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Classification of phrases according to their distribution:




Paratactic phrases

(free relations between elements) e.g. Yes, please.

e.g. We, the people,…

Hypotactic phrases(interdependence of elements)

endocentric- subordinative e.g. fresh milk, coordinative e.g. some pens and pencils

exocentric – predicative e.g. for him to do,      prepositional e.g. at sunrise

according to the type of connection: subordinative, coordinative and predicative phrases (subordination, coordination, predicative relation)

Subordination:

1) agreement (concord) – e.g. this book – these books; Flying planes can be dangerous (Flying planes is/are dangerous);

2) government – e.g. seeing her, Peter’s book;

3) adjoinment – e.g. reading fast;

4) enclosure – e.g. giving her a present, a nice dress.

a). According to the type of the head word, nucleus: noun phrases, verb phrases, adjective phrases, pronominal and adjectival phrases.

b). According to the syntactic function of the adjunct: attributive (cold weather), object (writing letters), adverbial phrases (very interesting).

c). According to the position of the adjunct: with prepositive adjunct (cold weather), with postpositive adjunct (money to spend), with mitpositive adjunct (did not know), frame structures (as good as).

Coordinative phrases:

- according to presence or absence of connectors (syndetic and asyndetic);

- according to the type of conjunctions (with copulative connection pens and pencils; with disjunctive connection just but strict; with adversative connection now or never)

according to the number of constituents: binary (cold weather) and multiple (a girl with blue eyes)

 

20)

 


 

Under the net – Functional + Notional

From behind – Functional + Functional

Should do it – Functional + Notional

Very clearly – Notional +Notional, dominational, monolateral,qualifying,adverbial,secondary

A sensation of relief – Notional + Notional, dominational, monolateral, qualifying, attributive( post positive,close,expressed by prepositional phrase)

Rich in minerals – Notional + Notional, dominational,monolateral,objective,indirect

To laugh merrily – Notional + Notional, dominational,monolateral, qualifying,adverbial, primary.

The car gone – Notional +notional , dominational,bilateral,partially predicative,

Men,women,children – Notional +Notioanl, equipotent,consequitive coordination.

Giant of a man – Notional + Notional, dominational, monolateral,qualifying,attributive,reversed epithet.

Wise old – Notional + Notional, equipotent, cumulative

His first good (novel) – Notional + notional, equipotent, cumulative

Some other people – the same

To Open the door – Notional + Notional, dominational, monolateral, objective, direct

 

21)

Syntactical Relations between the Components of Phrase

They may be divided into 3 groups: 1) agreement; 2) government; 3) adjoinment. Agreement is a means of syntactical relationship between words which implies that the use of one form necessitates the use of the other.

1) an adjunct word agrees in number with its headword (a noun) E.g. this (that) book – these (those) books.

2) a singular subject requires a predicate in the singular, a plural subject requires the predicate in the plural. E.g. I am a student. There are 2 books on the table. But in Modern English there is sometimes a conflict between form and meaning, in these cases the predicate doesn’t agree with the subject. My family are early risers. My family is small.

Government is a means of connecting words consisting in the use of a certain case form of the adjunct required by its headword.

1) The use of the objective case of personal pronouns and of the pronoun ‘who’ when they are subordinate to a verb or follow a preposition: e.g. I saw him (her, them). Whom did u see there?

2) We also find government between the headnoun and the attributive adjunct noun. E.g. The boy’s mother; the student’s answer.

Adjoinment is such a way of connecting words when they are joined to one another without any specail forms by only their position and combinability. It is found in the following cases:

1) Adverbs are joined to the verb. E.g. they walked slowly.

2) Adjectives, participles, pronouns (when used as attributes) are joined to their head-nouns. E.g. a small room.

3) Adverbs are joined to adjectives or other adverbs: very interesting, very well.

 

 

22) . Classification of sentences based of their structure.

The structural aspect of the sentence deals with the structural organization of the sentence, it reveals the mechanisms of deriving sentences and structural types of sentences.

According to their structure sentences are classified into simple (monopredicative structures) and composite (polypredicative structures) which are further subdivided into complex (based on subordination) and compound (based on coordination). Clauses within the structure of a composite sentence may be connected with the help of formal markers (conjunctions and connectives: relative pronouns and relative adverbs - syndetically) and without any formal markers -asyndetically. Thus we should differentiate between two structural varieties of composite sentences: syndetic and asyndetic types.

Though the difference between the complex and compound sentences is based on the two different types of semantic relations: subordination and coordination, the borderline between complex and compound sentences is not always hard and fast. Sentences may have formal markers of subordination but the semantic relations between the clauses appear to be more coordinate than subordinate. Thus, the meaning of subordination is largely weakened in attributive continuative clauses introduced by the relative pronoun 'which', e.g. She said 'no' which was exactly what I had expected to hear. The relations between the two clauses are closer to coordinate, as we can replace the subordinate connective ''which' by the coordinate conjunction 'and' without changing essentially the meaning of the sentence. Another example of weakened subordination is observed in sentences introduced by the conjunction 'whereas'. E.g. She was very tall whereas her husband hardly reached her shoulder. The meaning of this formally complex sentence can be rendered by a compound sentence: She was very tall and her husband hardly reached her shoulder.

