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ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY IN USE



PART I

ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY IN USE

THE ENGLISH VERB

THE PRESENT SIMPLE (INDEFINITE) AND THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) TENSE-FORMS

A. The Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense

FORMATION

Table /

 

 

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1 you work go I you do not

work go

do I you

work? go?

he she it works goes he she it does not does he she it
we you they work we you they do not do we you they

Contractions:

don't = do not doesn't = does not

* The rules of the verb tenses formation and usage in 1 1-1.7. refer to the Active Voice.

As is seen from the table above the Present Simple (In­definite) in affirmative sentences coincides in form with the Infinitive without the particle to except the 3rd person singular when the ending s (-es) is added to the verb.

I work - he works; you play - she plays;

we finish - it finishes; I cry - she cries The ending -s/-es has three variants of pronunciation: [s],

[z], [iz]. (See the table below).

Table 2

[s] Iz] [iz]
after voiceless after voiced consonants after  
consonants and vowels  
puts reads changes
writes buys dresses
sits gives marches

In interrogative and negative sentences the Present Simple tense takes the auxiliary do or does (for the 3rd person singular) with the exception of the verb to be which does not need an auxiliary.

When does he usually do his homework?

What do you do for a living?

I don't feel like going out tonight.

Why are you so angry with him?

He is not in. He is out.

USAGE

The Present Simple (Indefinite) tense denotes:

1. Habitual facts or repeated actions, which are normally indicated by adverbials of frequency such as often, always, usually, seldom, rarely, sometimes, never, generally, as a rule, every day (month), every other day (week, month, etc.,), once a week, etc.

He often works till midnight.

My brother plays tennis every other day.

Are you never late for classes?

Do you generally speak English in class?

2. Universal truths (laws of nature) and permanent cha­racteristics, situations or states.

The sun sets in the west. She teaches English at school. Do you like rainy weather? His parents live in London.

3. Present actions and states, going on at the moment of speech with the so-called stative* verbs which include

a) verbs of sense perception: see, hear, notice, taste, smell, etc.

It smells like a hospital in here.

The meat tastes spicy.

I don't see anyone in the room. Where are they all?

b) verbs of mental activity: understand, think, believe, remember, know, forget, mean, suppose, recognize, etc.

Do you recognize me? What does he mean?

Who do you think will win the game? Do you know what he is speaking about?

c) verbs of feeling and emotions: like, dislike, hate, love, wish, want, prefer, care, etc.

I prefer dogs to cats.

Which of these dresses do you like best?

About the possibility of using the Present Continuous with some of the stative verbs see Part B of this Unit.

Do you want anything to drink? - I want a glass

of juice, please.

Jill really hates house work.

d) verbs of possession: have, belong, own, possess, etc. Who does this car belong to? They have a big new house.

4. Future actions

a) in subordinate clauses of time and condition after the conjunctions when, after, before, as soon as, until, if, in case, etc.

When the water boils I'll turn off the gas. I'll join you as soon as I get a note from you. You won't get slim if you eat too many sweets. I'll tell you a secret if you promise to keep it. b) for scheduled facts and events such as flights, train arrivals, departures, itineraries which are worked out officially and are certain to take place.

The flight leaves at 2 p.m. (according to the time­table)

You arrive at Basel at 6.30 a.m. local time, (accor­ding to the itinerary)

B. The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense

FORMATION

The Present Continuous tense is formed with the help of the auxiliary be in the appropriate form and the Present Par­ticiple of the main verb.

Table 3

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am

 

 

 

 

 

working

 

 

 

 

I am not

 

 

 

 

working

 

 

 

 

am I

 

 

 

 

working?

 

 

 

 

YOU are you are not  are you
he she it   is   he she it   is not     is   he she it
we you they   are   we you they   are not     are   we you they

Contractions:

'm = am 're = are

's = is

aren't = are not isn't = is not

When -ing is added to a verb there may be some changes in spelling:

a) final e is omitted: have - having; make - making;

b) ie is replaced by y: lie - lying; die - dying;

c) the consonant following a short vowel is doubled: put -putting; get - getting.

USAGE

The Present Continuous tense denotes:

1. An action happening now. This may mean 'at the actual

moment of speaking' or over a period of time including

the moment of speaking.

We are packing the things now and the kids are

playing in their room.

Peter is still sleeping. Don't wake him up.

It's raining all day.

It may also have a broader sense and mean 'about the moment of speaking'.

He is studying at Oxford. (Although he may be on vacation at the moment of speaking.) He's teaching French and learning Greek. (He may not be doing either at the moment of speaking.) The purpose of using the Present Continuous tense for actions which do not coincide with the moment of speech is to show that they have a limited duration. In other words, they are temporary, not permanent actions. As is seen from the examples above the Present moment (both in the narrower and broader senses) is indicated by time adverbials such as at the moment, now, at present, just now, right now, etc. When the duration over a period of time is meant, adverbials like all the morning, all day, the whole night, still, etc are used.

2. Pre-arranged future actions, i.e. actions that have been planned or intended by the speaker*.

My father is leaving for Rome tonight. We are having a party on Saturday. Nick is running a marathon next week.

3. Actions of unusual frequency with adverbials of per­manence and repetition such as always, constantly, etc. In these cases the Present Continuous gives an utterance an emotional colouring, mainly of a negative kind: irri­tation, annoyance, reproach, etc.

You are always finding fault with me. Why are you complaining all the time?

* Compare with the Present Simple for future actions which is used in formal situations, when the action does not convey the spea­ker's plan.

Notice the difference in meaning:

She always worries about her children. (Present Simple with 'always' is used to denote a regular habitual action.)

She is always worrying about trifles. (Present Continuous with 'always' is used to express the speaker's irritation about smb's habit which he/she considers negative.)

Note that some of the stative verbs can be used in the Present Continuous form when the verb expresses an activity (an event), not a state.

State Activity
The soup smells delicious. She is smelling the rose.
What do you think of the project? What are you thinking about?
Kate looks wonderful today. They are looking at the blackboard.

PRACTICE

USAGE

FORMATION

The Past Continuous tense is formed with the help of the auxiliary was/were and the Present Participle of the main

verb.

Table 5

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I was

 

 

 

working

 

 

 

 

I was not

 

 

 

working

 

 

 

 

was I

 

 

 

working?

 

 



 

 

you were you were not were you
he she it   was   he she it   was not     was  

he

she

it

we

you

they

we you they   were   we you they   were not     were  

Contractions:

wasn't = was not weren't = were not

USAGE

The Past Continuous (Progressive) tense denotes:

1. An action in progress at a definite moment* or at a definite period of time in the past indicated normally by adverbial modifiers such as at 5 p.m., at that time yesterday, from 2 to 3, between three and four, all the morning, the whole day, etc.

At one o'clock she was having lunch.

What were you doing yesterday at seven p.m.?

It was raining the whole morning.

The moment in the past can also be expressed by the context or by an adverbial clause of time.

I looked out of the window. The sun was shining

and the birds were singing.

When I came in he was lying in bed.

Obviously, the action of the subordinate clause of time in such cases is simultaneous with that of the principal clause. However, the two actions are not always identical in cha­racter. One can be an action in progress (i.e. a long action) while the other may be an event (i.e. a short action) which 'interrupts' the activity going on at the given past moment.

We were going down in the lift when it suddenly stopped.

* Similar to the meaning of 'now' in the Present Continuous tense, the definite moment in the past may actually mean both at and around a particular moment in the past. The meaning of the Past Continuous in the latter case is that of a temporary past activity contrasted to a permanent past activity expressed by the Past Simple Tense.

// happened while I was living in Bristol. They lived in London all their life.

There can be situations with two parallel past actions in progress, which are both expressed by the Past Continuous or by the Past Simple tenses, or there may be a combination of the Past Continuous and the Past Simple. The two simulta­neous actions in progress are normally linked by 'while'.

Jane was cooking while I was laying the table. While we were packing (packed) the suitcases, Bill was talking (talked) to the travel agent.

Note that when the two actions are not simultaneous, i.e.

when one action happened after the other, the Past Simple

is used for both the verbs.

When Brenda arrived I was telephoning Jim. (She arrived during my telephone call.) Wlien Brenda arrived I telephoned Jim. (I telepho­ned after her arrival.)

2. A past action of unusual frequency to convey a feeling of annoyance or irritation with adverbials of frequency like always, constantly (compare with a similar use of the Present Continuous).

When he studied at school he was always making trouble.

3. Present time actions in progress in reported speech after the reporting verbs like say, tell, ask, wonder, etc in the Past Simple (according to the rules of Sequence of Tenses).

Direct Speech Indirect (Reported ) Speech
1. Jim asked: «Is it freezing hard?» 2. Mike asked: «What are you cooking for dinner, mum?» 1 . Jim wondered if it was freezing hard. 2. Mike asked his mum what she was cooking for dinner.

PRACTICE

Choose the suitable adverb.

1. Everyone was talking but stopped (then/the moment) Mr Smith entered the room.

2. I lived in Glasgow (until/by the time) I was fourteen.

3. (While/Once) I was chewing a piece of meat, my tooth fell out.

4. James always let me know (at the time/whenever) he was going to be late.

5. Now, Mr Star, what were you doing (between/by) ten and ten thirty last night?

6. It wasn't (until/up to) last year that they could afford to buy a car.

7. I was sitting at my report (by 5p.m./at 5p.m.).

8. (When/While) I got to the cinema Jack was waiting for me.

9. He was drinking quite a lot (these days/those days). 10. (When/During) I was shopping I met Max, my sister's

boy-friend.

FORMATION

The Present Perfect tense is formed with the help of the auxiliary have/has and the Past Participle of the main verb.

Table 6

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I you have  

 

 

worked

 

 

come

 

 

1 you have not  

 

 

worked

 

 

come

 

 

have   I you

 

 

worked ?

 

 

come?

 

 

he she it   has   he she it   has not     has   he she it
we you they   have   we you they   have not     have   we you they

Contractions:

've = have

's = has

haven't = have not hasn't = has not

USAGE

PRACTICE

FORMATION

The Present Perfect Continuous tense is formed with the help of the auxiliary have/has been and the Present Participle of the main verb.

Table 7

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I you have

 

 

been working

 

I you have not

 

 

been working

 

have I you

 

been working?

 

he she it has he she it has not has he she it
we you they have we you they have not have we you they

USAGE

The Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) tense is used to denote a) an action which started in the past and has been in progress up to the present and including the present or b) a past action of certain duration completed by the present moment and having visible results or effects in the present.

Depending on whether the activity a) is still continuing at the moment of speech or b) has been completed by this time

the inclusive and exclusive meanings of the given tense-form are distinguished.

He's been repairing his car for an hour already. (he is still doing it)

It has been raining since morning, (and it is still raining now)

Your jacket is torn again! You ve been fighting. (but not fighting at the moment of speech)

To denote the period of time or the starting point of the action adverbials with 'for'and 'since'are normally used with these tense-forms.

The Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) tense is similar ю the Present Perfect Simple in showing connection between the past and present. But the Present Perfect Continuous tense is used for more temporary actions and situations and emphasizes the duration of the activity. The Present Perfect Simple is used for more permanent situations and expresses an idea of the completion of an action emphasizing the result of the action for the present.

His parents have lived in London all their lives. I've been living in Sally's flat for the last month.

Note the difference between the Present Perfect Continuous and the Present Perfect tenses from the point of view of Russian-English and English-Russian translation.

1. - You look hot. - I've been running all the way . Я бежала всю дорогу ... . He's run all the distance to the finish fairly well. Он пробежал всю дистанцию...
2. I've been learning irre­gular verbs all afternoon. Я учил ... I've learnt irregular verbs (= I know them). Я выучил ...
3. Sorry about the mess -I've been painting the house. Я крашу дом... 3. I've painted two rooms since lunchtime. Я покрасил ...

PRACTICE

1. Choose the appropriate tense-form.

1. A. - What have you done/have you been doing with my knife? Where is it?

B. - I've put it back in your drawer.

A. - (taking it out) What have you done/have you been doing with it? The blade's all twisted! Have you been using/have you used it to open tins?

2. A. - Do you see those people on that little sandy island? They have been waving/have waved their handker­chiefs for the last half-hour. I wonder why.

B. - They need help. The tide is coming in and very soon that island will be under water. Have you sat/have you been sitting calmly without doing anything to help them?

A. - I have never been/have never been being here before I haven't been hearing/haven't heard about the tides

here. What's up? What are you looking for/have you been looking for? Have you lost/have you been losing

something?

