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The United States of America



After its 200th birthday the United States of America still holds the leading position in the western world. What makes the USA the leader is its economic, political and military dominance over other countries.

The United States are situated in the central part of the North American Continent between the two oceans: the Atlantic Ocean to the East and the Pacific Ocean to the West. They border with Canada and Mexico.

The country consists of three separate parts. They are the Hawaiian Islands, Alaska and the rest major part of the USA.

There are many big cities and towns in the USA: New York, San Francisco, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles are the biggest of them.

The United States of America is a parliamentary republic. The government is divided into three branches: legislative ( the US Congress), executive ( the President and his Administration) and the judicial ( the US Supreme Court).

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Democratic ( symbolized by a “donky”) and the Republican ( its symbol is an “elephant”).

The US President is both head of state and government. He is elected for a four – year term. Presidential elections are held every leap year on the first Tuesday after first Monday in November.

Each of the fifty states of the USA has a constitution patterned after the federal Constitution.

The Presidency means not only a man: means an institution – the “executive” branch of the government.

 

5.Выпишите и письменно переведите правильные высказывания.

 

1. The United States of America still holds the leading position in the world.

2. The United States of America are situated in the central part of the North American Continent between the two oceans: the Atlantic Ocean to the East and the Pacific Ocean to the West.

3. The United States of America border with France and Portugal.

4. The country consists of three separate parts : the Hawaiian Islands, Alaska and the rest major part of the USA.

5. The biggest cities of the USA are : Mexico, Lima,Dublin.

6. The United States of America is a parliamentary republic.

7. There are two main political parties in the USA : the Democratic and the Republican.

8. The US President is both head of the state and government.

9. The President is elected for a seven- year term.

10. Each of the fifty states of the USA has a constitution patterned after the federal Constitution.

 

Вариант 3

 

1. Изучите темы : активный залог- формы Simple, Continuous, Perfect ( Present, Past , Future); пассивный залог – формы Simple ( Present, Past, Future).

 

Выполните тест. Письменно переведите предложения.

1. At the Customs House I ... to open my suit-case.

a) asked

b) was asked

c) am asking

2. The monitor of the group ... next week.

a) will be elected

b) was elected

c) has been elected

3. They ... since last year.

a) have been divorced

b) were divorced

c) will be divorced

4. I ... slowly down the street when somebody called me.

a)was walking

b) am walking

c) will be walking

5. After she ... she felt better.

a) had cried

b) cries

c) has cried

 

11) Изучите тему: простые неличные формы глагола- ParticipleI, ParticipleII.

Выполните тест .Письменно переведите предложения.

1. I felt suddenly small ...beside those immense walls of stone.

a) standing

b)stood

2. Generally ...,the problem is not so easy as it seems to be.

a) spoken

b) speaking

3. He stood for a while ... my hands.

a) holding

b) held

4. Frankly ... I can’t approve of his behaviour.

a) speaking

b) spoken

5. He will certainly come if ...

a) asked

b)asking

3. Изучите тему : модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

Выполните тест. Письменно переведите предложения.

1....I call you Bob?

a) May

b) Can

c) Could

2. Why are you late? You ... to have come at 10 a. m.

a) were

b) can

c) may

3. Don’t make so much noise. We ... wake the baby.

a) mustn’t

b) can’t

c) are to

4. Their son ... stay up late last night to watch the World Cup on TV.

a) could

b) was allowed to

c) had to

5. –I’ve got a terrible headache.

- You ... take an aspirin.

a) should

b) must

c) can

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

 

Canada

Canada is the second largest country in the world. It covers the northern part of the North America. Its total area is more than 9 mln sq km. Canada’s only neighbour is the USA. The capital of Canada is Ottawa.

Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates, with long cold winters lasting 8 to 11 months, short sunny summers, and litle precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climotological landscapes.

The total population is about 25 mln people with average population density of 2.8 per sq. km.

English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status and equal rights and previleges as to their use in all governmental institutions.

Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 northern territories. The federal Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government.

Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos, nickel and different other elements, forestry products and takes the first place in the world in the export of minfrals. It exports paper, metals, oil.Agriculture is of major importance to the economy as a whole and is basic in many areas. Canada is among the world’s leading wheat producers and is the second in the export of the wheat.

 

5. Выпишите и письменно переведите правильные высказывания.

 

1.Canada is the first largest country in the world.

2. Canada covers the northern part of North America and its total area is more than 9 mln sq. km.

3.The capital of Canada is Ottawa.

4.Canada has short warm winters and long summers.

5. English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status and equal rights and previleges as to their use in all governmental institutions.

