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Classification of dictionaries
All dictionaries are divided into linguistic and encyclopedic dictionaries. Encyclopedic dictionaries describe different objects, phenomena, people and give some data about them. Linguistic dictionaries describe vocabulary units, their semantic structure, their origin, their usage. Words are usually given in the alphabetical order.
Linguistic dictionaries are divided into general and specialized . To general dictionries two most widely used dictionaries belong: explanatory and translation dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries include dictionaries of synonyms, antonyms, collocations, word-frequency, neologisms, slang, pronouncing, etymological, phraseological and others.
All types of dictionaries can be unilingual ( excepting translation ones) if the explanation is given in the same language, bilingual if the explanation is given in another language and also they can be polilingual.
There are a lot of explanatory dictionaries (NED, SOD, COD, NID, N.G. Wyld’s «Universal Dictionary» and others). In explanatory dictionaries the entry consists of the spelling, transcription, grammatical forms, meanings, examples, phraseology. Pronunciation is given either by means of the International Transcription System or in British Phonetic Notation which is different in each large dictionary, e.g. /o:/ can be indicated as / aw/, /or/, /oh/, /o/. etc.
Translation dictionaries give words and their equivalents in the other language. There are English-Russian dictionaries by I.R. Galperin, by Y.Apresyan and others. Among general dictionaries we can also mention Learner’s dictionaries. They began to appear in the second half of the 20-th century. The most famous is «The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary» by A.S. Hornby. It is a unilingual dictionary based on COD, for advanced foreign learners and language teachers. It gives data about grammatical and lexical valency of words. Specialized dictionaries of synonyms are also widely used, one of them is «A Dictionary of English Synonyms and Synonymous Expressions» by R.Soule. Another famous one is «Webster’s Dictionary of Synonyms». These are unilingual dictionaries. The best known bilingual dictionary of synonyms is «English Synonyms» compiled by Y. Apresyan.
In 1981 «The Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English» was compiled, where words are given in 14 semantic groups of everyday nature. Each word is defined in detail, its usage is explained and illustrated, synonyms, antonyms are presented also. It describes 15000 items, and can be referred to dictionaries of synonyms and to explanatory dictionaries.
Phraseological dictionaries describe idioms and colloquial phrases, proverbs. Some of them have examples from literature. Some lexicographers include not only word-groups but also anomalies among words. In «The Oxford Dicionary of English Proverbs» each proverb is illustrated by a lot of examples, there are stylistic references as well. The dictionary by Vizetelli gives definitions and illustrations, but different meanings of polisemantic units are not given. The most famous bilingual dictionary of phraseology was compiled by A.V. Koonin. It is one of the best phraseological dictionaries.
Etymological dictionaries trace present-day words to the oldest forms of these words and forms of these words in other languages. One of the best etymological dictionaries was compiled by W. Skeat.
Pronouncing dictionaries record only pronunciation. The most famous is D. Jones’ s «Pronouncing Dictionary».
Dictionaries of neologisms are : a four-volume «Supplement to NED» by Burchfield, «The Longman Register of New Words»/1990/, «Bloomsury Dictionary of New Words» /1996/.
The smallest language unit.
The function of a root morpheme.
The main function of suffixes.
The secondary function of suffixes.
The main function of prefixes.
The secondary function of prefixes.
Splinters and their formation in English.
The difference between affixes and splinters.
Structural types of words in English.
The stem of a word and the difference beween a simple word, a stem and a root.
The difference between a block compound and a nominal benomial.
The difference between a word and a phraseological unit.
The similarity between a word and a phraseological unit.
Analyze the following lexical units according to their structure. Point out the function of morphemes. Speak about bound morphemes and free morphemes. Point out allomorphs in analyzed words:
accompany unsystematic forget-me-not
computerise expressionless reservation
de-restrict superprivileged moisture
lengthen clannish pleasure
beautify workaholic reconstruction
beflower inwardly counterculture
specialise moneywise three-cornered
round table Green Berets to sandwich in
Classification of suffixes according to the part of speech they form.
Classification of suffixes according to the stem they are added to.
Classification of suffixes according to their meaning.
Classification of suffixes according to their productivity.
Classification of suffixes according to their origin.
Classification of prefixes according to their meaning.
Classification of prefixes according to their origin.