3. A. - Are you still painting/have you been still painting your country house?

B. - Yes. I'm painting/I've been painting it for several days already. I think it'll look beautiful when it's finished.

A. The Past Perfect Tense

FORMATION

The Past Perfect Tense is formed with the auxiliary had and the Past Participle of the main verb.

Table 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I YOU  

worked broken

I you  

worked broken

  I you

worked? broken?

he she it had he she it had not had he she it
we you they   we you they     we you they

Contractions

'd = had; hadn't = had not

USAGE

The Past Perfect tense denotes a past event (action or state) that happened before another past event. In other words, the Past Perfect Tense is used to denote an action in the distant past which is contrasted to another action which is less far away in the past. This priority of one past action can be indicated by an adverbial phrase with the preposition 'by' or by a clause with the conjunctions before, no sooner ... than, hardly ... when, scarcely ... when. It may also become clear from the logical relations between the clauses or sen­tences in a context.

The letter had arrived by the end of the week.

By March the snow hadn’t melted yet.

Had they left before the trouble started?

They hadn't yet started eating by the time I arrived at the party.

Hardly had we put up a tent when it started to rain.

(or We had hardly put up a tent when it started to rain.)

No sooner had he arrived than he was told to start back again.

I could see from his face that he had received bad news.

I hadn't eaten all day so I was very hungry when I got home.

I couldn't get into the car. The boys had hidden the car keys.

Note that when there is a simple succession of past actions (without their being contrasted in time) the Past Simple tense is used for each event.

I got to the stadium at 7.15 and the game started at 7.30.

She thanked him for his hospitality. They shook hands and he wished her a pleasant journey.

The Past Perfect Tense is commonly used in Reported (Indirect) Speech after the reporting verbs such as say, tell, ask, explain, wonder, etc. in the Past Simple.

She wondered who had left the door open. She said she had bought a lovely pair of shoes.

When Direct Speech is transformed into Reported Speech the adverbials of 'absolute past' are replaced by 'relative' indications of time: 'yesterday' is replaced by 'the day before', or 'the previous day', 'ago' by 'before', 'last night' by 'the previous night'.

I asked if the Browns had left the day before. We knew David had left school two years before.

Notice that the Past Perfect in Reported Speech is the result of changing two tense-forms in Direct Speech: the Past Simple and the Present Perfect.

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
1. Ann said to me: «Graham has lost his new watch». 2. Ann said to me: «Boh went to a disco last Sunday». 1. Ann told me that Graham had lost his new watch. 2. Ann told me that Bob had gone to a disco the previous Sunday.

B. The Past Perfect Continuous

FORMATION

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is formed with the auxiliary had been and the Present Participle of the main verb.

Table 9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I you  

 

 

working

I you  

 

 

been

working

  I you

 

 

been working?

he she it had been he she it had not been had he she it
we you they   we you they     we you they

Contractions

'd = had;       hadn't = had not

USAGE

The Past Perfect Continuous is used to denote a) actions or situations continuing over a period up to a specific time in the past (inclusive meaning), b) past actions of certain duration which had visible results in the past (exclusive meaning).

PRACTICE

A. The Future Simple Tense

FORMATION

The Future Simple (Indefinite) tense is formed with the help of the auxiliary shall/will and the Infinitive of the main verb without to.

Table 10

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I shall

 

 

 

work

 

 

 

 

I shall not

 

 

 

work

 

 

 

 

shall I

 

 

 

work?

 

 

 

 

you he she it     will   you he she it     will not       will   you he she it
we shall we shall not shall we
you they   will you they   will not   will you they

Contractions

'11 = will (shall) shan't = shall not won't = will not

In modern English will is preferable with all persons. Any difference between shall and will disappears in everyday speech, where the contractions I'll and we'll are normally used.

USAGE

The Future Simple (Indefinite) denotes:

1. A predicted future action, a happening which is ine­vitable and out of anybody's control.

Next year I'll be 18.

Spring will come soon.

In 100 years' time there will be a lot more people

than there are now.

Reference to the future is typically indicated by adverbials of time such as tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, in a week (month, year), next year, in 2008, etc. Sometimes reference to the future is clear from the situation.

Spring has come, so the snow will start melting, the birds will come back home.

2. An action which the speaker regards as possible, pro­bable or likely to happen in future (near or remote).

I'm sure he'll get better.

I don't think I'll go out tonight, I'm too tired.

No doubt you'll enjoy the performance.

I don't think Ann will pass her exams easily. She was idling away her time during the term.

Do you think they'll win the match?

I'll probably be a bit late this evening. 3. An action decided on spontaneously, out of circumstan­ces (i.e. an action which is not part of a plan).

Don't lift the suitcase. I'll help you.

It looks like rain. I'll take my umbrella then.

It's Kate's birthday tomorrow. - Is it? O.K. I'll send her a card this afternoon.

What would you like to drink? - I'll have a coke, please.

Close in meaning to this case is the use of the Future Simple in complex sentences with clauses of time and real condition. It must be remembered that the Future Simple is found only in the principal clause, whereas the subordinate clause takes the Present Simple or the Present Perfect (to express a completed action).

I'll phone you as soon as I arrive.

When you return home you'll notice a lot of changes.

It's pouring down. We'll get wet through if we go out.

When you see Jane again, you won't recognize her.

Come on! Mum will be worried if we are late again.

I won't send the parcel until I hear from you.

As soon as Bob and Ash ton have got married they'll move to California.

I shan’t phone you until I have done my homework.

In Indirect Speech when the reporting verb in the principal clause is in the Past tense the Future Simple tense is replaced by the Future in the Past and the adverbials like tomorrow, next week, etc. are replaced by the next day, the next week, etc.

We knew that Christie would phone the next week. Brian informed us he would go to university the next year.

D. The Simple Present Tense

This tense is used instead of the Present Continuous to express a definite future arrangement in a more formal language. Like in the case with the Present Continuous, the future meaning of the Present Simple must be indicated by a special adverbial modifier or the context, e.g.

The train leaves at 6 a.m. tomorrow.

The film starts at 2 p.m.

FORMATION

The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense is formed with shall/will be + the Present Participle.

Table 11

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I we shall  

 

 

 

 

be working

 

 

 

I we shall not  

 

 

 

be working

 

 

 

shall   I we

 

 

 

be working9

 

 

 

you he she it you they     will       you he she it you they     will not         will         you he she it you they

Contractions

'11 = will (shall) shan't = shall not won't = will not

In modern English will is preferable for all persons (see the Note for the Future Simple).

USAGE

USAGE

The Future Perfect Tense denotes an action viewed as comp­leted before a definite future moment indicated by an adverbial with the preposition 'by' or by another future action. It may also denote a future action covering a certain period of time up to or including the given future moment (with stative verbs, i. e. verbs not used in the Continuous aspect).

/ think she'll have finished the essay by Monday.

By the time you get back Mike will have left.

He'll have been in this business for five years by

next summer.

FORMATION

The Future Perfect Continuous (Progressive) tense is formed with the help of the Future Perfect Tense of the auxiliary verb to be and the Present Participle of the main verb.

Table 12

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I we     shall/will have been    

 

 

 

 

 

working

 

 

 

I we     shall not have been / will not have been

 

 

 

working

 

 

 

shall       I we    

 

 

have been

working?

 

 

 

he she it you they will have been       he she it you they will not have been       will         he she it you they

USAGE

The Future Perfect Continuous (Progressive) tense-form denotes an action lasting for a period of time up to or inclu­ding a certain future moment. This future moment can be indicated by an adverbial with the preposition 'by' or by another future action. As with all the perfect continuous tenses the Future Perfect Continuous is preferred to the Future Perfect when the speaker wants to emphasize the progressive character of an action.

By five o'clock I'll have been doing this crossword puzzle for two hours.

By the time he arrives in London Max will havebeen driving for nearly five hours.

PRACTICE

Present Perfect Continuous

My wife and I (live) in our present house in the country for five years. We (move) here after our second child (be) born. We (live) in town for ten years, and then (decide) that as soon as we could afford it we (move) away from the smoke and the noise of the city centre, which we finally (do) in 1985. We never (regret) it. We (be) reminded of the wisdom of our decision every morning when we (draw) the curtains to see open fields stretching before us. When the children (have I breakfast they (rush) outside to play which they (do) whatever the weather.

Perfect Continuous

Dear Ann,

I (receive) your letter about two weeks ago and (try) to find time to write you back ever since. I (be) very busy lately. For the past two weeks I (have) four tests, and I (have) another test next week. In addition, a friend (stay) with me since last Thursday. She (be) fond of sightseeing, so we (spend) a lot of time visiting some of the interesting places here. Between showing her the city and studying for my exams, I barely (have) enough time to breathe. Right now it (be) 3 a.m. and I (sit) here for five hours doing my studying. My friend's plane (leave) at 6.05, so I (decide) not to go to bed. That's why I (write) to you at such an early hour in the day. I (get) a little sleepy, but I would rather stay up. I (take) a nap after I (get) back from taking her to the airport.

How you (get) along? How your classes (go)'l Please, write soon.

Love,

Мary

8. Present Simple/Past Simple/Present Continuous/

Perfect Continuous

Yesterday I (receive) a phone call from an old friend who I (not/hear) from for months. I (ask) him what he (do) lately, and he told me that he (spend) the past three months sailing around the world on an old-fashioned sailing ship. I always

(love) everything to do with the sea, so I was very excited to hear that he (manage) to do something so thrilling. I (ask) him if we (can) get together soon and (make) him promise that he (bring) all the photos he (take). When he (come) next week, Г11 expect him to tell me exactly what the trip (he) like.

FORMATION

The Passive voice is formed with the help of the auxiliary be in the appropriate form and the Past Participle of the main verb (see Table 13).

Tense Structure Example
Present Simple am/are/is + Past Participle English is spoken here.
Past Simple was/were + Past Participle His leg was hurt in an accident.
Future Simple shall/will + Past Participle The matter will be discussed tomorrow.
Present Cont. am/are/is being + Past Participle She is being interviewed now.
Past Continuous was/were being + Past Participle I felt I was being watched.
Present Perfect have/has been + Past Participle My brother has never been beaten in tennis.
Past Perfect had been + Past Participle The bridge had been built by winter time.
Future Perfect will have been + Past Participle Everything will have been done by Tuesday.

Note 1: Future Continuous Passive (will be being + Past Participle) and Perfect Continuous Passive (have been being + Past Participle, etc.) are unusual and are not normally used. Note 2: Passive Infinitives are used with 'to' or without 'to' in the same way as Active Infinitives: e.g.

The pupils must be warned about the change in the time-table. The letter doesn 't have to be sent

tomorrow.

USAGE

The use of the verb-tenses in the passive voice is determined by the same principles as in the active voice. Yet a passive construction is not merely a transformation of the active one. It is made to show that the subject of a sentence is not the

doer of the action but the receiver of it. Hence the passive

voice has its own uses marked by the shift of focus from the doer of the action to the action itself which is typical of more formal speech.

Customers are requested to ask for a receipt. When were you told about the new rules? The floor is filthy. It must be scrubbed.

PRACTICE

Case notes of a nurse

Ward Sister Sarah Browne is responsible for the welfare of 28 patients on two wards at the London hospital where she (work) for the last 6 years. She (direct) a staff of 12 working in three shifts. There are also as many as 15 student nurses who (assign) to the ward at any one time. It (calculate), she says, that 200 people - doctors, nurses, visitors, students -(move) through her general and acute medical ward in a day. Sister Browne, who is 39, (qualify) as a nurse 20 years ago. She (work) as a clinical teacher and (do) research into psychotherapy for former smokers. Her working week easily (exceed) the 37 hours she is supposed to work. 08.45 The morning report (just/end) and Sister Browne (listen) as a qualified nurse (explain) the insulin injection she is about to give to a diabetic patient. 09.38 Sister Browne (chat) by the bedside of an 85-year-old woman who (wait) for a place in a home for two and a half years.

i1 33 Sister Browne (just/interrupt) by a telephone call. Whatever she (do), she finds herself being summoned to deal with queries and occasional emergencies. Whenever she (enter) a room, she (switch) on a light by the door to show staff and patients that she (arrive). All the nurses (wear) flat white shoes which are essential to lessen the strain of being on their feet virtually all day. The floors are hard but Sister Browne says she (get used) to them and hardly (notice) her aching feet any more.

12.18 Sister Browne (have) a kind word with an elderly patient who (recently/admit) and is very concerned about her dog and four cats. Pets are a particular prob­lem for elderly patients who (live) alone for some time.