Besides there are also peripheral types: semicomplex and semicompound sentences which contain structures of secondary predication: infinitival, participial and gerundial constructions, absolute constructions with or without a participle and structures with the so-called double predicate. E.g. There is so much work to be done — There is so much work that has to be done.

 

 


 

22б) Classification of sentences based on their communicative function

Aspects of the sentence:

- the structural aspect – the form of the sentence, the way words are organized into it

- the semantic aspect – the meaning of the sent.

- the actual aspect – determines which part of the sent conveys the most imp.info

- the pragmatic aspect – the use of the sent.as a unit of communication: a statement, a question, an order, a request, a promise

Types of communication:

declarative, interrogative, imperative (incl.emotional) and exclamatory

Declarative – the subj precedes the verb

Interrogative – aux.v in front of the subj.special w-order, very few modal words – modal w-s expressing full certainty (certainly, surely…) can’t appear in a sent, expressing a question

Semi-interrogative sent-s – “oh, you’ve seen him?”

Imperative – no gram.subj, the v – in the imperative mood; modal words, expressing possibility (perhaps,maybe) are incompatible with orders and requests

The notion of exclamatory sent-s and their relation to the other 3 types presents some difficulty: every sent, whether narrative, interrogative or imperative, may be exclamatory, i.e. it may convey the speaker’s feelings and be characterized by emphatic intonation and by an exclamation mark

Eq. But he can’t do anything to you! What can he possibly do to you! Scarlett, spare me!

Purely exclamatory sentence: “Oh, for God’s sake, Henry!”

The structure of a certain sent.may be used for other communicative purposes than those that are characteristics of the sent-s of this class

eq. Yes/No questions – You will speak to him? – declarative

Rhetorical questions – Is that the reason for despair? (of course not)

 





Simple Sentence (SS)

1.1 Definition. A sentence is a unit of speech whose grammatical structure conforms to the laws of the language and which serves as the chief means of conveying a thought. A sentence is not only a means of communicating something about reality but a means of showing the speaker’s attitude to it.

1.2 Classification. The classification of SS is based on two principles:

(A) according to the purpose of the utterance;

(B) according to the structure.

 According to the purpose of the utterance we distinguish 4 kinds of sentences:

The declarative sentence states a fact in the affirmative or negative form. In DS the subject precedes the predicate (pronounced with falling intonation) (!: English predicate can have only one negation).

He does not go anywhere.

The interrogative sentence asks a question. It is formed by means of inversion (unless subject is an interrogative word: Who is in the room? – no inversion).

There are 4 kinds of questions:

(a) General questions requiring the answer yes or no and spoken with a rising intonation. They are formed by placing part of the predicative (auxiliary or modal verb) before the subject.

Do you like art? Can you speak English?

Astonishment: Haven’t you seen him yet?

Rhetoric questions: Can you commit a whole country to their own prisons?

Special q. beginning with an interrogative word (falling intonation)

Where do you live? (order of words is as in Gen. question)

Who lives in this room? (Who – is a subject, order of words is as that of a statement)

(b) Alternative questions, indicating choice (1. rising intonation 2. falling):

Do you live in town or in the country?

(d) Disjunctive questions requiring the answer yes or no and consisting of an affirmative statement followed by a negative question, or a negative statement followed by an affirmative question (1. Falling 2. Rising intonation)

You speak English, don’t you?

An Imperative sentence serves to induce a person to do smth, so it expresses a command (falling tone: Come to the blackboard!), a request or invitation (rising tone: Open the door, please!).

An exclamatory sentence expresses some kind of emotion or feeling. It often begins with the words what and how, it is always in the declarative form (no inversion) (falling intonation: What a lovely day it is! How wonderful!)

 According to their structure SS are divided into two-member and one-member sentences. A two-member sentence is complete when it has a subject and a predicate.

Fleur had easily established immediate contact with an architect.

A two-member sentence is incomplete when one of the principal parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the context. Such sentences are called elliptical: What were we doing? Drinking.

A one-member sentence has only one member, which is neither subject nor predicate. This does not mean that the other member is missing, for the one member makes the sense complete. Used in descriptions and in emotional speech.

 If the main part of a one member sentence is expressed by a noun, the sentence is called nominal. The noun may be modified by attributes.

Dusk – of the summer night.

The main part of a one member sentence is often expressed by an infinitive.

To die out there – lonely, waiting them, waiting home.

 

SS can be unextended (consisting only of the primary or principal parts) and extended (consisting of the subject, a predicate and one or more secondary parts: objects, attributes or adverbial modifiers). 1) Birds fly. 2) This big girl is a student. (attr)

Purpose of utterance

 

 

                                              SS


  Declarative                   Interrogative                   Imperative

                                               (questions)

 

Affirmative Negative  General Special Alternative Disjunctive   Command Request  

 

Structure

 

                                            SS

                            (unextended/extended)

     
 


          Two-member                            One-member

 

Complete            Incomplete        Nominal          Infinitive

                            (elliptical)


23Б) According to their structures simple sentences fall into:

Two member

One member

sentences.