Classification of prefixes according to their productivity.
Analyze the following derived words, point out suffixes and prefixes and classify them from different points of view:
to embed nourishment unsystematic
to encourage inwardly to accompany
translatorese dispensable clannishness
to de-restrict workaholic jet-wise
reconstruction to overreach thouroughly
afterthought foundation childishness
transgressor to re-write completenik
gangsterdom pleasure concentration
refusenik counter-culture brinkmanship
allusion self-criticism to computerise
slimster reservation translation
Characteristic features of compound words in different languages.
Characteristic features of English compounds.
Classification of compound words according to their structure.
Classification of compound words according to the joining element.
Classification of compound words according to the parts of speech.
Classification of compound words according to the semantic relations between the components.
Ways of forming compound words.
Analyze the following compound words:
note-book speedometer son-in-law
to job-hop brain-gain video-corder
fair-haired forget-me-not Anglo-Russian
teach-in back-grounder biblio-klept
theatre-goer well-dressed bio-engineer
to book-hunt mini-term to baby-sit
blood-thirsty good-for-nothing throw-away
do-gooder skin-head kleptomania
sportsman para-trooper airbus
bus-napper cease-fire three-cornered
tip-top brain-drain bread-and-butter
Compare the strucure of the following words:
demagougery tablewards heliport
tobbacoless money-wise non-formal
booketeria go-go motel
counter-clockwise to frontpage productivity
giver-away newly-created nobody
Conversion as a way of wordbuilding.
Different points of view on the nature of conversion.
Semantic groups of verbs which can be converted from nouns.
The meanings of verbs converted from adjectives.
Semantic groups of nouns which can be converted from verbs.
Characteristic features of combinations of the type «stone wall».
Semantic groups of combinations of this type.
Analyze the following lexical units:
to eye a find to slim
a grown-up to airmail steel helmet
London season resit sleep
a flirt a read handout
to weekend a build-up supersonics
a non-formal to wireless to submarine
to blue-pencil to blind - the blind - blinds
distrust a jerk to radio
news have-nots the English
to co-author to water to winter
a sit-down mother-in-law morning star
undesirables a walk a find
dislike log cabin finals
Shortenings and abbreviations.
Lexical and graphical abbreviations,the main differences between them.
Types of graphical abbreviations.
Types of initias, peculiarities of their pronunciation.
Lexical shortenings of words, their reference to styles.
Compound-shortened words, their structural types.
Analyze the following lexical units:
aggro /aggression/ Algol / algorythmic language/
apex /eipeks/ - advanced purchased excursion/ payment for an excursion ninety days before the time of excursion/
A-day /announcement Day - day of announcing war/
AID / artifitial insemination by a donor/
AIDS / acquired immunity deficiency syndrome/
Ala / Alabama/ a.s.a.p. /as soon as possible/
bar-B-Q ,barb /barbecue/ to baby-sit / baby-sitter/
A-level /advanced level/ BC /birth certificate/
burger /hamberger/ Camford, Oxbridge
CALL /computer-assisted language learning/
CAT /computer-assisted training/
cauli / cauliflower/ COD / cash on delivery/
COBOL / k ubol/ /common business-oriented language/
co- ed comp /komp, k mp/ /accompaniment/
DINKY /double income ,no kids yet/
E-Day /entrance day //Common Market/ expo/exposition/
edbiz/ educational business/ el-hi / elementary and high
schools/, ex lib/ex libris/ /from the library of/
etc Euratom fax /facsimile/
G-7 / group of seven: GB, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, Italy, Spain/. FORTRAN /formula translation/.
Ways of forming phraseological units.
Semantic classification of phraseological units.
Structural classification of phraseological units.
Syntactical classification of phraseological units.
Analyze the following phraseological units according to their meaning, structure, syntactical function and the way they are formed:
When pigs fly /never/. To leap into marriage.
To be a whipping boy. To be behind scenes.
Girl Friday /a man’s assistant/. Fire in the belly.
Man Friday /a true friend/. A dear John.
To be on the beam. Game, set and match.
Country and western. To jump out of one’s skin.
As smart as paint. It’s my cup of tea.
Robin Crusoe and Friday / seats at a theatre divided by a passage/. Fortune favours fools. To be in the dog house.
The green power. Green Berets.
Culture vulture. To get off one’s back.
