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THE CAPITAL OF GREAT BRITAIN

 

London, the capital of Great Britain, is a big city. It covers more than 600 square miles and consists of 33 separate boroughs, including the City, the West End, the East End and houses of 7 million people.

They say, big cities are not always different. Modern buildings, modern shops and stores, hotels and cinemas look alike in today’s cities. But some things you can only see in London. What are they?

In London you find Beefeaters and Pearly Kings and Queens. You find Covent Garden and Madam Tussaud’s.

Britain has more living symbols of its past than many other countries, and its capital boasts many ancient buildings like the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, or St. Paul's Cathedral.

London is a royal city. The British king or queen has a palace there –Buckingham Palace. Queen Elizabeth lives there now. Tourists can see the everyday ceremony called ‘the Changing of the Guard’. Every day a new guard of thirty guardsmen marches to the palace and takes the place of the “old guard”.

The Tower of London, built in 1078 by William the Conqueror to protect the city, is an interesting place with its Beefeaters and the Crown Jewels.

The Imperial State Crown is one of the Crown Jewels in the Jewel House in the Tower of London. It has 3000 stones in it: diamonds, red rubies, blue sapphires, and beautiful pearls. The queen wears it on state occasions. Then it goes back to the Tower. The Beefeaters guard the Tower and the Crown Jewels, and they help visitors.

Every year there are historical ceremonies, for example, the State open­ing of Parliament, when the Queen reads a speech from the throne in the House of Lords, or the Lord Mayor’s Show, in which the newly elected Lord Mayor travels in a golden coach along the streets.

London is a city, but to Londoners ‘the City’ is a place in London. The banks and big companies have their head offices there. City offices are in tall modern buildings, or in old buildings in narrow streets. The office people do not live in the City, they come to the City every day, from Mon­day to Friday.

Five important streets meet at Piccadilly Circus in London's 'West End'. The cars, the tourist coaches, the red London buses, and the taxis go round a statue there. It is not a statue of a famous man or woman. People don't re­member the statue's real name. They say: ‘It’s Eros, the Greek god of love.’

Piccadilly Circus is a very busy place. It is busy day and night. People come here to the shops in the day time, and at night they come for a night out. They can eat in one of the restaurants in the West End near Piccadilly Circus. They can get food from twenty different countries in West End res­taurants.

Londoners, and visitors, can go to a theatre in the West End, or to a con­cert, to an opera or a ballet. And there are fifty cinemas near Piccadilly Cir­cus. West End hosts museums and galleries, among them are the Tate Gal­lery, the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery and the British Mu­seum.

The ‘East End’ is the area of London where people from abroad have come to find work. It is especially famous as the centre of the clothing in­dustry in London and as a market place. Every Sunday morning it becomes one of the sights of London.

London is packed with interest and it's all in colour. So whether you're new to the city, or you've visited it before there will be something exciting in London.

 

=====================VOCABULARY====================

 

cover, v занимать территорию
separate borough отдельный пригород
Beefeaters “мясоеды” (прозвище дворцовой стражи или стражников лондонского Тауэра)
Pearly King (Pearly Queen) “перламутровый король” (перламутровая королева) (победители проводимого в лондонском Ист-Энде конкурса традиционной одежды уличного торговца/торговки)
look alike, v быть похожими
boast, v гордиться
royal city королевский город
guard, n стража
march, v маршировать
protect, v защищать
diamonds, n бриллианты
red rubies, n рубины
sapphires, n сапфиры
pearls, n жемчуг
state occasion государственная церемония
newly elected вновь избранный
golden coach золоченая карета
tourist coach туристический автобус
statue, n статуя
clothing industry производство одежды

 

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. How large is London?

2. What things can you see only in London?

3. Can you name any ancient buildings situated in London?

4. What ceremony can tourists see at the Buckingham Palace?

5. Where is the Imperial State Crown?

6. What is Piccadilly Circus?

7. How can a tourist spend his time in the West End?

8. What would you like to see in London?

 

VII. Find in the text the equivalents for the following words and phrases:

1) отдельные пригороды;

2) похожи;

3) живые символы;

4) гордиться;

5) церемония, называемая «смена караула»;

6) гвардейцы;

7) бифитеры, «мясоеды»;

8) королевские регалии (короны, скипетры и другие драгоценности; используются монархом на официальных церемониях; хранятся в Лондонском Тауэре);

9) Имперская церемониальная корона;

10) официальное открытие сессии парламента;

11) парад лорд-мэра;

12) служащие;

13) греческий бог любви;

14) днем;

15) район Лондона;

16) рынок (рыночная площадь);

17) достопримечательность;

18) что-то увлекательное.

 

VIII. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. В Британии гораздо больше символов прошлого, чем во многих других странах.

2. Лондон – величественный город. У короля и королевы здесь есть свой дворец, Букингемский.