Two member sentences consist of both the principal parts of the sentence. (subject and predicate) A one member sentence consists of only one of the principal parts. Ilysh writes that one member sentences should not be confused with two member sentences with either the subject or predicate or both of them omitted. Such sentences are called incomplete two member sentences or elliptical sentences, the missing parts of which can be restored from the previous context.

One member sentences fall into: nominal types (the spring of 1945, night of ) and verbal types. The verbal types fall into finite verb types (take it,come here); infinitible types (to be away from here, oh, to be with her); participial types (broken! Left alone).

Elliptical sentences are more characteristic of dialogue speech. For ex. – Who was the 1st to come? – Peter. When did you arrive? – Yesterday.

Elliptical sentence can also be used in monologue speech. For ex: I didn’t watch the film. Don’t like it.

Professor Bloch doesn’t agree with a division of simple sentence into one member and into elliptical ones. According to him one member sentences can also be restored from the context. For ex: Night (it was night) , why not go there (why should we go there). He suggests dividing simple sentences into two axis and one axis sentences.

One axis sentences in their turn fall into:

Free one axis sentences including contextually restorable elliptical sentences;

Fixed one axis sentences which fall into the following types:

1. naming sentences – for ex: night. Spring!

2. excuses – for ex: pardon, sorry.

3.greetings - farewell - – for ex: Hi, evening, morning.

4. assertions and negations – for ex : no

5. causative constructions – for ex: come on, get away.

According to Ilysh the unexpanded sentence consists of only the subject and the predicate. The expanded simple sentence includes some optional parts of the sentence that is the suplementative modifiers, which don’t constitute a predicative expansion of a sentence.

For ex_ unexpanded simple – the boy is sleeping. I bought a book. She became a teacher.

Expanded ones - I bought a book for you. The night came dark and dreary. (predicative supplements) (adverbial) – I saw a house in the distance.

According to paradigmatic characteristics they distinguish elementary sentences which have the following synonyms – base sentence, cornel sentences – the elementary and cornel sentence is a two member unexpanded sentences. They also distinguish trans forms – different communicative and structural types of the sentences built up of elementary or cornel sentences.

 

 


23с) STRUCTURAL TYPES OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

According to their structures simple sentences fall into:

1. Two member

2. One member

sentences.

Two member sentences consist of both the principal parts of the sentence. (subject and predicate) A one member sentence consists of only one of the principal parts. Ilysh writes that one member sentences should not be confused with two member sentences with either the subject or predicate or both of them omitted. Such sentences are called incomplete two member sentences or elliptical sentences, the missing parts of which can be restored from the previous context.

One member sentences fall into: nominal types (the spring of 1945, night of ) and verbal types. The verbal types fall into finite verb types (take it,come here); infinitible types (to be away from here, oh, to be with her); participial types (broken! Left alone).

 Elliptical sentences are more characteristic of dialogue speech. For ex. – Who was the 1st to come? – Peter. When did you arrive? – Yesterday.

Elliptical sentence can also be used in monologue speech. For ex: I didn’t watch the film. Don’t like it.

 

Professor Bloch doesn’t agree with a division of simple sentence into one member and into elliptical ones. According to him one member sentences can also be restored from the context. For ex: Night (it was night) , why not go there (why should we go there). He suggests dividing simple sentences into two axis and one axis sentences.

One axis sentences in their turn fall into:

- Free one axis sentences including contextually restorable elliptical sentences;

- Fixed one axis sentences which fall into the following types:

1. naming sentences – for ex: night. Spring!

2. excuses – for ex: pardon, sorry.

3.greetings - farewell - – for ex: Hi, evening, morning.

4. assertions and negations – for ex : no

5. causative constructions – for ex: come on, get away.

 

There is one more – semantic classification of sentences. It is based on the categorical semantics of the subject, the categorical semantics of the predicate and on the subject-object relations.

1. According to the categorical semantics of the subject simple sentences fall into personal and impersonal ones. Personal sentences fall into: human, non-human. Human sentences fall into definite and indefinite ones. For ex: the students are taking exams. Non-human falls into animate and inanimate ones. Impersonal sentences fall into factual (it rains, it’s five o’clock)and perceptional (it smells of onion) sentences.

2. According to the categorical semantics of the predicate the simple sentences fall into: process featuring (verbal) and substance featuring (nominal). The process featuring fall into actional (they are playing tennis) and statal sentences (we like theoretical grammar). Substance featuring sentences fall into : factual ones (the sea is rough) and perceptional (the place seems quite).

3. According to the subject-object relations the sentences fall into 3 subtypes : subjective sentence (john lives in London), objective sentence (John likes apples), potentially object sentences (neutral) ( John reads a lot).

 

 





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