15.01 Sister Browne (joke) with a patient who is about to (take) to another part of the hospital for an X-ray. The ward (specialise) in chest diseases and Sister Browne (ban) smoking.

15.55 Now that her shift nearly (finish) Sister Browne (snatch) a moment's rest before driving home. She will be up again at six tomorrow to do the same shift.

NODAL VERBS

2.1. CAN, COULD, BE ABLE

MUST, HAVE TO, TO BE TO

MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE

THE ARTICLE IN ENGLISH

BASIC RULES

The article is a part of speech which is used before the noun and has the function of a noun determiner. A similar function is performed by possessive, demonstrative and indefinite pronouns. However, only one determiner can be used in English, i.e. either an article or a pronoun precedes the noun. As far as the use of article is concerned there are three possibilities in English: the indefinite article (a/an), the definite article (the) and the absence of article, or the so-called гего article.

My brother works in a large garage in Brighton.

Mary has always wanted to be a scientist.

Cars and buses are a major source of pollution in

Cities.

Did you enjoy the party you went to on Saturday?

You ought not to waste money on smoking.

The choice of the article depends, first of all, on the type and the form of the noun: countable/uncountable, singular/ plural (see the table below).

Table 14*

type of nouns a/an the no article (zero article)
countable singular a map the map
countable plural - the maps maps
uncountable      
(nouns of material, the water water
abstract nouns)   the music music

* The table is taken from: Michael Swan. «Practical English Usage», Moscow. 1984. p. 66.

A. The Indefinite Article

The original meaning of a/an - one - explains why it is used only with countable nouns in the singular.

Here's a hundred pounds.

Don’t  me the plate as an ashtray.

The main function of the indefinite article is generally defined as classifying, i.e. referring a person, an animal, an object or a thing to a class of similar objects, things, etc.

This is a journal and that is a magazine.

A lawyer is a person who helps people with legal problems.

The classifying function is closely connected with the meaning of indefiniteness (any representative of a class, not a particular one) and novelty (this person, object, etc., is introduced in the context for the first time).

Last Sunday we found a small puppy in the park and brought it home.

B. The Definite Article

The article 'the'derives from the Old English demonstrative pronoun 'se' (that), which accounts for deflniteness as its basic meaning: both the speaker and the hearer know what is being talked about.

The definiteness of the thing, object, etc. arises from a) an earlier mention of the noun in the context.

Sue and Frank have got two children: a girl and a boy. The girl is a student and the boy is still at school.

A man came up to a policeman and asked him a question. The policeman didn 't understand the question and so he asked the man to repeat it.

I've recently bought new jeans. The jeans cost me a pretty penny.

I found cheese and yogurt in the fridge. The cheese was absolutely stale.

b) the presence of a specifying (particularizing) modifier

(a prepositional phrase, an attributive clause, etc).

Who was the woman you were talking to just now? The house beyond the church was for sale.

c) the uniqueness of the object or group of objects denoted by the noun: the sun, the moon, the earth, the world, the horizon, the equator; the Queen (of this country), the kitchen (of this house), the children (belonging to a particular family), etc.

Shut the door! (there is only one open)

I had some trouble with the car. (I own one car only)

The definite article is not restricted in its usage: it can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.

Wow, the sand is really hot! (an uncountable nounof material)

The film wasn 't good but we liked the music, (an uncountable abstract noun)

Come and look at the horses! (a countable noun, plural)

The definite article can also precede a proper noun. It is used, in particular, with nouns denoting the name of the whole family (the Browns) or geographical names such as water­ways (the Indian Ocean, the Volga, the Naroch, but Lake Naroch), mountain ranges (the Alps, the Urals, but Everest), and the name of cardinal points (the South, the North}. It must be remembered, however, that no article is used with the names of the continents (Asia, Europe), countries (Russia. Belarus, France), mountain peaks and towns.* There are a great number of set expressions and phrases in English in which the use of the indefinite, definite or zero article does not depend on the context. Memorizing some of them will help the learner to cope with the difficulties of using the article. Below is a list of such phrases.

With the indefinite article

as a result as a rule as a matter of fact at a glance at a gulp at a distance in a hurry in a loud/low voice in a sense

in a whisper in a mess in a good humour in a way in a while  in a rush   it is a shame   it is a pity   it is a pleasure once a year/week  to have a bath  to have a shower   to have a wash  to have a meal  to have a cold  to have a row to a certain degree to have a swim   to have a smoke   to have a rest  to have a good time  to have a headache (a toothache, etc.) to go for a walk  to tell a lie  to be at a loss   to do smb a favour   to make a mistake  to give a hand to a certain extent

With the definite article

all the same   at the latest  at the time  at the moment   by the way   for the time being   in the afternoon/ evening/morning   in the singular  in the plural   in (the) winter/ summer/spring   in the day-time   in the past/present in the centre   in the middle   in the distance in the doorway   in the original  in the shade   on the whole   on the spot  on the one hand   on the other hand   on the safe side   out of the question  the other day  the day after tomorrow   the wrong side   the right route  most of the time   the only place (but an only child) the same opinion

the poor/the rich the sick the wounded the unemployed the needy the handicapped to tell the truth to tell the time to keep the house to make the bed under the influence (of) to lay the table to make the most (best) of smth

to do the washing up

With the zero article

arm in arm at dawn at dusk at daybreak at twilight at night at midnight at sunrise (sunset) at noon at first sight

at night at home at present at dinner beyond recognition by phone/by radio by mistake by chance by name

by accident from beginning to end from east to west at work from side to side for sale hand in hand in charge

in future in service in demand in spite of in (on) time in search (of) in secret in sight in (for) fun in fact

in debt in detail in person it's time on board the ship on fire on sale on leave on hand/at hand/off hand on account (of) on condition (that) out of control out of date out of order out of sight out of place from head to foot

step by step to be/to stay in bed to get out of bed/town to be at home/school/college to be in hospital to go to hospital/school/ college/university/prison/church to go home/down-town to leave school/home to travel/go/come/get by bus/car to stay/invite for lunch/tea/dinner to have breakfast/lunch/tea to do research

to be in trouble to get into trouble to lose control to be in despair to pay attention (to) to take care (of) to make fun (of) to have great fun to shake hands (with) to keep time to ask for permission to study mathematics, physics, history, but the history of Art   to speak English, but the English language    to play football, tennis, etc., but to play the piano/violin, etc. a kind/sort of place (book, house, etc.)

Miscellaneous Practice

j What is ... capital of India? - Delhi. 2 What do you think of Margaret? - She is... extremely nice person.

3. I had ... cup of... coffee and some toast for breakfast this morning.... coffee was delicious.

4. He is trying to find ... job, but there isn't much work available at... present.

5. Would you like to travel round ... world?

6. It was ... excellent holiday. We had ... great fun.

7. I'd like ... hamburger, please.

8. Could you switch off... TV? Nobody is watching it.

9. Most of... land in this region belongs to ... small farmers.

10. I've got... book about... life of John Kennedy.

11. ... architect designs ... buildings.

12. I enjoy talking to ... old people.

13. I find ... History ... interesting subject.

14. They studied ... history of the Spanish Civil War at... school.

15. ... instruction was so complex that I couldn't under­stand it.

16. You must contact ... manager and tell him about ... telegram. It is ... urgent telegram.

17. It's ... film about... homeless people.

18. Do you get on with ... neighbours who live next door?

19. Pauline asked me ... question to which I had no reply.

20. Noticing ... door was open, I decided to go in. It turned out to be ... museum.

21. Slamming ... door, Carol drove off in ... car her father had given her as ... present.

22. ... blind people often have ... excellent sense of... smell.

23. When Sally was on ... holiday in ... Alps, she broke her leg and had to stay in ... hospital for two weeks.

24. ... sweets were wrapped in ... silver paper.

25. Could you turn down ... music? It's too loud.

26. She looked at me with ... strange smile.

27. We never eat... white bread at home.

28. No news is ... good news.

29. ... air is very fresh today.

30. ... apple ... day is good for you.

31. I'm ... vegetarian. I don't eat... meat or ... fish.

32. Do you like ... English beer?

33. ... acting was poor, but we enjoyed ... music.

34. There's nothing like ... whipped cream for me.

35. ... vase is ... kind of pot for holding flowers.

36. Don't buy ... artificial silk, we must have ... real silk.

37. Do you have ... sleeping bag by any chance?

38. Being ... man of... fixed views he refused to listen to our arguments.

39. Have you heard ... news?

40. When I came in he was lying on ... bed.

41. ... nail went right through ... wall.

42. What... strange ideas you have!

43. As far as ... mathematics is concerned it was... complete failure.

44. Every Sunday he went to ... church.

45. Either ... Germany or ... Holland will win ... World Cup.

46. I have never seen such ... huge crowd of... people.

47. Many people eat in ... Chinese restaurants in ... London.

48 Several of... passengers were hurt and one of them was taken to ...hospital.

49 Measles, which is ... children's disease is dangerous for adults.

50. Mr Heyman was considered ... excellent music teacher.

51. Did you have ... good time at your dacha?

52. ... Prime Minister is to make ... statement tomorrow.

53. Mike became ... furniture salesman after leaving ... school.

54. They thought that... car was too expensive.

55. There were more people on ... beach than in ... water.

56. It's ... pity he made ... fool of himself.

57. Which do you prefer:... classical or popular music?

58. Amundsen was.. first man to reach ... South Pole.

59. He promised he would never bet on ... horses.

60. He used to tell such ... funny stories.

61. ... family who live opposite our house are French.

62. Wait till... referee blows his whistle.

63. Because he had run out of... money, he had to look for ...job.

64. Tom went hunting in ... afternoon. When he returned,... dinner was on ... table.

65. Her father has been involved in ... automobile accident recently.

66. I dislike ... idle talk. It's... sheer waste of... time.

67. He is having ... financial difficulties now.

68. ... children go to ... school by ... bus.

69. I bought... pound of... bacon and... loaf of brown bread at... grocery.

70. ... festival will be opened ... day after tomorrow.

71. ... children who learn easily should start... school as early as possible.

72. Every dark cloud has ... silver lining.

73. Have you got... few minutes? I'd like to have ... chat with you.

74. Running has been ... very popular sport in ... United States for ... several years now.

75. Browns Ltd is ... large company in ... Manchester. It makes ...soap.

76. Europe and ... America are separated by ... Atlantic Ocean.

77. ... Elbrus is ... highest peak of... Caucasian mountains.

78. ... sonnet is ... poem of... fourteen lines.

79. ... blood is thicker than ... water.

80. ...view from above ... shore was magnificent.

81. ... old woman was cared for by ... nurse from... hospital. 82.1 couldn't explain why my best shoes had ... hole in them.

83. Don't you think that... scissors in ... sewing box need sharpening?

84. Their lives became ... misery after ... disaster.

85. It was ... love at ... first sight that brought... couple together.

86. ... tortoise is ... sort of ... reptile.

87. ... wounded were taken to ... nearest hospital.

88. I live next to ... nursing home for ... very old.

89. Living away from ... home will do him ... enormous amount of good.

90. ... cost of... living in Sweden is higher than in ... other countries of... Europe.

91. ... wrecked liner is still lying on ... sea bottom.

92. Never speak ill of... dead.

93. There are ... shops at ... either end of... street.

94. Most of... people complain about... weather here.

95. I'm warning you! ... next person who does that will be in ... trouble!

96. ... dictionary is ... book in which the words of... lan­guage are listed alphabetically.

07. ... bomb is ... weapon which explodes and damages ... large area.

98. I'll send you ... letter. It's best not to talk about such things on ... phone.

99. I can't understand ... text;... language is very difficult.

100. I'd invited five people to ... party. Out of... five people, only John and Mary could come, ... others couldn't.

101. ... doctor who examined ... sick children was very gentle.

102. Ask Paul, he is ... only one who knows ... answer.

103. ... Smith's bookshop is in ... Oxford street opposite ... Barclays Bank.

104. There was.... earthquake in my hometown last year. It was just ... small one, but I could feel ... ground shaking.

105. At ... end of... busy day, ... sleep is ... best tonic.

106. You can lead ... horse to ... water but you can't make him drink.

107. I couldn't make out what... passage said.

108. Linda stopped ... car to let... black cat run across... street.

109. Jack wears ... glasses because he has ... poor eyesight.

110. ... air is full of... smoke,... dust and ... other harmful substances. We must do something to reduce ... air pollution.