3. Каждый день гвардия (стража) из тридцати гвардейцев марширует вдоль дворца, производя смену караула.

4. В Тауэре Лондона хранится королевская корона. В ней 3000 камней: бриллианты, рубины, сапфиры и красивый жемчуг. Королева надевает ее во время торжественных государственных церемоний.

5. Пикадилли – оживленное место в Лондоне. Днем народ приходит сюда за покупками, а вечером – это место отдыха.

6. Восточный район Лондона – это место, куда стекаются люди со всего мира в поисках работы.

7. В Лондоне очень много интересного, и он очень разнообразен. Так что неважно, приехали ли вы сюда впервые или уже бывали здесь прежде, вам все равно будет что посмотреть в этом городе.

 

IX. Act as a guide. Make up a plan of your tour around London. Invite your friends to follow you. The map of London will help you.


X. Read the text ‘The Tower of London’. Find the answers to the following questions:

 

1. What was the Tower of London in ancient times?

2. What was kept there?

3. What is the Tower of London today?

4. Why are the ravens cared so carefully in the Tower?

5. What tradition has been kept since reign of Henry VIII?

 

THE TOWER OF LONDON

The Tower of London was begun by William the Conqueror as a fortress and palace. Later kings made it larger and stronger and kept soldiers, armour, weapons, treasure, and sometimes important prisoners there. For five hundred years coins of realm were minted at the Tower and official docu­ments were stored in some of the castle buildings. There was even a zoo there which began as the king’s private collection of animals.

Nowadays it is busy with thousands of visitors. In fact the Tower today is like a traditional English village. The ravens are certainly among the most important residents in the Tower, for – so the story goes – if they ever leave, the Tower will fall and England with it. These days there are usually about six ravens hopping and pecking around the Tower lawns in the daytime. One of the Yeoman Warders cares for them. He feeds them on raw meat, biscuits soaked in blood, rabbits’ heads, fruit and eggs. He takes them back into their cage every night, and from time to time clips their wings - just to make sure that they never do leave.

The Yeoman Warders have guarded the Tower since reign of Henry VIII. Every day at the Tower ends with the Ceremony of the Keys. The soldiers of the Tower Guard escort the Chief Yeoman Warder as he locks the outer gates. When this is done the guard salute “the Queen's keys” and the Chief Warder calls out “God preserves Queen Elizabeth”. Then he takes the keys to the Governor in Queen’s House. The Tower of London is safe and secure for the night. It is a very old ceremony – 700 years old.

 


=====================VOCABULARY====================

 

fortress, n крепость
armour, n доспехи
weapons, n оружие
treasure, n богатство
prisoner, n заключенный
coins of realm государственные монеты
mint, v чеканить
store, v хранить
raven, n ворон
resident, n житель
peck, v клевать
a biscuit soaked in blood печенье, смоченное в крови
clip, v подрезать
reign, n правление
escort, v сопровождать
salute, v отдавать честь

 

XI. Fill in prepositions or adverbs.

1. The Tower of London was begun … William the Conqueror as a fortress and palace.

2. … five hundred years coins … realm were minted .. the Tower and official documents were stored … some … the castle buildings.

3. … it is busy … thousands … visitors.

4. The ravens are certainly … the most important residents … the Tower.

5. These days there are usually about six ravens hopping and pecking … the Tower lawns … the daytime.

6. He feeds them … raw meat.

7. He takes them … into their cage.

8. The Tower … London is safe and secure … the night.

9. Every day … the Tower ends … the Ceremony … the Keys.

 

XII. Translate the following into English:

1. Тауэр был задуман Вильгельмом Завоевателем как крепость и дворец.

2. В Тауэре отливались государственные монеты, хранились доспехи и оружие. Иногда важные преступники содержались здесь под стражей.

3. Сегодня здесь много туристов. В действительности сегодняшний Тауэр выглядит скорее как традиционная английская деревня.

4. Наиболее важными обитателями Тауэра сегодня являются вороны. Предание гласит, что, если вороны покинут Тауэр, он падет, и вместе с ним падет Англия.

5. Один из Йеменских стражников заботится о воронах. Он кормит их сырым мясом, печеньем, смоченным в крови, фруктами и яйцами. На ночь он помещает их в клетки и время от времени подрезает им крылья, чтобы те не улетели.

6. Со времени правления Генриха VIII Тауэр охраняется Йеменскими стражниками.