6.Canada is a parliamentary monarchy.

7. The federal Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate.

8. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government.

9. Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos , nickel , forestry products and takes the first place in the world in the export of minerals.

10. Canada is among the world’s leading wheat producers and the second in the export of the wheat.

 

 

Вариант 4

 

1. Изучите темы: активный залог- формы Simple , Continuous, Perfect ( Present, Past, Future); пассивный залог- формы Simple ( Present, Past, Future).

Выполните тест. Письменно переведите предложения.

1. The novel “War and Peace “ ... by Tolstoy.

a) writing

b) was written

c) is writing

2. The agreement ... at the next meeting.

a) will be discussed

b) are discussed

c) was discussed

3. He ... away for a month.

a) has been

b) was

c) is

4. The family ... a party when the post arrived.

a) was having

b) is having

c) had

5. He rose to fame after he ... the novel “Pickwick Papers”.

a) has written

b) writes

c) had written

 

2 . Изучите тему : простые неличные формы глагола- Participle I, Participle II.

Выполните тест. Письменно переведите предложения.

1. The doctor looked ...

a) worried

b) worring

2. He did not even glance at the ... man.

a) murded

b) murdering

3. He answered through the ... door.

a) locked

b) locking

4. We stood on the bridge in the fog ... for a taxi.

a) waiting

b) waited

5. He lay on his bed ... a cigarette.

a) smoked

b) smoking

 

 

3. Изучите тему: модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

Выполните тест .Письменно переведите предложения.

1. I have a thorn in my finger. I ... remove it.

a) can’t

b) needn’t

c) may

2. They were so tired that they ... stand on their feet.

a) might not

b) couldn’t

c) mustn’t

3. I have not finished writing my paper, so I’ll ... do it next term.

a) have to

b) be allowed to

c) could

4. On his way he ... cross a narrow wooden bridge over a stream.

a) was allowed to

b) had to

c) could

5. They were told that they ... continue the research work.

a) were to

b) could

c) may

 

4.Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

 

Australia

Australia is lying south- east of Asia, between the Pacific and Indian oceans. It’s the world’s smallest continent which is completely surrounded by ocean expances. Its total area is 7,682,300 sq. km.

The continent Australia is divided into four regions: a low , sandy eastern coastal plain , the eastern highland, the central plain , and the western plateau. Although Australia has a wide diversity of climatic conditions , the climate of Australia is generally warm and dry , with no extreme cold and little frost. It changes from comfortably mild in the sourth to hot in the central part and north.

The total population is about 17 mln people with the average density of about 2 persons per sq. km. Most Australians are of British or Irish ancestry as the country was the British colony. More than 99% of the population speak English.

The capital of Australia is Canberra. Australia has a federal Parliamentary government. The Australian federation was formed from six former British colonies which then became states. The Australian constitution combines the traditions of British parliamentary monarchy with important elements of the US federal system.

Australia is the world’s largest wool producer and one of the world’s largest wheat exporters. The main sources of foreighn earnings are wool, food and minerals ( such as iron , copper , zinc , plumbum ) which also provide raw materials for home processing industry.

 

5. Выпишите и письменно переведите правильные высказывания.

 

1. Australia is lying between the Atlantic and Indian oceans.

2. Australia is the world’s smallest continent which is completely surrounded by ocean expances.

3.The continent is divided into four regions : a low, sandy eastern coastal plain , the eastern highland , the central plain and the western plateau.

4.Australia has a wide diversity of climatic conditions , the climate of Australia is generally warm and dry , with no extreme cold and little frost.

5.The total population is about 20 mln people

6. Most Australians are of British or Irish ancestry as the country was the British colony.

7.The capital of Australia is Canberra.

8. The Australian federation was formed from French colonies.

9. The Australian constitution combines the traditions of British parliamentary monarchy with important elements of the US federal system.

10. Australia is the world’s largest wool producer and one of the world’s largest wheat exporters.

 

 

Вариант 5

1. Изучите темы : активный залог- формы

Simple , Continuous , Perfect ( Present , Past , Future ); пассивный залог- формы Simple ( Present , Past , Future ).

Выполните тест. Письменно переведите предложения.

1. The music ... by Beethoven.

a) was composed

b) composed

c) composes

2. Many tasty things ... by mother for our party.

a) made

b) will be made

c) makes

3. ... you ever ... to London?

a) Have been

b) Had been

c) Will be

4. The student ... in the library from 3 till 5 yesterday.

a) was working

b) is working

c) woked

5. After she ... the problem thoroughly she wrote a very good article.

a) has studied

b) studied

c) had studied

 

2.Изучите тему: простые неличные формы глагола – Participle I, Participle II.

