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Read and study new words on the topic.



astute (adj) [əˈstju:t] проницательный
breakthrough (n) [ˈbreıkθru:] прорыв
current (adj) [ˈkʌrənt] современный, текущий
cognitive( adj) [ˈkɒgnitıv]   познавательный
device (n) [dɪˈvaıs] устройство
define (v) = determine (v) [dɪˈfaın] [dɪˈtɜːmɪn] определять
embrace (v) [mˈbreıs] объять, охватить
emerge (v) [ıˈmɜːdʒ] возникать
enable (v) [ɪˈneıbl] давать возможность, приспосабливать
enterprise (adj) [ˈentəpraız] предприимчивый
force (n) [ˈfɔːs] сила
handle (v) [ˈhændl] 1) делать что-л. руками 2) управлять, регулировать
innovate (v) [ˈınəveıt] вводить новшество

 

3.2 Read these international words and guess their meaning.

 

architecture [ˈɑːkɪtekt∫ə]
equivalent [ɪˈkwɪvələnt]
protein [ˈprəʊti:n]  
molecular [ˈməʊ lıkjulə]
molecule [ˈmɒlɪkju:l]
millisecond [ˈmɪlıˌseıkənd]
manipulate [məˈnıpju:leıt]
innovation [ˌınəˈveɪ∫n]  
chaos [keı-ɒs]
silicon   [ˈsılıkən]
system   [ˈsıstəm]

 

 

Match the adjectives in A with the definitions in B.

 

A B

capable good at learning

flexible can think of new and interesting ideas

complex introducing new things, ideas, ways of doing

intelligent made up of many different parts

innovative having the ability necessary for smth.

imaginative can bend easily without breaking

cognitive letting to acquire knowledge

 

Complete the table. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Adjective Noun
capable  
flexible  
complex  
intelligent  
innovative  
imaginative imagination
cognitive  

 

3.5 Add suffix er/or to the following verbs to make nouns (with the meaning of performer of the action).Translate them.

E.g. perform-performer

 

enable-

construct-

innovate-

make-

manufacture-

handle-

invent

translate-

write-

 

3.6 Discuss in pairs and give a definition for a word innovation.

 

While working a qualified engineer deals with technological innovations.

Make a list of the innovations you know.

-nanotechnology

-

-

-

3.8 Work in groups. Discuss what qualities should a 21st century engineer possess to use new technologies.

Compare your description with that given by J. Bordogna. Agree or disagree.

“21st century engineers will need to be astute makers, trusted innovators, enterprise enablers, technology stewards, and knowledge handlers.”

(Joseph Bordogna, U.S.National Science Foundation)

3.10 Read the summary of his article and fill in the gaps with the words:

Defines, technical and scientific skills, hundreds of processors, consists of, be able to reduce, human-made devices, store the equivalent of, trying to mix

 

What does a 21st century engineer need to know? Let’s consider some of the new capabilities that are shaping the future of engineering- terascale, nanoscale, complexity, cognition and holism. Science and technology are transforming forces, that’s why these emerging fields will expand our capabilities as engineers and innovators.

In the past our system architectures could handle….... Now we are working with systems of 10000 processors. On current systems the simulation of a millisecond requires 2 months. With new terascale systems1 we may ……this time.

Nanostructures2 combine the smallest of……. and the large molecules of living systems. This technology lets manipulate a molecule at a time. It could lead to U.S. Library of Congress in a device we could wear.

If we look at science and engineering, complexity can be met in many disciplines and in the most unexpected places. Researchers are……. polymers and silicon, because plastics are chaotic chains3 while silicon……… orderly crystals. The resulting electronic device would have marvelous flexibility and be less expensive

The dictionary……. cognition as “the mental process or facility by which knowledge is acquired”. It is the knowledge, methods, tools that lead us to cognitive revolution which can reduce the influence of the information revolution.

According to the dictionary holism is “the concept that entity4 is greater than the sum of its parts». Modern engineer should be able to see connections of seemingly different components and integrate them.