 

XIII. Read the text ‘St. Paul’s Cathedral’. Answer the questions that follow.

St. Paul's Cathedral is the work of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren. It is said to be one of the finest pieces of architecture in Europe. Work on Wren's masterpiece began in 1675 after the Norman church, old St. Paul’s was destroyed in the Great Fire in 1666. The building of St. Paul’s Cathedral went on for 35 years, and Wren was an old man before it was finished. From far away you can see the huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top. The interior of the Cathedral is very beautiful. It is full of monuments. The most important, perhaps, is the one dedi­cated to the Duke of Wellington. After looking around you can climb 263 steps to the Whispering Gallery, which runs round the dome. It is called so, because if someone whispers close to the wall on one side, a person with his ear close to the wall on the other side can hear what is said. But if you want to reach the foot of the ball, you have to climb 637 steps.

As for Christopher Wren, who is now known as “the ar­chitect of London”, he found his fame only after his death. He was buried in the Cathedral. Buried here are Nelson, Wellington, and Sir Joshua Reynolds.

 

Questions to be answered:

1. What is the name of the architect who built St. Paul’s Cathedral?

2. How long did the building of the Cathedral go on?

3. What is the most important monument in the Cathedral?

4. What is the name of the famous Gallery in the Cathedral and why is it called so?

5. Who is buried in the Cathedral?

 

XIV. Say in English. Consult the text ‘St. Paul’s Cathedral’ if necessary:

1) известный архитектор;

2) самое прекрасное произведение архитектуры;

3) шедевр;

4) старая церковь была разрушена;

5) великий Лондонский пожар;

6) строительство продолжалось 35 лет;

7) огромный купол;

8) золоченый шар;

9) подняться по ступеням;

10) располагаться вокруг купола;

11) посвященный кому-л.;

12) шептать;

13) «галерея шепота»;

14) быть похороненным.

 

XV. Speak about St. Paul’s Cathedral. Use the key-words above.

XVI. Learn the following words and expressions. Make sure you can translate them both from English into Russian and vice versa:

 

comparatively recent times относительно недавние времена
principal, a главный
private apartments частные апартаменты
a state room парадный зал
a staff room служебная комната
an office, n кабинет
entertain, v развлекать
a fully occupied полностью занятый
particular fascination особое очарование (прелесть)
weekly audience еженедельная аудиенция
a foreign ambassador иностранный посол
a high commissioner высокопоставленный уполномоченный
a bishop, n епископ
a senior officer главнокомандующий, ответственное лицо
armed services вооруженные силы
civil service государственная служба
a highlight самое важное

 

XVII. Read the text ‘Buckingham Palace’. Find the answers to the questions below:

1. What is Buckingham Palace today?

2. How long has it served that function?

3. Where are the private apartments of the royal family?

4. How many people work there?

5. What visitors are received there by the Queen?

6. What is the highlight of royal entertaining?

BUCKINGHAM PALACE

 

BUCKINGHAM PALACE, which is today the official residence of the British Monarchy, has served that function only since comparatively recent times. In the Middle Ages the principal London residence of the kings was the Palace of Westminster, now rebuilt as the Houses of Parliament.

Today, the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh live in the private apart­ments on the north side of the palace. In all, Buckingham Palace has 19 state rooms, 52 royal and guest bedrooms, 182 staff rooms, 92 offices and 78 bathrooms. Some 450 people work in the palace and 40,000 people are en­tertained there every year. Unlike many other historical monuments, Buck­ingham Palace remains a fully occupied, working royal palace and it gives it a particular fascination. The Queen, as head of state, receives there a large number of formal and informal visitors, including the Prime Minister at weekly audiences, foreign and British ambassadors and high commission­ers, bishops, and senior officers of the armed services and the civil service.

The highlight of royal entertaining, however, is the state banquet, usually for about 170 guests, given by the Queen on the first evening of a state visit of a foreign head of state to the United Kingdom.

 

XVIII. Translate the following into English:

 

1. Букингемский дворец сегодня – это официальная резиденция Британской монархии.

2. В средние века главной резиденцией королей был Вестминстерский дворец, перестроенный ныне в здание парламента.

3. Частные апартаменты королевы и герцога Эдинбургского в настоящее время находятся в северном крыле дворца.

4. В отличие от многих других исторических памятников, Букингемский дворец задействован целиком и находится полностью в рабочем состоянии. Это придает ему особенное обаяние.

5. Королева как глава государства принимает здесь огромное количество официальных и неофициальных гостей, включая Премьер-министра, британских и зарубежных послов.

6. Здесь королева дает банкеты в честь приезда в Великобританию глав зарубежных государств.

 

DIALOGUES

 

I. Read the dialogues in pairs.

 

I

A. What’s Whitehall? Is it a building?

B. A building? But it isn’t. It’s a street.

A. Oh, really? What is it famous for?

B. It’s the street where all the government offices are.

A. By the way, what’s the beautiful building over there?

B. It’s the Houses of Parliament.

A. The houses? But there’s only one house there!

B. Quite right. But it’s the Houses because the British Parliament has two chambers – the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

 

II

A. Which are the most famous picture galleries in London?

B. Well, the National Gallery, to begin with; then comes the National Portrait Gallery, then the Tate Gallery.

A. Yes, but what about the British Museum? I’ve heard a lot of it.

B. Oh surely, you ought to go there, but the British Museum is not a museum of Fine Arts. In the first place it’s a museum of history, archaeology and ethnography. It’s also one of the largest libraries in the world.