111. I like to read ... good literature.

112. ... Japanese have ... long and interesting history.

113. ... dog makes ... good pet if it is properly trained.

114. ... people might think you're ... little crazy, but talking to yourself is ... good way to practise English.

115. He irritates ... people by talking in ... funny voice all ... time.

116. You can really help ... environment by using ... un­leaded fuel.

117. It would be more sensible for him to save his money instead of spending it like ... water.

118. Don't drink ... coffee in ... evening if you have trouble sleeping at ... night.

119. I'm not very happy with ... kitchen but it will have to do for ... time being.

120. She's quite ... lively person compared with ... rest of her family.

121. Let's wait till ... wind drops before we put ... tent up.

122. ... discovery of... radium marked ... beginning of... new era of... medicine.

123. ... house in which I grew up no longer exists.

124. ... man was accused of having stolen ... woman's purse.

125. ... teacher reminded ... students of their assignment.

126. ... teacher encouraged us to consult... dictionary when­ever we were uncertain of ... spelling of ... word.

127. I tried everything but... baby still wouldn't stop crying.

128. Linda offered to look after my cat when I was out of ... town.

129. ... best part of our trip was ... crossing of ... Sahara Desert.

130. We spent three weeks camping near ... Lake Garda in ... Italy.

131.1 have ... stunning view of... Mount Kilimanjaro from my window.

132. Even if I had ... money, I wouldn't want to live in ... Bahamas.

133. I decorated ... children's bedroom as fast as I could. In ... week it was done.

134. I haven't got... time to phone him at... week-end. I'll do it ... next week.

135.1 went to ... theatre last night and saw ... fabulous play. I thought it was good, anyway, but I read in ... papers this morning that ... critics had slammed it.

136. Your daughter has ... beautiful voice. Her interest in ... singing must be encouraged.

137. ... child can't be given everything he or she wants.

138. ... hospital here is very old and can no longer serve ... needs of... community. ... new hospital should have been built here long ago.

139. When James is feeling ... bit low he usually treats him­self to ... meal in ... good restaurant.

140. This is ... first time I've driven ... sports car.

141. If you want to have ... sound sleep try to drink ... glass of... milk before ... bedtime.

142. ... people often have ... very good idea of what colours suit them but they still buy ... wrong colour clothes.

143. He slipped and ... wine spilled all over ... carpet.

144. Brian seems ... ideal person for ... job.

145. After studying ... languages at ... university Steven became ... interpreter at... United Nations.

146. It's very important for ... parents to encourage ... in­dependence in their children.

147. I saw ... woman coming up ... path to .. house. It was ... woman I had seen at... station ... day before.

148. My mother loves ... Italian operas even though she can't understand ... words.

149. ... Neil Armstrong, ... first man on ... moon, used to work for NASA.

150. ... police were called in to deal with ... situation.

151. ... people think ... climate in ... Mediterranean is ... best in ... world.

More practice

1. I find it very difficult to be optimistic. To tell... truth I have applied for 130 jobs in ... last two years and it's always ... same story. Come back when you've got ... bit of ex­perience. I mean, how can I get... experience if nobody wants to give me ... job?

2.  Dear Carol,

Just... note to say thank you for ... lovely day yesterday. If was really very hard to get back to work after such ... relaxing time. Delicious food, good company, ... beautiful garden - it really felt like ... mini-holiday. ... kids had... great time too, and are still talking about... dog and... pool. Would you like to come over to us... next weekend? You could come for ... lunch on ...Saturday or... Sunday, and we could go for ... walk in ... hills afterwards if... weather is good. Looking forward to seeing you all next weekend, and with ... lot of thanks again for yesterday.

Love, Jane

3. ... man had ... row with his wife. This made him leave ... home later than usual so he drove to work very fast. While he was going round ... corner, ... dog ran across ... road. ... man stamped on ... brakes,... car skidded (... road was in ... very bad condition),... man lost control of his car and crashed into ... lorry which was parked on ... double yellow line.

4.       Portrait of a family;... Bartons

There are three adults and two children in this family. ... children are Ben, aged twelve, and little Stella, who is four. Their parents are Andrew and Marion.... other adult is Leslie, who's Andrew's brother. He is twenty-four. They live in ... Newcastle,... large city in ... north-east of England. On weekday mornings everyone gets up early; Andrew-Barton works for ... company, which manufactures ... computers. He leaves at seven o'clock. He likes to avoid ... rush hour, he says. Marion suspects that really he likes to avoid ... breakfast with ... children, who are very noisy. Ben catches ... school bus at eight-fifteen. Leslie is at ... university, studying ... physics. He lives away from ... home during term-time, so he avoids ... noise, too.

Stella doesn't go to ... school yet, of course. Next year, she will start at... nursery school where Ben used to go. Her mother is looking forward to this as it will mean that she can go back to ... work. Before her marriage, she lived in London, where she worked for ... National Gallery, in ... Trafalgar Square. She is hoping to find ... same sort of job in... Newcastle.

5. Tina wants to buy a car. She has come to see Brian, who is trying to sell his.

T: So, you don't say much in your advertisement. Is this ...old car?

B: Four years old. Come and have ... look at it.

T: Were you ... first owner?

B: No, I got it two years ago.

T: Have you driven it... lot?

B: Well, I drive to my office in ... city centre five days ... week, but I don't use it much at weekends.

T: I see. Now,... thing is, I'm... doctor. I've just started work at... hospital in Hills Road. I'm on call... lot of the time

and I have to find ... car which is really reliable.... car I used to have was always breaking down and giving me

... problems. B: Oh, this one's very good. It may not be ... fastest car around, but it always gets there eventually. And it's got ... new set of ...tyres.

T: Right. It's good to know that. Can I go for ... test drive?

B: Hm, actually, that's not possible right now.

T: Why not?

B: Well, basically, I'm afraid it won't start. You see, ... battery is flat.

6. It was ... wonderful day. We went to ... beach in our old Volvo, and ... children played all day in ... sea. Mary and I walked along ...beach in ... sunshine, looking at... birds and collecting shells. We had .. .meal at... little restaurant on ... way home, and drove back late at... night.

7. I want to thank you for ... lovely kitten. I call her Sheba and she has some lovely ways. If you hang ... piece of... string in front of her she always tries to catch it. Sometimes she plays with ... little rubber mouse if I throw it in front of her. On ... warm days she lies outside in ... garden. When Mrs. Ross, ... cleaner, is working here, Sheba often chases ... vacuum cleaner. But Mrs. Ross says she's... best cat in ... world and we all agree with her.

8. ... robots are common in industry and perhaps they will soon be common in the home.... robot working in the home must be able to behave like ... human. You can ask it to make ... breakfast for you! I'd like ... pot of ... coffee, please, and ... boiled eggs'. - 'How many, sir?' - 'Two, please'. You wouldn't have to worry about bringing friends home to dinner. Tve brought... friends for ... dinner', you would say, 'please prepare ... meal for six'. Your robot would be .. .cook, ... servant and ... cleaner and perhaps it could even do ... shopping. 'We haven't got ... tomatoes', you would say. 'Be ... good robot and get some from ... super­market'. ... robots would never need to sleep and would never complain. But I wouldn't want them wandering round ... house at... night!

9. I really can't understand why some pupils feel bored when ... history is discussed. Maybe they get... wrong idea about it at ... school. For me, though, ... subject is ... most important part of... education. This is because there are some very worrying trends in ... modern life. Knowing about... development of... society in ... previous centuries helps us to understand ... society we live in now. We must place ... high value on ... historical research if ... survival of ... human race is to be assured. It's ... matter of... life and ... death.

PRONOUNS

Choose the correct pronoun.

1 Bob is one of (our, us, ours) best pupils. 2. It isn't (my, mine) bag. I've left (my, me, mine) at home. 3. I've just waxed the floor. Don't walk on (itself, it, its) yet. 4. Let (they, them, their) read the story again. 5. Will you tell (we, us, our) about Great Britain? 6. Is this Mary's scarf? No, it is (me, my, mine).7. (Your, you, yours) house is not far from (our, us, ours). 8. Whose cigarettes are these? They may be (our, ours) cigarettes. Oh, yes, they are (our, ours). 9. (Our, ours) car is faster than (their, theirs). 10. A friend of (you, yours, your) came to see (we, us, ours) yesterday. 11. We know (they, them, theirs) very well and both Peter and Nell know (we, us, ours). 12. You can do it without (mine, my, me) help but not without (they, their, theirs). 13. He couldn't lend me the dictionary because it wasn't (he, him, his). 14. She is writing a letter to an old friend of (her, hers, she). 15. This suitcase isn't (us, our, ours). There's somebody's name on it. 16. This is not (my, mine, me) car. (My, Mine, Me) is a 1980 model.

17. Could you help me sort out these things? I cannot tell which are (your, you, yours) and which are (we, our, ours).

18. ( You, your, yours) ticket is on the table and where is (her, she, hers p. 19. She first looked at the title of the story and then at (her, she, hers). 20. Can I borrow (your, yours, you) umbrella? - I'm sorry, it isn't (me, my, mine). 21. I'm sorry, but he's busy. Do you mind waiting for (he, him, his)? 22. Who told you about it? - A friend of (you, your, yours). 23. Don't ask for help. Do it (you, yourself). 24. Did he enjo\ (him, his, himself) at the party? 25. Jill had lived by (itself, herself, her) before (her, hers) marriage, but now she was happy with her husband in (their, theirs) new house which (her, hers) husband had built (him, himself, itself).

B. At a Shop

Shop-assistant: Can I help you?

Customer:    I'd like to buy some cassettes. What kinds do you have?

Shop-assistant: Well, we have two kinds. These play for 60 minutes, and ... play for 90 minutes.

Customer:    Don't you have any... that play for 45 minutes?

Shop-assistant: Sorry, but we're out of those at the moment.

Customer:    Oh, well. I'll take two of the 60-minute ones.

Shop-assistant: All right.

Customer:    Wait a minute. I think I'll get... one, too.

Shop-assistant: So, you want three all together.

Customer:    Right. By the way, is there ... music store around here? I really do need some 45-minute cassettes. Shop-assistant: Well, there are two ... in the neighbourhood. One is in Bond Street, and ... is in Uxbridge Street. Customer:    Thanks.

4.8. PRONOUNS EACH/EVERY

Choose the correct pronoun.

A. 1. They believe (every/each) word he says. 2.1 asked (ever у /each) student in class, but none of them could answer my question. 3. The boys ate (every/each) cake on the plate. They didn't leave anything to the girls. 4. The match was very exciting and our team scored twice in (every/each) half. 5. (Every/Each) child at the party was given a present to take home. 6. (Every/Each) orange costs ten pence. 7.1 see Jack almost (every/each) day. 8. (Every/Each) of the children was given a piece of paper and a crayon. 9. (Every/Each) time I ask her about her brother she doesn't seem to know anything new. 10. What a wonderful movie! I enjoyed (every/each) minute of it. 11. I still see her (every/each) now and then. 12. (Each/Every) of the kids arriving for the first time is shown around the school. 13. (Each/Every) item of the programme ought to be carefully checked. 14. You'll have to apply the ointment (every/each) other day. 15. The airline takes (each/every) possible precaution to ensure the safety of its passengers.

В. The Miltons are all going on holiday this year. They have looked at... brochure in the travel agent's and they've decided to go to Portugal. They went to an island last year but ... beach they went to was filthy. Tom was sick ... day and Jane was bitten by insects on ... leg. ... time the twins went swimming they nearly drowned and Mary got an infection in ... ear when she wore the cheap earrings she bought in the market.

4.9. PRONOUNS ALL/WHOLE

Study the examples.

The man who spoke to us wasn 't English.

Dr. Jones is the professor who(m) I told you about.

Dr. Jones is the professor about whom I told you/that I told you about.

Did you see the letter which/that came this morning?

She's the girl whose brother works in the post office.

MIXED PRACTICE

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Study these examples.

He spoke to the boy in a fatherly manner. She greeted everybody in a friendly way.

The discussion was carried on in a lively way.

Not e: friendly, lovely, lonely, silly, ugly, lively, fatherly, motherly, cowardly are adjectives. They have no adverb forms; instead some other structures are used, e.g. in a friendly way, in a silly manner, etc.

Choose the correct variant.