Выполните тест. Письменно переведите предложения.

1. It was an old woman ... glasses.

a) worn

b) wearing

2. He shook his head as though ... in wonder and admiration.

a) lost

b) loosing

3. If ... tonight the telegram will be delivered early in the morning.

a) sending

b) sent

4. ... an orphan at six , he was brought up by a distant relative.

a) Being

b) Been

5. ... by appearances he looked like a man whose life was hard and full of sorrows.

a) Judging

b) Judged

3. Изучите тему: модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

Выполните тест. Письменно переведите предложения.

1. The rain had stopped, so we ... take umbrellas.

a) didn’t have to

b) could

c) might

2.”Well, you ... write this exercise at home “, said the teacher.

a) can

b) are to

c) had to

3. I’m sorry I couldn’t come yesterday. I ... work late .

a) must

b) had tо

c) might

4. They ... take every Friday off last year.

a) were allowed to

b) could

c) will be able to

5.... I have your pen for a moment?

a) Might

b) Must

c) May

4.Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

 

New Zealand

New Zealand is situated in the southwest Pacific Ocean on two large islands: the North Island and the South Island. Its total area is 268,112 sq. km.

The South Island is significantly more mountainous than the North Island. New Zealand has a temperate, moist ocean climate without marked seasonal variations in temperature or rainfall.

The total population is more than 3.3 mln people with the average population density of about 12 persons per sq. km. About 85% of the population are classified as Europeans. Most of them are of British descend. New Zealand is the member of British Commonwealth. English is the universal language.

The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. Like the United Kingdom New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. Officially the head of the state is the British Queen (or the King) whose representative, the governor – general, is appointed for a five – year term. The government of New Zealand is democratic and modeled on that of the United Kingdom.

 

5.Выпишите и письменно переведите правильные высказывания.

 

1.New Zealand is situated in the southwest Pacific Ocean on two large islands: the North Island and the South Island.

2.Its total area is 889,121 sq. km.

3.The South Island is significantly more mountainous than the North Island.

4. New Zealand has a temperate , moist ocean climate without marked seasonal variations in temperature or rainfall.

5. The total population is more than 5.3 mln people.

6. Most of the population are classified as Europeans.

7.New Zealand is the member of British Commonwealth.

8. German is the universal language.

9. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington.

10. Officially the head of the state is the British Queen (or the King) whose representative ,the governor-general, is appointed for a five-year term.

 

 

Тексты для чтения

 

Text 1

LONDON

London is undoubtedly one of the greatest cities in the world. It’s got everything a visitor could possibly want: rich history, beautiful architecture, charming parks, incredible museums and amazing restaurants. Although there are other great cities that can boast similar attractions, London is truly unique in its multiculturalism. The main reason why London has become a 'melting pot' of nations is the long history of immigration to Britain. More recently, the British Empire and the Second World War have had a serious impact on the number of immi­grants in Britain. About 8,000 Caribbeans (e.g. Jamaicans) served as soldiers in Britain during the Second World War. After the war, many decided to stay. As they were citizens of the British Empire, they had the right to work and live in Britain. In the 1950s and 1960s, when Britain had finally recovered from the hardships of war and needed more workers, many Indians and Pakistanis came to live and work in Britain. A few years later, the first Indian restaurants were opened. Forty years on, it's hard to imag­ine British cuisine without Chicken Tikka Masala, the most famous Indian curry specially designed for British taste.

There are lots of other reasons why people come to live in Britain, such as seeking protec­tion from war, poverty or political persecution back home. So many people have chosen London to be their 'home from home' that today, an incredi­ble 300 languages can be heard in its streets.

There are areas in London that are mainly populated by people of a particular ethnic origin. For example, Brixton in South London is famous for its well-established West-Indian community, whereas Wood Green in North London is a large Turkish settlement. But almost every part of London is populated with a wide mixture of people from lots of different countries and cultures. And, of course there are also large numbers of Irish, Scottish and Welsh people liv­ing in London. However, unlike New York, where each community is tightly knit and doesn't mix with other communities, London is truly multicultur­al. Here's one example. If you're a Turk, you can wander round the Greek areas and markets without any worries. If you're an Anglo-Saxon (the original peoples of England) you can drop into a Jamaican bar without offending anyone. British people can be rightly proud of their multicultural achievements. In addition, coming to live in London from other countries doesn't mean that newcomers have to forget their own culture (as they are encouraged to do in the USA and France). Everywhere you go, you'll see how other cul­tures have been embraced by mighty London. Ethnic festivals, markets, centres and events are as much part of London as Big Ben and the Tower of London.

