor which can imitate such impulses. Their underlying idea was very simple: if there are some failures in the organism control system, the microprocessor would compensate.
The electronic pill, once it is in the stomach, comes into contact with nerve endings and begins to send pulses through them. These pulses get into the central nervous system and arouse reciprocal reaction. The organism begins to look younger. After 25-30 hours the pill is released naturally. One pill is sufficient for several months.
In 1984 the security bodies stamped the discovery as classified. Hundreds of experiments were staged on dogs, after which each of the inventors swallowed several pills and thoroughly recorded their observations:
"...20-40 minutes after taking the pill a person begins to feel inside his body a self-contained electro-stimulant, and a little later, its movement inside the body... Women who have given birth to a baby, experience a feeling close to pregnancy, some men note the unusual sensations and a certain state of anxiety..."
Then the stimulant was tested by patients, and only after that the official clinical testsof the autonomous electro-stimulant started in the leading clinics of the country, including the Institute of Surgery, headed by Academician Petrovsky (in those years the USSR Minister of Public Health). It is also known that once these pills saved the life of a cosmonaut after a grave operation.
At this stage the story of the electronic pill comes abruptly to an end. It is known that in ten years this pill was used nearly two million times in the former 4th Main Department of the Ministry of Public Health. It was used to cure the patients of special elite clinics. The pill was produced by the military-industrial complex, in extremely limited numbers.
The pill project was almost lost once the Politburo was dissolved and the unknown military plant underwent conversion. But thank God people came forward to save the unique industry. In November 1991 the management of the Public Health Ministry signed the quality certificate of the self-contained electric stimulant. Thereby, a permission was granted for a wide use of such stimulants. The pills were on sale at the chemist's, but even the salesmen could not explain clearly what pains this strange remedy relieves. After that the Soviet Union disintegrated and the economic crisis intensified.
Despite this, scientists go on working on the improvement of the pill. It turned out that if the surface of the capsule is covered with a thin coating of zinc, copper or silver, the atoms of metal will get directly into the blood. This will make it possible to cure with greater success, and in the future to make the pill remote-controlled. Most likely, our children will use such pills for treatment.
Notes on the text:
I. Read the text ‘Sensational Discovery Relating to Electronics and Medicine’. Answer the questions that follow.
1. What have scientists dreamed about since time immemorial?
2. What does the coordinated work of all internal organs depend on?
3. How does hypothalmus work?
4. What discovery did Soviet scientists make in 1970s?
5. How does the electronic pill work?
6. How was the electronic pill tested?
7. Did the experiments prove the assumption of scientists?
8. Is electro-stimulant introduced into pharmaceutical production?
9. Do the scientists work on the improvement of the pill? And what do they plan to do?
II. Make up a brief plan how electronic pill was invented and introduced into practice.
III. Make up the summary of the text. The following phrases will help you:
It is described in short…
It is shown that…
It is dealt with…
Data are given about…
Attempts are made to analyze (to formulate)…
… is (are) given…
… is provided for…
… is designed for…
… is examined…
… is investigated…
… is analyzed…
… is formulated…
The need is stressed…
Attention is drawn to…
Conclusions are drawn…
I. Read the dialogue in pairs.
A VISIT TO A DIETITIAN
Dr. Jones: Good morning, Mrs. Fat. Sit down, please.
Mrs. Fat: Good morning, Dr. Jones. Do you mind if I sit on the sofa?
Dr. Jones: No, not at all. You can take any seat you like. So you would like to lose weight, wouldn’t you?
Mrs. Fat: Exactly. I’ve been overweight all my life and now I think it’s time I started dieting.
Dr. Jones: Oh, yes. I see. You know… before I can recommend you a particular diet I must learn all about your eating habits. How many meals a day do you normally have?
Mrs. Fat: I usually have only three meals a day. I mean breakfast, lunch and dinner, but unfortunately I very often eat between meals.
Dr. Jones: What do you have for breakfast?
Mrs. Fat: A traditional English breakfast. I have a glass of orange juice, a bowl of cereal and bacon and eggs. And then I drink tea.
Dr. Jones: Do you like milk in your tea?
Mrs. Fat: Well, that depends. On some days I just have a couple of sandwiches for lunch, but sometimes I also have a bowl of soup and cakes or pies to follow.
Dr. Jones: What do you have for dinner and when do you have it?
Mrs. Fat: I normally have dinner at 8 p.m. I know it’s a bit too late, it just happens so. What do I have? You know, I like to have a very substantial dinner – a starter, like a salad or assorted meat, followed by a main course such as beefsteak or fish and chips and then dessert and tea or coffee.
Dr. Jones: What do you have for dessert as a rule?
Mrs. Fat: Ice-cream or cakes, or both.
Dr. Jones: And what do you eat between meals?
Mrs. Fat: Peanuts, chocolate, popcorn, crisps and stuff. Sometimes I just like to nibble candies.
Dr. Jones: In fact, many people do the same and yet they have no problem with excess weight. Let me see… Do you fry one or two eggs with your bacon in the morning?
Mrs. Fat: I actually take eight eggs, but I share my breakfast with my toy-poodle dog.
Dr. Jones: I see. Here is my prescription: Don’t change your diet. Change your dog. Replace it with Labrador. Or keep both dogs and share all your meals with them. And here is the telephone number of a vet, who is a very good dog dietitian, just in case your dogs might need a correction of their diet.
II. Answer the questions on the dialogue:
1. Why did Mrs. Fat come to the doctor?
2. What are Mrs. Fat’s eating habits?
3. What does she have for breakfast?
4. What does Mrs. Fat have for lunch?
5. What does she have for dinner?
6. What does she eat between meals?
7. Who does she have her breakfast with?
8. What were the doctor’s recommendations?
III. Make up a similar dialogue and stage it with your fellow students.
I. Read the text 'London’. Answer the questions after it.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.
London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world.
Traditionally it is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it is a museum.
Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London.
Westminster Abbey has more historic associations than any other building in Britain. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned here. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling, etc.
Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as "Big Ben".
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square.
On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum — the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is famous for its library.
The East End is the poorest district of London. There are a lot of factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow, the buildings are unimpressive. The East End is densely populated by working class families.
1. Is London the largest city in the world?
2. What’s the population of London?
3. Traditionally London is divided into several parts. Can you name them?
4. What do you know about the City?
5. Who was St Paul’s Cathedral built by?
6. Who founded the Tower of London? When was it rebuilt?
7. What is the historic, the governmental part of London?
8. What building has more historic associations than any other building in London?
9. What is Big Ben?
10. Can you describe Trafalgar Square?
11. Where do the working people of London live?
12. What are the most famous London museums and art galleries?
II. Match the two halves
III. Decide if the following is true (T) or false (F). Correct the false statements.
1. The Tower of London is the place where nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned.
2. Westminster is the financial and business centre of London.
3. St. Paul’s Cathedral is situated in the West End.
4. The Tower of London was founded by William the Conqueror.
5. Westminster Palace is the seat of the British Parliament.
6. The National Gallery is the biggest museum of London and contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures and is famous for its library.
7. A lot of factories, workshops and docks are situated in the East End.
8. The big hour bell of the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is known as “Big Ben”.
9. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of the City.
10. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City, the Tower of London is among them.
IV. Name the main sights of London and say what you know about them.
V. Read the text ‘The Capital of Great Britain’. The vocabulary will help you understand the text.
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