A 1. The floor looks (clean, cleanly). 2. The plane landed (safe, safely) on the runway. 3. When the wind started to blow I grew (anxious, anxiously). 4. This list of names ap­pears (complete, completely). No more names need to be added. 5. The crowd yelled (wild, wildly) when the team scored a goal. 6. The merchant looked (honest, honestly), but she wasn't. When I got home I discovered that she had cheated me. 7. Most of the students did (well, good) on their tests. 8. The contract offer sounded (fair, fairly) to me, so I accepted the job. 9. Jim felt (terrible/terribly) about for­getting his son's birthday. 10. A rose smells (good, well).11. As dawn approached, the sky became (light, lightly).

12. Bert spoke (confident, confidently) when he delivered his speech. 13.1 don't think this milk is spoiled. It tastes (fine, finely) to me. 14. Dogs make loving, trainable and (gentle, gently) pets. 15. Tina is always patient and speaks (sensiti­vely, sensitive) when helping her friends with their problems. 16. When people are tired they walk (slow, slowly). 17. I listen to the radio a lot but I (hard, hardly) ever watch television. 18.1 tried (hard, hardly) to remember her name but 1 couldn't. 19. We (hard, hardly) know each other. 20. Kate is a (hard, hardly) worker. 21. She used to be a great musician, but she (hard, hardly) plays at all now.

B. Linda and Larry are at a restaurant.

Larry: You look (beautiful/beautifully) tonight, Linda.

Linda: Thanks,

Larry. This is a great restaurant! The food

tastes (good/well); and the band sounds (terrific/ terrifically).

Larry: Yes. They really play (beautiful/beautifully), don't they? Hey, would you like to dance?

Linda: Sure.

Larry: It feels (nice/nicely) to dance again. You know I ha­ven't danced since our wedding.

Linda: Be careful! Those people are really dancing (bad/ badly).

Larry: You're right. They look (dangerous/dangerously).

Linda: Oh, my toe! Let's sit down.

Larry: Good idea. How about some coffee? The people next to us have just got coffee, and it smells (wonderful/ wonderfully).

Linda: That sounds (nice/nicely).

 

Regular Comparisons

Irregular Comparisons

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

slowly reluctantly

more slowly more reluctantly

most slowly most reluctantly

positive

Comparative

Superlative  
well

better

best  
badly

worse

worst  
little

less

least  
much

more

most  
far

farther

farthest  
 

further

furthest  
           

Note: With adverbs of two or more syllables the compa­rative and superlative degrees are formed by putting more and most before the positive form.

Adverbs consisting of one syllable and the adverb early form the degrees by adding -er, -est.

Ann works harder than most of her friends.

Can you talk a little louder?

You should go to bed earlier.

Could you speak more slowly, please?

Nick should drive more carefully.

He speaks English better than his friend.

The team played worse than before.

He moved as quietly as he could.

PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

Complete the sentences.

1. Ships come ... the port of Cardiff ... all parts of the world. 2. May I come ... your lecture? 3. He lost his key and had to climb ... the house through the window. 4. She returned ... Moscow after a month at the Black Sea. 5. My son is going ... school next year. 6. Will they take the child ... hospital? 7. It was almost midnight when we arrived ... the station. 8. They are leaving ... Japan next Tuesday. They will stay for a fortnight in Tokyo. 9. As soon as you arrive ... London give me a call. 10. If the weather stays fine we shall go ... the seaside for the weekend. 11. When we arrived ... the airport we went directly ... our hotel by taxi. 12. I've been ... Canada but I haven't been ... Africa. 13.1 was going ... Berlin on business when, by accident, I got... the wrong train. 14. He got... the car and started the engine. 15. My brother has been ... Paris three times. 16. When I came ... the hotel room I started to take my clothes......my suitcase. 17. Robert came......the telephone box and got... his car. 18. When the letters arrive ... the local post office, the daily deliveries are made. 19. Who was the first person to swim ... the English Channel? 20. We walked ... to the top floor. 21. She'll go ... college if she gets good grades in her exams.

22. Mrs. Wood got... the bus and walked ... the street towards the post office.

6.4. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE MEANING OF POS­SESSION, REFERENCE AND IDENTIFICATION

PHRASAL VERBS

WORD FORMATION

Mixed practice.

WORD ORDER

A. General questions

1 2 3 4 5
auxiliary verb subject group main verb object adverbial modifier

Is the man smoking a pipe?

Have you given up smoking?

May I have a look at your photos?

Do you remember our trip to Brussels?

Did it rain last night?

Was anyone late for the meeting?

Is there any money in the box?

B. Special questions

All types of special questions except questions about the subject of the sentence

-1 2 3 4 5 6
interrogative word auxiliary verb subject group main verb object adverbial modifier

Questions about the subject of the sentence

1 2 3 4
interrogative word predicate object adverbial modifier

Who lives in that old brick house? What are you looking at? What can I do to help you? What is there on the floor?

TEXT CONNECTORS

TIME CONNECTORS

Choose the correct variant.

1. Some people like to sing ... they are taking a bath. A although       B after           C while

2. I enjoy tennis on TV ... I prefer playing it. A although       B despite       C since

3. ... she has a well-paid job, she never has any money. A Despite         B As             C Even though

4. ... she left school she started working in a bank. A Before          B After          C Since

5. Mike borrowed some money and ... he was able to go on holiday with his parents.

A because        B as a result   C after

6. She managed to write ... her hand was injured. A despite          B although     C while

7. The sky was gray and cloudy.... we went to the beach. A Nevertheless B As a result  C Despite

8. I've only been to the cinema once... I got out of hospital. A as soon as     B until           C since

9. ... I had nothing for lunch but an apple, I ate dinner early. A Although      B Since         C Despite

10. Please walk carefully ... the walkway is slippery. A that's why     B because      C until

11 ... she seldom eats at home she is good at cooking. A As                B Since         C Even though

12. John didn't feel well.... he didn't go to work yesterday. A Nevertheless  B Therefore    C In spite of

13. He insisted that he was right... the fact that everyone disagreed with him. A in spite of B while C though

14. Joe jumped into the river to rescued the little girl who was drowning ... he wasn't a good swimmer.

A even though  B despite       C since

15. I won't leave ... I find the keys. A while               B until           C before

16. The sea looked dangerous ... we didn't go in for a swim. A as                 B so              C though

WORD CHOICE

WORDS EASILY CONFUSED

The words in each group below are close in meaning and may even correspond to the same word when translated into Russian (or Belarusian). Despite the similarity they cannot be used to replace one another because each word has a spe­cific (different) meaning. In addition to semantic peculia­rities, they may also have syntactical differences. Some verbs-synonyms, for example, are followed by a direct object in the sentence, while others require an indirect object. It is important for a learner of English to know the prepositions that are used with an indirect object after each verb. Often learners find it difficult to differentiate between parts of speech or forms of the same word, e.g. adverb/adjective; present participle/past participle.

hard/hardly interesting/interested

Confusion can be caused, too, by words different in meaning but having a resemblance in spelling or/and pronunciation"

lose/loose quite/quiet

A. Verbs

bite/beat do/make reach/achieve get/have remember/remind/recall hear/listen (to) forget/leave lie/lay

rise/raise wait(for)/expect drive/ride steal/rob lend/borrow pass/take point(to)/show bring/take/fetch go/come/walk fall/drop carry/bear/wear fit/suit/match see/look/watch study/learn/teach speak/say/talk/tell

wear/ put on /dress/ to be dressed(in) leave/stay(in, at) suggest/offer sit/sat/seat

C. Nouns

pair/couple  play/game language/tongue   place/seat/room/space cook/cooker   shade/shadow  country/state food/meal hour/clock/o'clock/watch   road/street/way/path  event/case/incident/accident  land/earth/soil

CHOOSE THE RIGHT WORD

A. Verbs

1. Could you ... these books back to the library next time you go?

a) fetch    b) bring         c) take

2. My friend ... two hours in the snow for a bus. a) expected b) waited for  c) spent

3. It's too noisy here. I can't... anything, a) listen to b) hear          c) feel

4. How did your mother ... here so quickly? a) take      b) get            c) bring

5. Who can it be? I'm not... any visitors, a) waiting forb) expecting   c) seeing

6. Please ... her about it as quick as possible. It's urgent. a) talk      b) speak        c) tell

7. It doesn't... long to get there. a) last        b) have          c) take

8. This dog is dangerous. It has already ... me. a) beaten  b) bitten        c) barked

9. He ... he'd be back in an hour. a) spoke   b) said           c) told

10. Peter ... at the picture hanging over the sofa, a) watched b) saw           c) looked

11. We ... to the news every night. a) hear     b) expect       c) listen

12. You needn't tell me, I... about it yesterday. a) listened b) heard         c) recognized

13. I couldn't see who ... by. a) crossed b) passed       c) entered

14. If you want to say something ... your hand, a) rise       b) put             c) raise

15. Mother is ... sandwiches in the kitchen, a) making b) doing         c) getting

16. Look after my case. I'll... and pick it up later, a) go         b) become      c) come

17. He's busy at present. He'll... you in 30 minutes' time, a) watch   b) look           c) see

18. I'm having difficulty in ... what you say. a) hearing b) listening     c) answering

19. My wife wants James to give up tennis and ... law. a) learn    b) study          c) know

20. We are sorry about the noise we ... last night, a) become b) did             c) made

21. They last... to see us at Christmas. a) went     b) took           c) came

22. I think he ... too hard. a) learns   b) studies       c) teaches

23. Did you ... to anyone at the conference? a) feel       b) say                c) speak

24. Can I borrow your car? I'll... it back in an hour. a) carry     b) take           c) bring

25. I dislike ... housework. a) doing    b) making       c) acting

26. I'm afraid I've ... my umbrella at home, a) forgotten b) carried       c) left

27. I threw myself flat on the bed and... motionless for 10 minutes. a) lied       b) lay             c) laid

28. I don't think she's ... the truth. a) saying  b) talking       c) telling

29. I've ... his telephone number. a) forgotten b) left             c) carried

30. ... the tent down on the grass and I'll try to see how to put it up. a) lie         b) lay             c) do

31 They left at ten o'clock, so I ... they'll be here soon. a) wait      b) expect        c) intend

32  Nothing you do will... any difference. a) do        b) become      c) make

33 Can you ... me ten pounds until the weekend, please? a) lend      b) borrow       c) owe

34. Why don't you ... Jack's bicycle? I'm sure he wouldn't mind. a) lend      b) borrow       c) return

35. Could you ... these letters to the post-office for me? a) bring    b) take            c) fetch

36. I'm going into hospital soon. Will you ... and visit me? a) go         b) come          c) arrive

37. No one will... your ring if you put it into the safe, a) rob       b) steal           c) hide

38. ... me to post the letter when we go past the post-office, a) memorize b) remember   c) remind

39. Last night my uncle was stopped and ... of his very valuable watch. a) rob       b) steal           c) borrow

40. I... seeing him somewhere before. a) remind b) memorize   c) remember

41. None of the keys ... the lock. a) match   b) fit              c) suit

42. We ... she should consult her lawyer. a) suggest b) offer           c) intend

43. I'm afraid this job doesn't... me. a) fit         b) match         c) suit

44. Can you ... me some money till Friday? a) borrow b) lend           c) earn

45. I don't think you should buy this dictionary. You can ... one from the library. a) borrow b) lend    c) carry

46. She looks happy. She has been ... a job in London. a) offered  b) suggested   c) proposed

47. I'll ... you my car if you promise to drive it carefully a) borrow b) allow         c) lend

48. If you leave your money here it will be .... a) robbed  b) disappeared c) stolen

49. Have you a hat to ... my dress? a) fit        b) match        c) suit

50. When my neighbour learned that I was ill she ... to take my dog for a walk. a) offered b) suggested c) supposed

51. These colours do not.... a) fit        b) match        c) suit

52. He worked hard but... very little. a) reached b) achieved    c) arrived

53. By the time the travellers ... the village they had got wet through. a) reached b) achieved    c) arrived

54. Carol looked happy. She had ... her driving test, a) taken    b) passed       c) did

55. I won't be able to join you. I am ... my History exam tomorrow. a) taking   b) passing      c) doing

C Nouns

1. Tom has bought a new ... of trousers. a) pair      b) couple       c) double

2. I worked till six ... last Friday. a) hours   b) clocks        c) o'clock

3. I ordered some seeds for the garden a ... of days ago. a) pair      b) couple       c) double

4. I prefer gas... to electric ones. a) cookers b) cooks        c) cooking

5. There's a narrow winding... from our village to the next one. a) way      b) road          c) street

6. Chess is a very slow-... . a) game    b) play           c) act

7. My father is a very good... . a) cooker  b) cook          c) cooking

8. It's a long ... from here to the station, a) way      b) road          c) street

9. He's going to stage one of Shakespeare's early .... a) games  b) plays         c) acts

10. I'm hot. Let's sit in the .... a) shadow b) shade        c) sun

11. It's a science fiction story about a man without a .... a) shadow b) shade         c) umbrella

12. They are used to walking all the ... to school, a) street    b) road          c) way

13. It was late but we stayed for another.... a) o'clock b) clock         c) hour

14. When we entered the hall we discovered that all the ... had been occupied. a) places b) seats          c) room

15. The car is too small. There isn't enough ... for four, a) place    b) seat           c) room

16. The best... for the picture is over the mantelpiece, a) place    b) seat           c) room

17. BBC broadcasts programmes in several.... a) tongues b) languages   c) sounds

18. His mother ... is Welsh. He speaks English with a Welsh accent. a) tongue  b) language    c) speech

19. A funny ... happened to me at the railway station, a) incident b) accident     c) case

20. A few people were injured in a railroad ... yesterday, a) incident b) accident     c) case

21.1 believe it was a clear ... of carelessness, a) incident b) accident     c) case

EVALUATION OF LEARNERS'

SKILLS IN THE USE

OF ENGLISH

CLASSIFIED TESTS

TEST 1

II. Use the right article.

1. ... man had ... blue eyes,... black hair and ... long nose. He was dressed in ... strange uniform.

