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1. The jumper was shrinking when I had washed it.

2. Mike got really exhausted in his first marathon because he didn't run such a long race before.

3. The light in the room showed that Mr Simpson had been waiting for me.

4. The Titanic had been travelling to New York when it hit an iceberg and sank in the Atlantic.

5. The footballer ran towards the goal when he fell over.

6. George said that he didn't decide yet which side to support.

7. I took the decision after I have spoken to him.

8. Bill was working at the same problem for two hours when Jack phoned him and asked if he solved it.

9. I knew that Nick had boarded with an American family since his arrival and he had been learning a great deal about American habits and customs.

10. I found out why my pen friend didn't get my letters. I've been sending them to the wrong address!

WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE ACTIONS IN ENGLISH

A. The Future Simple Tense

FORMATION

The Future Simple (Indefinite) tense is formed with the help of the auxiliary shall/will and the Infinitive of the main verb without to.

Table 10

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I shall

 

 

 

work

 

 

 

 

I shall not

 

 

 

work

 

 

 

 

shall I

 

 

 

work?

 

 

 

 

you he she it     will   you he she it     will not       will   you he she it
we shall we shall not shall we
you they   will you they   will not   will you they

Contractions

'11 = will (shall) shan't = shall not won't = will not

In modern English will is preferable with all persons. Any difference between shall and will disappears in everyday speech, where the contractions I'll and we'll are normally used.

USAGE

The Future Simple (Indefinite) denotes:

1. A predicted future action, a happening which is ine­vitable and out of anybody's control.

Next year I'll be 18.

Spring will come soon.

In 100 years' time there will be a lot more people

than there are now.

Reference to the future is typically indicated by adverbials of time such as tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, in a week (month, year), next year, in 2008, etc. Sometimes reference to the future is clear from the situation.

Spring has come, so the snow will start melting, the birds will come back home.

2. An action which the speaker regards as possible, pro­bable or likely to happen in future (near or remote).

I'm sure he'll get better.

I don't think I'll go out tonight, I'm too tired.

No doubt you'll enjoy the performance.

I don't think Ann will pass her exams easily. She was idling away her time during the term.

Do you think they'll win the match?

I'll probably be a bit late this evening. 3. An action decided on spontaneously, out of circumstan­ces (i.e. an action which is not part of a plan).

Don't lift the suitcase. I'll help you.

It looks like rain. I'll take my umbrella then.

It's Kate's birthday tomorrow. - Is it? O.K. I'll send her a card this afternoon.

What would you like to drink? - I'll have a coke, please.

Close in meaning to this case is the use of the Future Simple in complex sentences with clauses of time and real condition. It must be remembered that the Future Simple is found only in the principal clause, whereas the subordinate clause takes the Present Simple or the Present Perfect (to express a completed action).

I'll phone you as soon as I arrive.

When you return home you'll notice a lot of changes.

It's pouring down. We'll get wet through if we go out.

When you see Jane again, you won't recognize her.

Come on! Mum will be worried if we are late again.

I won't send the parcel until I hear from you.

As soon as Bob and Ash ton have got married they'll move to California.

I shan’t phone you until I have done my homework.

In Indirect Speech when the reporting verb in the principal clause is in the Past tense the Future Simple tense is replaced by the Future in the Past and the adverbials like tomorrow, next week, etc. are replaced by the next day, the next week, etc.

We knew that Christie would phone the next week. Brian informed us he would go to university the next year.







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