Taken together this means that the 21st century engineer will need more than….. He will need to embrace complex systems and the issues they present.

 

 

Find in the text the opposites of the following words and word

Combinations.

 

orderly

simple systems

sum of its part

at present

similar components

 

Replace the underlined words with their synonyms from the text.

1) Nanotechnology is one of the promising fields that will change the future.

2) The new device will have wonderful elasticity.

3) Silicon is comprised of orderly crystals.

4) Cognitive revolution can minimize the impact of the information revolution.

5) Some of the new capabilities are determining the future of engineering

 

Give the translation of the following phrases, using the text.

- современные системы

- белковая свертка

- устройство, созданное человеком

- удивительный прорыв

- упорядоченные кристаллы

- прекрасная гибкость

- кажущиеся несовместимыми компоненты

 

Match a verb and a noun to make phrases.

1 to acquire a) the future

2 to expand b) capabilities

3 to shape c) a variety of processors

4 to handle d) knowledge

5 to require e) much time

Use these word combinations in the sentences of your own.

Make up a description of the ideal 21st century engineer.

 

- the personal qualities he should possess

- the knowledge he should acquire

 

 

Unit 4

Technological Innovations

Nanotechnology

 

Read and study new words on the topic.

affect (v) [əˈfekt] воздействовать, влиять
amplify (v) [æmplˈfaɪ]  
= reinforce (v) [ˌri: ınˈfɔːs] усиливать
artificial (adj) [ˌɑːtıfɪ∫ıəl] искусственный
destroy (v) [dıˈstrɔɪ] уничтожать, разрушать
disperse (v) [dıˈspɜːs] рассеивать (n)
manufacture (v) [ˌmænjʊˈfækt∫ə] производить
perform (v) [pəˈfɔːm] выполнять
replace (v) [rıˈpleıs] заменять, вытеснять
remove (v) [rıˈmu:v] удалять
resist (v) [rıˈzıst] противостоять, сопротивляться
surgery (n) [ˈsɜːdʒəri] хирургия
supply (v) [səˈplaı] поставлять, обеспечивать
supply (n) [səˈplaı] запас, поставка
spill (v) [spıl] разлить
store (v) [stɔː] хранить
shape (v) [∫eɪp] формировать
target (n) [ˈtɑːgıt] цель
target (v)   нацеливать

 

4.1.2 Read these international words and guess their meanings.

 

aerosols [ˈeərəsɒl]
bio-active [baıə-æktıv]
ceramics [sıˈræmɪks]
hierarchy [ˈhaırɑːkı]
hierarchical [haıˈrɑːkıkəl]
polymers [ˈpɒlımə]
product [ˈprɒdʌkt]  

 

Answer the questions.

 

a) What do you know about nanotechnology?

 

b) What can we build with nanotechnology today and what will we be able to build in future?

 

Read the text and explain what nanotechnology is.

Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. Thus it’s the science of building tiny things. Today we usually make things by shaping materials – cutting, grinding*, milling**, etc. But in the future, we’ll be able to work on a smaller scale and build things atom by atom.

Today scientists can build nanowires – extremely strong tubes that are just four atoms wide. And when they have the manufacturing systems, they’ll be able to build anything we want – diamonds, water, food, robots, etc. We’ll be able to make all kinds of things smaller, lighter, cheaper, stronger, and smarter.

We are at the start of a technological revolution and nanotechnology will affect every part of our lives – cars, computers, medicine, energy supplies, food, clothes. It will offer better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer products for home, for communications, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general. And it will happen sooner than most people think. By 2010 you won’t be able to count the number of businesses using nanotechnology.

* • шлифовка

** размол

 

Mark the sentences True (T)/ False (F). Correct the wrong statements.

1.Nanotechnology is the science of making large things.

2.Nowadays scientists can’t build nanowires.

3.In the nearest future we’ll be to make smaller, cheaper and safer products for all needs.

4.Technological revolution won’t influence any sphere of our life.

5.Nanostructures will be true only in 40-50 years.

 







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