2. When I was ... child, I never ate ... cheese.

3. Excuse me. Could you tell me... way to ... Picadilly Circus?

4. She always takes ... bath before going to ... bed.

5. Her parents have ... small farm in ... Yorkshire.

TEST 2

TEST 3

TEST 4

II. Use the right article.

1. I'm always forgetting ... people's names.

2. ... only thing that matters is to find ... way home.

3. Mary said, «What... nice idea!»

4. North Wales seems ... good place for ... holiday.

5.  She is anxious to find ... better job.

6. There's nothing like ... cheese for me for ... breakfast.

Sentence.

1 the/her/yet/has/cat/lady/found/old?

2 month/I/the/to/went/last/dentist/times/three/see.

3 lift/tomorrow/I'iya/to/give/the/you/station.

4 me/tooth/giving/again/this/is/trouble.

TEST 5

II. Use the right article.

1. ... plane didn't fly because of... storm.

2. Why are you wearing ... tie today, Mike?

3. ... tractor can pull... plough faster than ... donkey can.

4. Bill doesn't like ... record Jack has bought.

5. Jack drinks ... water with every meal.

6. Tom is ... successful young artist.

TEST 6

II. Use the right article.

1. We'll have to wait until... photos are ready.

2. ... police are looking into ... matter now.

3. I've told him ... lot of times that I don't know who's broken ... window but he doesn't believe me.

4. She looked at me with ... strange smile.

5. I'm afraid Mr. Brown is on ... holiday till... end of... month.

6. Charles, who was ... oldest, led ... boys to ... place where the boat was tied up under ... shelter of some bushes.

TEST 7

TEST 8

II. Use the right article.

1. Last year he worked for ... big company in ... Brussels. ... company employs over 4000 people.

2. ... capital of... USA is not... biggest city of... country.

3. What do you think of ... Harrisons? - I don't like ... husband much but... wife is ... very nice woman.

4. Where's ... magazine I bought yesterday?

5. We had ... lovely time in Spain. - So you enjoyed ... holiday, didn't you?

TEST 9

A Typical Day in Australia

In summer the sun comes (up, down) quite early and it is already warm by 7.00 a.m. Most (peoples, people) live (near, nearly) a beach or a big swimming (pool, pull), so very often all the family (go, come) for an early morning swim. The young mothers (which, who) don't (work, walk) spend a lot of the day at the (beach, bench). (It, there) is a healthy (way, road) for young (children, parents) to (grow, rise) up and nearly (every, each) child can swim (good, well). It (makes, does) them a lot of good.

TEST 10

II. Use the right article.

1. They were able to finish ... race, weren't they?

2. Newspapers are normally delivered twice ... day.

3. ... burglars did little damage to... house apart from brea­king ... windows.

4. I'm glad you like ... steak. I'll give you ... recipe. 5.1 just want... cup of... tea. Is that possible?

6. Do you know ... name of... restaurant's owner?

TEST 11

II. Use the right article.

1. All... first three runners received ... prize.

2. Tom looks as if he has enjoyed .. party. 3.1 prefer ... tea to ... coffee.

4. That's ... house where I was born.

5. We came in quietly so as not to wake ... baby.

6. How wonderful... weather is! I'm going to ... beach. 7.1 play ... football nearly every day.

TEST 12

II. Use the right article.

1. Have you got... few minutes? I'd like to have ... chat with you.

2. They usually have ... dinner at... home.

3. It was ... luxurious hotel,... best I've ever stayed in.

4 There was such ...long queue that we decided not to wait.

5.... students will be writing ... test in ... Room 405.

6. ... head of... department made ... brief report.

TEST 13

II. Use the right article.

1. Listen to her beautiful voice. She sings like ... angel.

2. Did your advertisement get any result? - I'll say! We advertized for ... night watchman and ... next night we were robbed.

3 ... rain is getting heavier and heavier.

4 They say ... hard-working person works like ... beaver.

5 ... milk in that jug is very cold. You shouldn't drink such ... cold milk.

TEST 14

II. Use the right article.

1. She sometimes gets ... letters from her friends abroad.

2.... government ought to do something about housing.

3. ... knife shouldn't be used as ... screwdriver.

4. ... plane crashed while it was being tested.

5. Some people believe in ... life after ... death.

6. ... music which excites me is 1930s jazz.

7. While they were sailing up ... west coast, they ran out of... food.

TEST 15

II. Use the right article.

1.1 have ... terrible cold and I am staying in ... bed today.

2. Paul spent half of his life in ... Far East.

3. ...Smiths had ... son and ... daughter. ... son was in ... Army and ... daughter was training to be ... teacher.

4. She was ... first woman to cross ... Atlantic in ... canoe.

5.1 don't like ... milk in my coffee, and I take only ... little sugar.

6. ... person riding ... bicycle on ... sidewalk is ... hazard for... pedestrians.

TEST 16

II. Use the right article.

1. You can keep ... book because I won't take it back to ... library until... end of... month.

2. Has anyone left... message for me in ...morning?

3. ... people from ... warm countries generally have ... hard time getting used to the winter in ... Belarus.

4. ... poorest people in ... country live in this area.

5. ... lake Baikal is ... deepest lake in ... world.

6. ... last two pages of ... diary were missing.

TEST 17

II. Use the right article.

1. ... police have no idea where ... jewels are.

2. ... moment... train stopped at... platform, I called ... porter who carried my luggage to ... station and found me ... taxi.

3. Slamming ... door, Carol drove off in ... car her father had given her as ... present.

4. There is going to be... foggy and... cold weather next week.

5. This is ... last time I do you ... favour.

TEST 18

II. Use the right article.

1.... dietician is ... doctor who helps ... people to choose ... right food.

2. First I wrote my name at... top of... page.

3. I'm afraid Mr.Brown is on ... holiday till ... end of ...month.

4. ... goods were in ... good condition and arrived on ...time.

5. Don't worry, it's all right now.... situation is completely

changed. 6.1 wouldn't mind having ... soup for ... first course.

TEST 19

II. Use the right article.

1. We never eat... white bread at... dinner.

2. Four people were taken to ... hospital after ... fire at their home early this morning. They left ... hospital after some treatment for ... minor burns.

3. - Who's that girl over there? Her face is familiar to me. -1 think she's one of... girls who came for ... job inter­view ... other day.

4. How do you like ... weather today, Mr. Hope?

5. My granddad was wounded during ... war.

6.1 like Jane. She has... lot of... warmth. She is ... kind of... person you can trust.

TEST 20

TEST 21

(I. Use the correct tense-form of the verbs in bracketsro 1. Since the beginning of the term, Brian (read) three novels. Right now he (read) «A Farewell to Arms». He (read) that novel for the past three days. He (intend) to finish it next week. In his lifetime he (read) many novels, but this is the first Hemingway's novel he (read) ever.

2. It's noon. The mail should be here soon. It usually (deliver) sometime between noon and one o'clock.

3. In my opinion Kacey (elect) tomorrow because she (be) honest, knowledgeable and competent.

4. It was the first time he (clean) his own boots.

5. The fact that there will be only a few people attending the meeting (not/discourage) the organizers. That's why the meeting (not/cancel).

II. Use the right article.

Our first fishing trip of... summer was ... memorable affair My brother Peter and I got up at... dawn and packed оur fishing equipment. ... sun was shining and ... sea was calm when we climbed into ... little motor boat tied to ... quayside We knew we wouldn't be able to go fishing again until evening high tide, so we had prepared ... picnic and taken some bottles of... drink.

TEST 22

TEST 23

II. Use the right article.

1. In many countries, you need ... business card if you want to make ... good impression. To ... foreigner, it makes it easier to understand your name and ... job you do. Make sure you include your name, ... name of ... company you work for, and ... position you hold.

2. There was ... earthquake in my hometown last year. It was just... small one, but I could feel... ground shaking.

3. He lent me ... thousand pounds, which was exactly .. amount I needed to solve my problem.

TEST 24

II. Use the right article.

1. As soon as I left Deal, I saw ... low flat cloud, iron-grey and then blue, across... Channel. ... closer I got to ... Dover,... more clearly it was defined. I walked on and saw it was ... series of headlands. It was ... France.

2. ... question was difficult. None of ... pupils knew ... answer.

3. ... village has changed beyond ... recognition since we were there last.

4. I'm very pleased to announce ... name of... winner.

5. ... bank offered us ... loan on ... very favourable terms.

TEST 25

Il.Use the right article.

When was ... last time you had ... holiday? And did you organize ... trip or did you take ... package tour? These days ... most people choose ... package tour especially if they go abroad on ... holiday. But in ... past it was very difficult. In ... fact, before ... middle of.... nineteenth century, travelling for ... pleasure was rare and expensive, and only ... few rich people could afford it. ... man who changed all this and brought in ... age of ... mass tourism was Thomas Cook.

TEST 26

II. Use the right article.

Peter ... Great started building St.Petersburg in 1703. He imported ... Italian architects to make its buildings bigger and better than anywhere else in ... Europe.... grandiose and colourful architecture with its surprising blues, greens and pinks, would look tasteless in more southern climates, but here ... colours go beautifully with ... snow and ... pale winter light.

TEST 27

II. Use the right article.

1. When I leave ... school. I want to go to ... university to study ... natural history. I'm very fond of ... animals, and I would like to study them in their natural surroundings.

2. ... coffee contains more caffeine than ... tea.

3. He took ... great deal of trouble to make ... party success.

4. I can't give you ... decision immediately. I've got few things to do before I can look at... project.

5. ... accidents are generally caused by ... people driving too fast. This is certainly true of... accident I had last year.

TEST 28

II. Use the right article.

My father always enjoyed working late claiming he could get ... better work done without the usual bustle (eyeга) to distract him. However, while working in ... Japan he found this practice impossible. He was in ... charge of... large office, and because of ... Japanese respect for hierarchy (иерархия) none of... staff would leave before he did. Finally ... good idea hit him. One afternoon at five, he put on his coat, said his good-byes in ... loud voice and took ... leisurely stroll around ... block. When he returned to ... office it was empty.

TEST 29

II. Use the right article.

... ambitious farmer, unhappy about... yield of his crops, heard of... highly recommended new com seed. He bought some and produced ... crop that was so abundant that his astonished neighbours came and asked him to sell them some of... new seed. But... farmer, afraid that he would lose ... profitable competitive advantage, refused to sell ... seed to neighbours. ... second year ... seed did not produce quite so  good ... crop, and when ... third-year crop was still worse, it suddenly dawned on ... farmer that his prize corn was being pollinated (опылять) by ... inferior grade of com from his neighbours' fields.

TEST 30

II. Use the right article.

Twice ... week ... Belgian riding ... bicycle crossed ... German border and he always carried ... suitcase filled with ... sand. Each time ... customs officials searched ... suitcase, they never found anything illegal. Sometimes they even emptied out all ... sand, expecting to find ... jewellery, ... watches or ... drugs. But always there was nothing but sand. They couldn't think what ... Belgian was smuggling. It was many years later, long after ... Belgian had vanished from ... scene, that they learnt... truth. He had been smug­gling ... bicycles.

