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It was appropriate that the guests wore evening dresses

A sentence may contain emphatic what-clause, it cannot be shifted to the end and sometimes called pseudo-cleft sentence: What I enjoy is a good laugh.

The conjunctions but that (formal), except that, save that (formal), apart from the fact that are used to introduce clauses elaborating or making more specific the meaning of the subject of the main clause: Nothing would satisfy his parents but that he should get only the top grades.

SC in proverbs and idiomatic expressions: What is done can’t be undone.

Predicative clause is a kind of dependent clause that serves as predicative, complementing as it does a link verb in the main clause. Link verbs: be, feel, look, seem, taste, sound, become and remain: The point is that my pass is no longer valid.

Introduced by means of the same subordinators as subject clause (both that-clauses and wh-clauses): And that’s why we agreed.

With as if/as though can vary according to the presumed reality or unreality and the time of reference. Susan looks as if she is intelligent (похоже что она умна),

 Susan looks as if she was intelligent (but she is not),

Susan looks as if she were intelligent (but she is not – formal )

A marginal type of PC: Their requirements are as follows.

PC in idiomatic expressions: That’s there a shoe pinches (= That’s the problem)


Object clause is a kind of dependent clause that serves as object to a finite or not finite verb in the main clause: I knew that they were tired.

Only that-clauses and wh-clauses in object position in complex sentence. Wh-clauses can be preceded by a preposition: Don’t you ever listen to what I say?

Conjunction that can be sometimes omitted (after common reporting verbs – say think know…): She said she had married Ronald.

OC are often found after predicative adjectives and participles: afraid, angry, certain, pleased proud…

He was very anxious that we should meet.

With formal object it: I hate it when people are cruel to animals.

The predicate of the OC stands in the subjunctive mood if this clause is subordinated to one of the following volitional verbs in the main clause: advise, ask, beg, insist, order, propose, recommend, suggest and so on.

OC found after the verb wish use various verb forms depending on the meaning of the utterance and time reference of the action named in OC: I wish tomorrow was Saturday (it isn’t). Now she wishes she had gone to college.

The past subjunctive and the past indefinite forms are found in OC following I’d rather/I’d sooner: I’d rather you didn’t tell him.

Inverted word order in a main clause: 1. Little + verbs of mental activity – Little did she realized what have become of her children; 2. Well may…, With good reason may… or With every justification may…: With every justification may you say the journey was well worth money.

OC in idiomatic expressions: I hope Billy will get what’s coming to him (=what he deserves)


32) Attributive Clauses

Like attributive adjuncts in a simple sentence, attributive clauses qualify the

thing denoted by its head word through some actions, state or situation in which

the thing is involved.

It has been customary to make distinction between two types of attributive

sub-clauses: restrictive and continuative or amplifying clauses ("defining" and

"non-defining") This division is however too absolute to cover all patterns.

Restrictive clauses are subordinate in meaning to the clause containing the

antecedent; continuative clauses are more independent: their contents might often

be expressed by an independent statement giving some additional information

about the antecedent that is already sufficiently defined. Continuative clauses may

be omitted without affecting the precise understanding of the sentence as a whole.

This is marked by a different intonation, and by a clear break preceding the

continuative clause, no such break separating a restrictive clause from its

antecedent. The presence or absence of such a pause is indicated in writing and in

print by the presence or absence of a comma before as well as after the sub-clause.

 4. Clauses of Cause: Clauses of cause are usually introduced by the conjunctions because, since,

and as and indicate purely causal relations. e.g. I had to go home since it was getting dark.As we have just bought a new house, we cannot afford a new car. I did not arrive on time because I had missed my bus 5. Clauses of Place Clauses of place do not offer any difficulties of grammatical analysis; they are generally introduced by the relative adverb where or by the phrase from where,

to where, etc. e.g.: He went to the cafй where he hoped to find his friend.

