Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 


Implementation of firearms in warfare began in




a) the Medieval period

b) the Renaissance

c) during the WWI

d) in the 19th century

Firearms are different from earlier weapons because

a) they are heavier

b) they are lighter

c) they are mounted on bipods

d) they store energy in gunpowder

The most powerful weapon was invented

a) between 1939 and 1945

b) during the WWI

c) in the 1960s

d) in 2000

The greatest advantage of the modern weapon is the ability

a) to attack

b) to attack before the enemy can detect the threat

c). to use human power

d) to threaten the enemy

Who uses weapon determines how it can be

a) stored

b) employed

c) bought

d) designed

Weapon

 

A weapon is a tool used to apply force for hunting, attack or defense in combat, subduing enemy personnel, or to destroy enemy weapons, equipment and defensive structures. A weapon is therefore a device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force.

In attack, weapons may be used to threaten by direct contact or by use of projectiles. Weapons can be as simple as a club, or as complex as an intercontinental ballistic missile.

The earliest and most primitive weapons were the by-products of early human hunting – claws, teeth and horns of hunted animals, shaped or adapted for use as weapons. Stone axes were used as weapons very early in human history as personal weapons of direct.

The Medieval period, including the Western Middle Ages, was characterized by two Medieval weapons: knights, heavily-armored horsemen and the artillery to negate the increased use of castles. The bayonet is used as a knife.

The Renaissance marked the beginning of implementation of firearms in warfare, with the introduction of guns and rockets to the battlefield.

Firearms are different from earlier weapons because they store energy in a combustible propellant such as gunpowder, rather than in a weight or spring. This energy is released quite rapidly, and can be restored without much effort by the user. They became increasingly important and effective during the 16th century to 19th century (especially during the 1700s when many European nations began to forge empires, some of which survived until the 1900s, with progressive improvements in ignition mechanisms followed by revolutionary changes in ammunition handling and propellant.

Later human-powered weapons were finally excluded from the battlefield. This period was characterized by the development of firearms for infantry and cannons for support, as well as the beginnings of mechanized weapons such as the machine gun, the tank and the wide introduction of aircraft into warfare. All existing technologies were improved between 1939 and 1945. The most powerful weapon invented during this period was the atomic bomb.

The most notable development in weaponry since World War II was the combination and further development of two weapons first used in nuclear weapons and the ballistic missile. However computer-guided weaponry of all kinds, from precision-guided munitions (or “smart bombs”) to computer-aimed tank rounds, has greatly increased weaponry’s accuracy.The element of surprise has long been recognized as a tactical advantage.

There are essentially three facts to classify weapon systems: who uses it, how it works, and what it targets.

Who uses it essentially determines how it can be employed.

What it targets refers to what type of target the weapon is designed to attack.

How it works refers to the construction of the weapon and how it operates.

II. Discuss with your partner which sentence in B best continues the sentence in A.

A B

 

1. Antimatter weapon a) are typically explosive in nature and exploit the willingness of

their operator not to survive.

2. Archery b) large firearms capable of launching heavy projectiles over long

distances.

3. Artillery c) use a physical explosion to create blast concussion or spread

shrapnel.

4. Biological weapon d)operate as physical extensions of the user’s body and directly

impact their target.

5. Chemical weapon e) would combine matter and antimatter to cause a powerful

explosion.

6. Energy weapon f) operate by using a tensioned string to launch a projectile at

some target.

7. Explosive weapons g) use chemical propellant to accelerate a projectile ( usually

with an explosive warhead ) towards a target and typically

unguided once fired.

8. Firearms h) spread biological agents, attacking humans by causing

diseases and infection.

9. Improvised weapons i) use a chemical charge to launch one or more projectiles down

a rifle or smoothbore barrel.

10. Incendiary weapons j) spread chemical agents, attacking humans by poisoning and

causing reactions.

11. Non-lethal weapons k) use magnetic fields to accelerate and propel projectiles, or to

focus charged particle beams.

12. Magnetic weapons l) are used to attack and subdue humans, but are designed to

minimize the risk of killing the target.

13. Melee weapons m) rely on concentrating forms of energy to attack, such as

lasers, electrical shocks and thermal a sonic attack.

14. Missiles n) cause a projectile to leave the user and strike a target afterwards.

15. Nuclear weapons o) are rockets which are guided to their target after launch.

16. Primitive weapons p) use radioactive material to create nuclear fission and nuclear

fusion detonations above a target (air-burst) or at ground-level

(ground burst).

17. Ranged weapons q) make little or no use of technological or industrial elements,

instead being constructed of easily obtainable natural materials.

18. Rockets r) are common objects that were not designed for combat purpose

but are used in self-defense, guerrilla warfare or a violent crime.

19. Suicide weapons s) rely on combustible materials and an ignition mechanism to

cause damage by fire.

 

 

Unit VIII

COMPUTERS

Part I

 

I. Match the computer parts with the words below:

a) CD-drive b) disk drive с) keyboard d) modem e) monitor f) mouse

g) printer h) speakers

 





Рекомендуемые страницы:


Читайте также:

Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2017-03-11; Просмотров: 243; Нарушение авторского права страницы


lektsia.com 2007 - 2019 год. Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав! (0.006 с.) Главная | Обратная связь