INTEGRATED TESTS

In these tests you will complete the sentences in each passage by choosing a word form or structure from the variants given A) in brackets; B) after the text.

A.

1. (Many, Much) people now (think, are thinking) that (the, -) teachers give pupils too (many, much) homework. They (say, tell) that (it, there) is unnecessary for children to work at (home, house) in their (free, vacant) time. (Moreover, However) they argue that (most, the most) teachers do not (proper, properly) plan the homework tasks they give to pupils. The result is that pupils (must, have) to repeat tasks (what, which) they (had already, have already) done (at, in) school. (Recently, Nowadays) in Greece many parents complained (about, for) the difficult homework which teachers gave to their children. (-, the) parents said that most of the homework was a (spending, waste) of time, and they wanted to (stop, halt) it. Spain and Turkey are two countries which (stopped ended) giving homework recently. (In, At) Denmark, West Germany and several (another, other) countries in Europe teachers (cannot, aren 't able to) set homework at weekends. In Holland, teachers (allow, let) pupils to (stay, settle) at school to (do, make) their homework. The children are (free, independent) to help (one another, themselves). (Similar, Alike) arrangements (also, too) exist in some (Britain, British) schools.

2. Oxford is the most popular tourist attraction (in, at) Britain after London and Stratford-upon-Avon. Oxford is famous (by for) its university (what, which) is (the, a) oldest in Britain and the third oldest in Europe.

The University had thirty-five (separate, apart) colleges. For (many, plenty) years, only five of (this, these) colleges were for women. (However, Anyway) since 1979 (near, nearly) all the colleges have (accepted, received) both men and women. Oxford is (not, no) only a university city, it is also a (market, bazaar) town where (ordinary, usual) people live and work. With over one million visitors (a, the) year, it is very difficult for the (residents, residence) of Oxford to live their (day, daily) life. Sometimes they (feel, are feeling) that the city (does, do) not belong (-, to) them.

3. Because Britain is quite (a, the) small island, (no one, neither) lives (farther, further) than 75 miles (from, of) the sea. As soon as summer (comes, will come) thousands (people, of people) in cars (make, do) their way to the sea. (Many, Much) parents (is, are) willing to (sit, seat) (on, in) crowded beaches, in (traffic, transport) jams and sometimes (in, on) bad weather to give (their, theirs) children a seaside holiday.

4. Well, here I am in England. I (have arrived, arrived) at Dover a week ago and I'm just beginning to settle (down,

up)- ( Т he,-- ') journey was (awful, awfully)! We had (to land, land) at Antique because of a storm (so, as) the (journey, travel) took more (than, as) thirteen (hours, clocks)! The (house, home) is very nice. It's (more big, bigger) than (our, ours) in St.George. Mr and Mrs Wilson both go to (work, job). Mrs Wilson (works, is working) in a department store (what, which) is in (the, -) centre of Dover. She is very kind and wants me (to have, have) a (good, well) time in England. They are taking me (somewhere, anywhere) special this weekend. I hope it's London! Mr Wilson (owes, owns) a video rental shop.

Dover is a bit (bored, boring). It's (full, filled) of tourists because it's (where, were) people (take, bring) the ferry (to, in) France. (They, There) are quite (a few, a little) beaches down the (coast, bank) but they (aren't, don't) like the beaches in Grenada and (-, the) water here is much (more cold, colder)\

5. (A, The) day before yesterday I went for an interview with a film (company, campaign). (A, The) job sounded (interested, interesting) and (there, it) wasn't (bad, badly) paid (too, either). I was (terrible, terribly) nervous. I (dressed, wore) my brown velvet suit (even, ever) though my black boots didn't (go, suit) with it very (good, well). I even decided (to spend, waste) some money and (went, came) to (the, -) hairdresser's.

The interview was (in, on) a (large, big) building near Piccadilly. I (talked, told) to (a, the) head of the publicity department. It was (quite, quiet) an informal interview and very (pleasant, pleasantly). The boss kept (say, saying) they (want, wanted) someone really (neat, neatly) and efficient (as, so) the publicity department was very (big, great) and very important.

6.1 have been (waiting, waited) a long time for January and (it's, its) frosts (to begin, begin). And they are here at (last least)! Now, thanks heavens, I (can, will be able) to curl up in front of (a, the) fire and (relax, recreate). I'll (look, see) out of the window at the beautiful frost (covered, covering) every (blade, blades) of grass on (my, mine) precious lawn, and I'll think with (great, large) satisfaction that (it, there) is absolutely nothing I (can, need) work at in the garden till the frost (will lift, lifts). Don't misunderstand me. I love my garden. I'm (English, the English} after (all, everything). (Since, For) years I (have, was) lived gardenless (in, on) a London flat but I (have longed, longed) for a garden so (many, much)! Now that I've got (one, the one) I (adore, have adored) it!

7. Dear Helen,

Thank you very much for your letter and news (from, out of) Cornwall. I'm (no, not) very brown (yet, still) (and, but) I (am having, have been having) a marvellous holiday. We've (got, get) a boat (called, calling) 'Julliette'; (it, there) is a small motor cruiser.

So far, we (had travelled, have travelled) more than forty miles already.

Yesterday we (have visited, visited) Norwich Cathedral, (what, which) is (near, nearly) a thousand (year, years) old! We bought some (food, meal) in the big market (to, for) take back to (a, the) boat and then (visited, attended) the famous Old Barge Inn, which (is, was) built in the 14th century. I (write, am writing) to you on (board, the board) 'Julliette'. Peter and John (fish, are fishing), (but, and) they (hadnt/, haven't) caught (nothing, anything) yet! I hope to see you when I ('IIget, get) back (next, the next) week.

Love, David

8. What are you doing (at, in) the moment? Perhaps you (draw, are drawing) (in, with) a pencil! Perhaps you (try, are trying) to open (a, the) bottle (of, with) beer. Or perhaps you are (simple, simply) reading this (passage, novel), but soon you will have (to turn, turn) to (next, the next) page. In all (this, these) actions you are using (your, yours) hands. (A, -) hand is a marvellous machine. It is one of (most, the most) precious (parts, particles) of your body. It can (to work, work) quickly and it (rare, rarely) gets (tired, tiring). It (controlled, controlled) by one of the biggest (part, parts) of your (brain, mind), and when you (move, are moved) (a, the) finger (hundred, hundreds) of messages come (from, out of) the brain to help you.

(In, At) the end of your fingers (there, they) are thousands of (nerves, nervous). They (make, do) a (fascinated, fascinating) job. They (say, tell) you when a cup of (tea, the tea) is too hot, for example. And try to play (the, a) guitar or (a, the) piano without your hands.

But if you (is, are) a criminal, you might want (to forget, forgetting) them. If your fingerprints are (found, looked for) you (will not, don't) escape- (because, tliat's why) unfortunately, your fingerprints are (unique, unusual).

9. We had a (frightened, frightening) experience a month ago. One evening we were in the lounge as (usual, usually). We (watched, were watching) television when we suddenly heard a noise in the dining-room at the back (of, off) the house. The room in (which, that) we were sitting was at the front (of, from) the house. We (ran, raced) into the dining-room and (found, founded) everything (on, in) the floor - someone had (done, made) a terrible (mess, message). But, by (the time, time) we got (there, here) the burglar (had gone, went). If he hadn't dropped a large silver dish (on, to) the glass table, we (won't, wouldn't) have heard (nothing, anything). Fortunately, he didn't (have, take) time to steal (much, many). Mr. Legge (that, who) lives (next, the next) door, saw the burglar (to run, running) away and gave a (good, well) description (-, to) the police.

10.1 (got, stood) up (at. in) half past eight. I (dressed, put on) but didn't wash because I was (late, lately). I (hadn 't, didn't have) my breakfast (too, either), but (took, was taking) a sandwich (to, for) eat on the (way, road) to school. Normally I walk (at, to) school, but the bus (came, went), so I got (on, in) it. I (was, had been) in school at ten to nine - ten minutes (early, earlier).

When the English class started, the teacher (said, told), «Where's your (homework, housework), Susan?» and I tho­ught, «Oh, dear! My English homework (is, has been) on the kitchen table at ((home, house)». (That, There) was (the, a) start of (the, a) terrible day.

11. I had (to go, go) to hospital two years (ago, before) because I had (a, -) stomachache. (It, There) was actually (rather, more) serious (so, as) I had to (stand, stay) in hospital (for, since) two weeks.

I liked the hospital. (Tlie, -) food was (good, well) (although, despite) we had to get (up, down) at seven (hour, о 'clock) (for, to) breakfast, and the (nurses, sisters) were great. (Each, Any) bed had a special radio, (that, which) I liked. The beds weren't very (comfortable, convenient) though, and (it, there) was difficult to (sleep, slip). (The, -) kids were nice (and, but) I was (homesick, airsick) and I (missed, longed) my family. I was really (excited, exciting) to (see, look) our dog Snowy and our cat Bert when I (got, was getting) home. The medicine they gave me was (disgusted, disgusting) - it tasted (like, as) poison - but I (had, ought) to drink it because

it stopped me feeling (awful, awfully). They (found out, learned) that some fish I ate had (done, made) me ill, so I never (eat, have eaten) fish now. That's (a, the) good thing too, because I (like, dislike) fish.

12. One of my (great, large) ambitions is to (study, learn) how to pilot a balloon on (my, mine) own. My father (who, which) is (a, the) balloonist, (takes, brings) us all ballooning with him (every, all) weekend. I'm (the only, only) one who (rides, drives) with him (in, on) the basket. The basket is (fastening, fastened) to the bottom of the balloon (with, by) nylon ropes.

Sometimes I (pilot, am piloting) the balloon on my own when (a, the) wind isn't (too, rather) strong and (it. there) is in the right (direction, way). But Dad always (stays, leaves) with me in the basket.

13. Gorillas are (the, -) largest of all the animals. A (male, mail) gorilla can be 180cm (tall, high) and (weigh, weight) 200 kg. Gorillas are very strong (and, but) they don't often (fight, struggle). (In, on) fact (there, they) are (peaceful, quietly) animals. Gorillas (live, leave) in small family groups of (about, around) fifteen. In a group (there, it) is one strong (older, elder) male, some young males and (a few, few) females with (their, its) babies.

14. Robert Burns loved common (people, peoples) and (wrote, had written) about them. (Once, One) day when he (had walked, was walking) near the docks, he (heard, had heard) a cry for help. He ran towards (-, the) water. Just then (a, the) sailor jumped (of, off) a boat that (had stood, stood) near the dock, (began, had begun) to swim towards (a, the) man (who, which) (was called, was calling) for help and saved him.

The man who (was saved, saved) was (a, the) rich merchant He (thanked, had thanked) the brave sailor and gave him ( a the) shilling. (-, The) people who (was, were) watching the scene protested (loud, loudly) when (the, a) rich man (gave had given) him only (a, the) shilling. (But, And) Burns stopped them and (said, told), «Let him (alone, lonely). (A, The) gentleman is, of course, (a, the) best judge of what his life is (worth, cost)».

15. (Have, Had) you ever heard an Englishman (say, to say) 'touch wood' and then put his (hand, arm) on the (nearest, next) thing to him (that, what) is (done, made) of wood? It is the English version of an old superstitious (habitual, habit) known in (various, variety) ways in (the, a) number of countries.

When a man (on, in) ancient (time, times) had (said, told) something (boasting, boastful) or optimistic, he always touched (a, the) sacred (object, subject) in order to protect (him, himself) against Divine punishment for his arrogance. (At, In) Christian times the wood (what, which) he (was touched, touched) represented the wood of the Cross. In America (however, although) they (say, tell) instead «knock on wood».

16. William and Brian (were playing, had played) tennis yesterday when it (started, starts) to rain. Brian went (home, to home) but William was very (bored, boring). He (decides, decided) to go out in the car.

He was (driven, driving) along the street when he (saw, had seen) Jennifer, (a, the) friend from (work, job). She was (looking, seeing) at some clothes in a shop window when she (heard, was hearing) William (to call, call) her name. Jennifer (got, came) into (a, the) car (next, near) to William and they (talked, told) for (a, -) long time. They (are, were) still talking when (a, the) policeman arrived and (spoke, toldd) to William. He pointed (on, to) a large «No Parking» (sign, sigh)-William was very (worrying, worried). «Please, don't (give, bring) me a (parked, parking) ticket», (hut, and) the police-man (who, that) was cold and wet and hungry didn't want to (hear, listen) to William.