6. Temporal Clauses:

Temporal clauses can be used to denote two simultaneous actions or states,

one action preceding or following the other, etc.

e.g. When we finished our lunch, we left.

7. Clauses of Condition:

Conditional sentences can express either a real condition ("open condition")

or an unreal condition:

If you ask him he will help you (real condition)

If you asked him, he would help you (unreal condition)

8. Clauses of Result:

Clauses of result or consequence are characterized by two patterns:

- clauses introduced by the conjunction that correlated with the pronoun

       such or the adverb so in the main clause;

- clauses introduced by the phrasal connective so that.

e.g. Suddenly she felt so relieved that she could not help crying.

9. Clauses of Purpose:

Clauses expressing purpose are known to be introduced by the conjunction

that or lest and by the phrase in order that.

e.g. I avoided mentioning the subject lest he be offended.

10. Clauses of Concession:

The following types of concessive clauses are clauses that give information

about the circumstances despite or against which what is said in the principal

clause is carried out:

e.g. I went to the party, though I did not feel like it.

11. Clauses of Manner and Comparison:

Sub-clauses of manner and comparison characterize the action of the

principal clause by comparing it to some other action.

e.g. She was nursing the flower, as a mother nurses her child.


The Compound Sentence


1. Compound s. – an outline;

2. Asyndetic Compound Sentences;

3. Syndetic compound sentences;

 a. C.s. with disjunctive coord.

 b. C.s. with adversative coord.

 c. C.s. with causative-consecutive coordination

 d. C.s. with copulative coordination.


A c.s. is a multiple sentence of two or more clauses coordinated with each other. Clauses combined by means of coordination are regarded as independent^ they are linked in such a way that there is no hierarchy in the syntactic relationship$ they have the same syntactic status. Two clauses are coordinated if they are connected by a conjunct or a coordinator/ Coordinated clauses are sometimes called “conjoins” Coordination can be asyndatic or syndatic. Grammar books differ greatly in their treatment of coordinators. Clausal coordinators are regarded as those linking elements which do not allow other linking words before them. Coordinators are to be distinguished from conjuncts (therefore, otherwise, also, then).

Asyndetic Compound Sentences:

In a.c.s. coordinators are absent. 1. Two or more clauses can be made into one s. without a coordinator being used. The result is a.c.s. Don’t worry, I’ll take care of it. It is natural that asyndetically joined coordinate clauses should convey related ideas. Grammatically, these relations might not be expressed explicitly: the speaker or writer has them in mind when producing an utterance and listener deduces them from the semantic context, intonation contour and some structural features of the coordinated clauses. More often the relation between a. joined coordinate clauses is shown with the help of conjunctive adverbs or conjuncts (however, yet, thus, so, besides). They want to be slim, of course, yet after months of dieting failure they might think it was time to stop. 2. In writing, asyndetically joined coordinate clauses are separated by a semicolon (;), colon (:) or a dash (-). The semicolon is perhaps most frequently used. The colon is mainly used to set off a clause that explains or elaborates the statement expressed in the first clause. The dash is especially common in informal writing; it can be used in the same way as the colon. A comma can be used in a.s. if the clauses are very short or the ideas expressed are closely related: I came, I saw, I conquered. 3. If both a.c. are negative in meaning and the second clause opens with still less, much less or even less, this second clause has inverted word order, similar to the interrogative sentence inversion She doesn’t even like him; much less does she want to marry him. 4. A.s. are found in a number of proverbs Two is a company; three is none/ a crowd.

Syndetic compound sentences:

In s.c.c. the type of coordination is expressed explicitly by means of coordinators, coordinating conjunctions and, but, for, so that The lights went out, the curtain went up and the show began. The peculiarity of and and or is that they can link more than two clauses. Coordinators can be divided into one-member, or simple (and, but) and multi-member (either…or).

Coordinators and conjuncts in a compound sentence express four logical types of coordination: copulative, disjunctive, adversative and causative-consecutive.

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