 

III

A. Why, it’s No10 Downing Street!

B. Exactly so. Here the Prime Minister of Britain lives.

A. And where is the residence of the Queen?

B. The London residence of the British Kings and Queens is Buckingham Palace. The Royal Standard flying over Buckingham Palace is the sign that the Queen is in residence.

 

IV

A. What’s “Trooping the Colour”? * I often heard of it but I never know what it means.

B. Every year the ceremony of Trooping the Colour is carried out in celebration of the Queen’s birthday. It is performed by troops of Household Brigade in full dress uniform. This event is perhaps the finest spectacle in London.

A. When and where is it held?

B. It’s held near St. James’ Park in June.

* Trooping the colour – вынос знамени, торжественный развод караулов с выносом знамени

II. Memorize the dialogues and reproduce them.

 

III. Make up your own dialogues on the situations that follow.

 

1. Imagine that you’ve just come home from London. Your relatives want to know all about the capital of the United Kingdom. Give detailed answers to their questions.

2. One of you is a guide. The others are tourists. Ask your guide about London.

 

JUST FOR FUN

I. Read the jokes and retell them to your friends.

 

* * *

“I am sorry about the way the pie tastes, darling. It must be something I left out.”

“Nothing you left out could make it taste like that. It must be something you put in.”

* * *

“Only cheese for lunch?”

“Yes, the cutlets caught fire and it spread to the apple tart so I had to take soup to put it out.”

 

* * *

“What do you give your husband, when the dinner doesn’t suit him?”

“His coat and hat.”

 

* * *

Wife: “Have a look at the cake I decorated for my birthday party. Don’t you think my sense of design is wonderful?”

Husband (counting the candles): “Yes, but your arithmetic is terrible.”

 

* * *

Husband (angrily): “What? No supper ready? This is the limit. I’m going to a restaurant.”

Wife: “Wait just five minutes.”

Husband: “Will it be ready then?”

Wife: “No, but then I’ll go with you.”

 

* * *

Young husband: “This meat is not cooked, not in the pie.”

Young wife: “I did it like the cook-book said but as the recipe was for four people and we are two, I took half of everything and cooked it for half the time it said.”

 

II. Read the proverbs and sayings that follow. Use some of them in a dialogue or a situation of your own.

Proverbs and Sayings

 

1. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Яблоко в день - и никакой врач не нужен.

2. A hungry belly has no ears. Голодное брюхо к ученью глухо.

3. I am as hungry as a hunter. Я голоден как волк.

4. Hunger is the best sauce. Голод – лучшая приправа.

5. Tastes differ. О вкусах не спорят.

6. Don’t live to eat, but eat to live. Не жить, чтобы есть, а есть, чтобы жить.

7. Appetite comes with eating. Аппетит приходит во время еды.

8. Eat at pleasure, drink with measure. Ешь вволю, (а) пей в меру.

9. Hunger breaks stone walls. Голод ломает и каменные стены; нужда всему научит.

10. One man’s meat is another man’s poison. Что для одного еда, то для другого яд.

11. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. Чтобы узнать, каков пудинг, надо его отведать (все проверяется практикой).

12. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Слишком много поваров портят бульон (У семи нянек дитя без глазу).

13. Who has never tasted bitter, knows not what is sweet. Кто никогда не пробовал горького, не знает, что такое сладкое.

14. You can’t eat your cake and have it too. Нельзя съесть свой пирог и в то же время сохранить его (нельзя делать взаимно исключающие вещи).

 

III. Learn the following idiomatic expressions. Use them in a natural context.

 

1. after meat mustard – после ужина горчица, слишком поздно

2. apple of discord – яблоко раздора

3. the apple of one’s eye – зеница ока

4. be meat and drink to smb. – доставлять огромное удовольствие кому-либо; необходимо как воздух

5. bite off more than one can chew – откусить больше, чем можешь проглотить; взяться за непосильное дело; переоценить свои силы

6. bread and butter (daily bread) – средства к существованию, хлеб насущный

7. dog’s breakfast – беспорядок, неразбериха

8. (as) easy as pie (a piece of cake) – легче легкого, пустяковое дело, сущие пустяки, пара пустяков, проще простого

9. eat like a bird – клевать как птичка, мало есть

10. eat like a horse/wolf – отличаться завидным, отменным аппетитом; есть много и с жадностью

11. the food of the gods – пища богов, нектар

12. that’s another cup of tea – это совсем другое дело

 


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