17. We are (so, such) pleased to hear your (good, well) news and we love the name you have (chosen, chose) - Daniel James sounds (greatly, great).We hope Jemma isn't too (jealous, jealousy) of her new brother. Is she treating him (kind, kindly) ?

We had intended (come, to come) and see you next weekend but I (hurt, was hurting) my back (a few, few) days ago and now I (can't, couldn't) drive very (comfortably, conveniently). I (was repairing, repaired) the garage roof when I (was falling, fell) off the ladder! I (didn't, hadn't) hurt myself (bad, badly), thank goodness!

Anyway, we've decided (to have, having) a short (break, interval) next month and spend it with some friends, who live (near, nearly) you, so (while, until) we (stay, are staying) with them, we'll come (over, about) and see you all. In the meantime, take care (of, for) yourselves, will you? We'll look forward (seeing, to seeing) you all again.

18. Dear Stephanie,

I'm writing (to tell, say) you about (a, the) discussion I had with my father (last, the last) weekend. We (talked, said) for several (o 'clock, hours) and I told (him, his) all about the plans we've (made, done) for our business. At first he wasn't very (interesting, interested), he (said, told) he (didn't think, wasn 't thinking) we were (old enough, enough old) to run a business. However I told him that we (have, had)already seen the bank manager (which, who) said that the plan (seems, seemed) realistic. (So, Thus) then he sat down and asked me (to talk, to tell) him how (many, much) money we'd (must, need) to start with, and where we (sold, would sell) the stuff we made and so on. Eventually he said (to, for) me, «OK, it's a (well, good) plan. (Say, Tell) Stephanie that I'll (borrow, lend) you some money to get started». (Ho­nest, Honestly), I couldn't believe he (will, would) say it! Isn't it (greatly, great) ?

I'm really looking forward (for, to) seeing you next week so we can (tell, talk) to him together and get things going.

All the best, Neville

 B.

1. A: Are you going to the meeting tomorrow? B: Where ...(!).. .going to be? A: At the home of some friends ...(2)... . B: ...(3)... is it going to start? A: If everyone ...(4)... there on time, at about 8.30. B: What are we going to ...(5)...? A: Well, in this district a lot of parents have young

children. They're not ...(6)... school but there isn't

...(7)... for them. B: So what can we do? A: We must find someone ...(8)... a big garden. Then we

need a teacher who likes children and can ...(9).... B: ...(10)... of my friends have big gardens, but I'll still

come to the meeting. A: Good.

1. A is it Bit is С is there D there is

2. A to us В of us С to ours D of ours

3. A Which hour В Which time С What hour D What time

4. A will get В shall get С get Dgets

5. A talk about В speak on С tell on D say abou

6. A old enough to В old enough for С enough old to D enough old for

7. A somewhere other В somewhere else С anywhere other D anywhere else

8. A having В which has С who have Dwith

9. A look after it В looks after it С look after them D looks after them

10. A Not any В Nobody С Neither DNone

2.                                           Wednesday, 20 July

Dear Fred,

Thanks for your letter. It was ...(!)... from you. Your new job sounds very interesting and you ...(2)...with it. I am still with the same firm that I joined five years ago when we

...(3).......(4)... I am happy there, I must say that I sometimes

feel that I ...(5)... to move, but here in Bakewell there are

only ...(6)... companies.

I like this town. What I like ...(7)... living here is that it is

quiet. Perhaps I should say it was quiet ...(8)... these big

lorries started coming through the town. Anyway, they only

come through during the day, never ...(9)... night.

If you have time before the end of the summer, why don't

you come and ...(10)... with us one weekend? That would

be very pleasant.

I hope you are still well. Write again soon.

Yours, Terry

1. A well to listen В well to hear С good to listen D good to hear

2. A look pleased В seem pleased С look pleasing D seem pleasing

3. A left school В left the school С have left school D have left the school

4A Although В Already С Because D Through

5. A ought В should С would Dmust

6. A some В any С few D a few

7. A more about В most about С more of D most of

8 A as long as В as far as С when D until

9. A during В at the С in Dat

10. A live В pass С stay D rest

A: Hello, Mr Fletcher. You look rather tired this morning.

B: I expect I do. I ...(!)... to bed until four o'clock.

3 A: ...(2)... a difficult journey back from Scotland, then?

B: Yes. The business trip was successful but the train arrived four hours late and I ... (3) ... a taxi. In the end I ...(4)... home and found my wife ...(5)... the door and she didn't hear me when I rang the bell.

A: So what ...(6)... then?

B: I thought I ...(7)... to get in by breaking the kitchen window but I cut ...(8)... hand on the glass and fell on the dustbin. My wife woke up and rang the police, thinking I was a thief. When they came, they asked me ...(9)... to the police station with them. But my wife explained what had happened. The next time I ...(10)... in London late at night I'll go to a hotel.

1 A didn't get В wasn't С haven't got D haven't been

2. A Had you В Did you have С Were you having D Have you had

3. A must take В must be taking С must have taken D had to take

4 A arrived in В arrived to С got D got to

5. A has locked В had locked С locked D was locked

6. A did you do В did you С you did D have you done

7. A must В have С will have D would have

8. A me the В myself the С my D me my

9. A that I went В that I would go С to go D for going

10. A shall arrive В will arrive С am arriving D arrive

4. Artists ...(!)... draw pictures on the pavement with chalk used to be a common sight ...(2)... different parts of London, but ...(3)... now. Sometimes the pictures are very good. This is proved by the fact that one of the ...(4)... favourite tricks is to draw a pound note and see ...(5)... try ...(6)... The police usually treat pavement artists kindly and ...(7)... in the law against drawing on the pavement ...(8)... the artists is ...(9)... he gets a large crowd around him and this prevents other people ...(10)... freely along the street.

1. A who В which С what D whose

2. A at В for С by Din

3. A there are only left a few В there are only a few left С they are only left a few D they are only a few left

4. A artists В artists' С artist's D artist

5. A the lot of people that В the amount of people what С how many people D how much people

6. A picking up it В picking it up С to pick up it D to pick it up

7. A there is nothing В there is anything С it is nothing D it is anything

8. A even В whether С if not D unless

9. A so good as В as good as С so good that D as good that

10. A that they pass

В that they don't pass С from passing D to pass

5. Dear Juliet,

Thank you for your letter, which ...(!)... here yesterday. It js a pity the weather in Scotland was so bad; we have not had ...(2)...weather here, ...(3).... My mother says it is the ...(4) summer she ...(5)... . While I ...(6)... along the coast road the other day, there was a terrible storm. I could not see and was afraid I ...(7)... an accident, so I stopped the car and waited ..(8)... . Some people say men drive ...(9)... than women but I don't agree. It ...(10)... me a long time to get home, but at least I arrived safely.

i. A arrived В arrived to С has arrived D has arrived to

2. A a good В good С one good D some good

5. A also В too С either D neither

4. A more bad В most bad С worse D worst

5. A can remember В can remind С may remember D may remind

6. A drove В had driven С have driven D was driving

7. A had В had had С would hav D will have

8. A for the storm passing В for the storm to pass С the storm passing D the storm to pass

9. A more careful В most careful С more carefully D most carefully

10. A has taken В took С takes D was

6. There was a nasty ...(!)... at Newton crossroads yesterday morning. A bus overturned, and ...(2)... of the passengers were badly ...(3)... . Several ...(4)... helped to pull people out of the wreckage and give them first aid ...(5)... help arrived. Soon the injured ...(6)... to the nearest hospital ...(7)... ambulance but ...(8)... so many that the casualty department there ...(9)... difficulty in treating them all. Most of the passengers ...(10)... to be suffering from severe ...(11)....

1. A event В accident С happening D emergency

2. A few В the few С some Dany

3. A pained В wounded С knocked down D injured

4. A bystanders В supporters С audience D spectators

5. A while В until С unless D after

6. A were brought В took С were taken D brought

7. A with Bon С in Dby

8. A there was В it was С there were D it were

9. A have В had С has had D had had

10. A had been found В founded С were found D had found

11. A surprise В shock С worry D nervousness

7.1 am going to the Mediterranean for my holidays next week. I...(!)... to stay with my grandfather in the country. He is ...(2)... man and always ...(3)... cheerful but I ...(4)... be with my friends though I wouldn't like ...(5)... by ...(6)... so I'm going to Mallorca with Jane and Elizabeth. Elizabeth ...(7)... there before. She is looking forward to ...(8)... on the beach all day. Of course the weather there is ...(9)... in

England. They say it is very hot there at the moment, so I hope it is ...(10)... fine when we arrive.

1. A usually go В am usually going С usually am going

2. A an old wonderful В an old and wonderful С a wonderful old

3. A looks В looks like С looks to be

4. A would better В would better tc С would rather

5. A him upsetting В upsetting him С to upset him

6. A saying В telling С telling to

7. A has been В has gone С went

8. A lying В lie С lying

9. A more good than В better than С better that

10. A already В no longer С still

8.1 had a bad tooth so my wife ...(!)... to the dentist. «It ...(2)... serious», she said, «but you ...(3)... make sure». At first I ...(4).... Going to the dentist's always ...(5)... something that happened when I was a child. I went to the dentist's to ...(6)... and the dentist ...(7)... was usually there was ill. I asked his assistant to give me gas ...(8)... the pain. When I woke up, he was ...(9)... my mother for having taken the wrong tooth out. I explained this to my wife. «...(10)... coward you are!» she said.

1. A said me to go В said me that I went С told me to go D told me that I went

2. A may be not В may not be С must be not D must not be

3. A had better В would better С had rather D would rather

4. A denied going В denied to go С refused going D refused to go

5. A remembers me of В remembers me to С reminds me of D reminds me to

6. A have a tooth taken out В have taken out a tooth С take a tooth out D take out a tooth

7. A what В which С who D whom

8. A for not feel В for not feeling С not to feel D so as not to feel

9. A apologizing В apologizing to С pardoning D pardoning to

10. A So В Such a С What D What a

9. A: Hello, Janet. What was the film like last night? Is it worth...(!)...? B: I wish I ...(2)... tell you, but we didn't manage to see it. A: I thought you said you ...(3)... going to the Ritz. B: I know. But ...(4)... hundreds of people outside the cinema when we got there. If we ...(5)... the film was going to be so popular. John would have booked the tickets in advance, but we didn't expect that ...(6)... . A: So what ...(7)...? B: We waited outside for half an hour, but it was no good, so we ...(8)... home and watched the television. A: What a pity! That ...(9)... disappointing. B: Yes. I've told John that the next time we ...(10)... to the cinema, we'll get the tickets beforehand.

1. A see В to see С seeing D to be seen

2. A should В would С might D could

3. A are В were С have been D should be

\. A there were В there have С they were D they have been

5. A had known В would have known С knew D should have known

6. A so much people would come В so many people would come С there would come so much people D there would come so many people

7. A did you В were you doing С you did D did you do

8. A went to В were going to С went D were going

9. A should have been В ought to have been С must have been D had to be

10. A will have gone В shall go С will go Dgo

10. Every Thursday I have lunch with my old friend Jason, ...(!)... I have known ...(2)... we were at school together. Last Thursday , he arrived late ...(3)... was unusual because he always comes on time. I asked ...(4)... late. «I've had a bit of a shock», he said. «On my way here, a little girl ran out in front of the car ...(5)... I managed to brake in time, I can't help thinking of what would have happened if I ...(6)... killed her. I ...(7)... to my wife, ...(8)... warned me that the roads would be icy today and suggested ...(9)... by train. But I insisted ...(10)... by car.»

«Well, shocks like this are typical of ...(11)... ,» I said. «...(12)... the child wasn't hurt, there's no need to worry. In your position, if I ...(13)... she was all right, I'd forget about the whole thing.»

«Yes, perhaps you're right», he said. «All the same. I wish I ...(14)... my wife's advice. I had to stop for a minute because I was trembling so much that I ...(15)... go on».

1. A that В for С which D whom

2. A for В since С when D while

3. A that В this С what D which

4. A him why he was В him why was he С to him why he was D to him why was he

5. A Although В However С In spite D In spite of

6. A had В may have С should have D would have

7. A had to listen В must have listened С should have listened D would have listened

8. A that В which С who D whom

9. A me come В me to come С to me coming DI should come

10. A for coming В in coming С on coming D to come

11. A modern lite В modern living С the modern life D the modern living

12. A Although В In case С So long as D Unless

13. A know В was knowing С knew D would know

14. A had taken В took С should have taken D would have taken

15. A couldn't В hadn't to С may not D might not

PART I

ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY IN USE

THE ENGLISH VERB







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