To make headlines. On the nose.
With a bump. To have a short fuse.
To vote with one’s feet. Nuts and bolts.
Blackboard jungle. The sky is the limit.
Cash and carry. To nose out.
To sandwich in. Berlin wall.
A close mouth catches no flies. To speak BBB.
To sound like a computer. As dull as lead.
Last but not least. On the stroke of.
Students choose ten phraseological units from Koonin’s dictionary of phraseological units and a unilingual dictionary of idioms and analyze them in the written form. During the seminar they analyze their phrasological units chosen from dictionaries at the blackboard.
Classification of borrowings according to the language from which they were borrowed:
Classification of borrowings according to the borrowed aspect: phonetic borrowings, semantic borrowings, translation loans, morphemeic borrowings, hybrids.
Classification of borrowings according to the degree of assimilation: fully assimilated borrowings, partly assimilated borrowings, barbarisms. Borrowings partly assimilated semantically, grammatically, phonetically and graphically.
Analyze the following borrowings:
school represent sky-blue
degree rhythm immobility
chandelier the Zoo vase
mot /mou/ hybrid bouffant
illuminate keenly communicative
possessiveness to reproach command
moustache gifted boutique
skipper cache-pot well-scrubbed
nouveau riche emphatic mysteriously
dactyl Nicholas group
to possess chenile psychological
garage guarantee contempt
trait/trei/ triumph stomach
sympathy cynical Philipp
schoolboy Christianity paralyzed
system hotel cyclic
diphtheria kerchief dark-skinned.
Word and notion.
Lexical meaning and notion.
Classifications of homonyms when applied to analysis.
Classifications of antonyms when applied to analysis.
Analyze the following lexical units applying the above mentioned classifications of homonyms and antonyms:
present - absent, present - to present
like , to like - to dislike - dislike
sympathy - antipathy
progress - to progress, regress - to regress
success - failure, successful- unsuccessful
left - left/to leave/, right adj. - right n.
inflexible - flexible
unsafe - safe adj. - safe n.
fair n. - fair adj. unfair, foul
piece - peace
dark-haired - fair-haired
a row - a row /rou/ - /rau/
a fan - a fan
superiority - inferiority
different - similar, indifferent, alike, difference - similarity
meaningful - meaningless
after prep.- before -before adv., before conj.
to gossip - a gossip
shapeless - shapy
air - to air - air
fearless - fearful
bright - dim, dull, sad
to fasten - to unfasten
something - nothing
eldest - oldest -youngest
to husband - husband
obscure - to obscure
unaccustomed - accustomed
to exclude - to include
to conceal -to reveal
too - too- two
somewhere - nowhere
a drawer - a drawer
with - without
Neology «blowup» and the work of R.Berchfield.
Semantic neologisms, transnomination and proper neologisms.
Semantic groups of neologisms connected with computerization.
Social stratification and neologisms.
Semantic groups of neologisms referring to everyday life.
Phonological neologisms and borrowings as strong neologisms.
Morphological and syntactical neologisms.
Changes in pronunciation.
Analyze the following neologisms from the point of view of neology theory and also from the point of view of their morphemic structure and the way they were formed :
to clip-clip AIDS coup
sound barrier to Vice-Preside boutique
to re-familiarize tourmobile sevenish
to de-dramatize non-formals to baby-sit
to scrimp and save fireside chat hide-away
coin-in-the-slot cashless society memo
We shall overcome. to dish old wine in new bottles
to-ing and fro-ing multinationals the Commons
hyperacidity religiosity D-Day
face-to-face/tuition/ femme-fatalish to the wingtips
to river singer-songwriter beatnik
communication gap laundered money cheeseburger
Don’t change horses. to put a freeze on micro-surgical
SA out-doorsy medicare
Cold War self-exile public-schooly
brain-drainer movers and shakers Euroyuppie
Control work on the analysis of language units. Each student gets six language units of different types / simple words, derived words, compound words, phraseological units, combinations of the type «stone wall», borrowings, abbreviations, antonyms, homonyms, neologisms , abbreviations/ and is to analize them from all points of view which were studied during the seminars.
Analysis of the control paper.
Historical development of British lexicography.
Historical development of American lexicography.
Classification of dictionaries.
Student reports on dictionaries they use in their work.
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