Of course, there are some problems. For example, although there are laws against racial discrimination, people from ethnic minorities are more likely to do unskilled jobs or be unem­ployed than the majority of the population. However, there are also many examples of peo­ple from ethnic minorities occupying the best and most prestigious jobs. Lots of Asians are doctors and lawyers. The Chinese communities are economically very active.

 

Answer the questions:

1. What features distinguish London from other cities?

2. How many languages are spoken by Londoners?

 

Choose the right answer to the question:

Why did London become a cosmopolitan city?

a) the long history of immigration to Britain; b) the life in London is better

c) the friendly way of life


Text 2

MADAME TUSSAUD’S

Madame Tussaud's is the most popular and talked about wax museum in the world. There are wax models of the famous and infamous, both living and dead, from every walk of life. David Beckham, Madonna, Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Charlie Chaplin, Jack the Ripper... There is no other place where you can see all the celebrities at once, even if they are only wax figures. The wax figures are standing and sitting, and sometimes even moving and talking. Computer-controlled figures (they are called audio-animatronics) are especially popular with the visitors. There are several halls at Madame Tussauds. Highlights include the Grand Hall, the Chamber of Horrors and 'The Spirit of London' exhibition.

In the Grand Hall you will find all kinds of celebrities, from presidents to pop stars. The politicians stand in solemn silence watch­ing each other. A very strange company indeed: Winston Churchill, Adolph Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Tony Blair, Vladimir Putin...The earliest figure from history here is William the Con­queror. There is a special place for the Royal Family here too. New models are being produced all the time while the old ones are quietly removed from display. Over the years hundreds of celebrities have made their way to Madame Tussaud's studio. Most people agree to be portrayed, but some refuse. Mother Teresa was one of the few who refused, saying her work was important, not her person.

The Chamber of Horrors is probably the eeriest place in the whole museum. No wonder visitors are quieter there than in other places. Count Dracula greets you at the entrance to the dark cellar full of villains and their victims, as well as the instruments of torture. An eerie reconstruction of one of the streets of London stalked by Jack the Ripper forms the cen­trepiece of the exhibition. One of his six victims — Catherine Eddowes — lies in a pool of blood. Here you can also see Madame Tussaud's origi­nal exhibition of relics from the French Revolution — the death masks of French nobility and the guil­lotine blade that was used to behead Marie Antoinette...

'The Spirit of London' exhibition covers a peri­od of more than 400 years and spans London's his­tory from Elizabethan times to the present day. Sights, sounds and even smells combine to tell you the colourful story of Britain's capital city. Visitors climb into a 'Time Taxi' and begin their historical journey...First you visit an Elizabethan theatre, then an old tavern where the great Shakespeare is working at Hamlet...You'll go through the Plague and the Great Fire, you'll see St Paul's Cathedral being built...

There are more than 70 figures in 'The Spirit of London' exhibition. Many of them are animated: they 'breathe', talk and move.

 

 

Answer the questions:

1. What wax model was created first among the historical figures?

2. Why did Mother Teresa refuse to pose for the museum?

 

Choose the right answer to the question:

What was the first original exhibition in Madame Tussaud’s?

a) The Chamber of Horrors

b) the Grand Hall

c) 'The Spirit of London' exhibition
Text 3

HOW THE BRITISH RELAX

As British people say, ‘all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy’. Like everybody else, British people like doing things outside work. Gardening is a well-known favourite. As the weather in Britain is relatively mild, British people manage to do gardening almost all the year round. Sometimes this can be just doing a bit of weeding and sometimes, serious vegetable and fruit growing. In fact, regardless of the size of the garden, the British can always find plenty to do in it. Mowing grass is also very important. Every Sunday morning (except for winter) they come out to mow their lawns. To outsiders, it almost seems like an obsession but to a British person it is an important social duty. The British see an unmown lawn, not only as a sign of laziness, but also as disrespect to others (and you can get fined for it as well).

Walking is also very popular. Ask any British person if they have a pair of walking boots and the answer will probably be yes. Except for dry summer days, the beautiful British countryside is pretty muddy, so you need a good pair of walking boots or 'wellies' to enjoy your walk. Walking as a leisure activity has a long tradition in England. You can buy a variety of maps and guides to walking routes. Organised walking is also popular and is a good way to discover local sights of interest with a group of like-minded people and a good guide.

Cycling is another popular activity. Unfortunately, many British roads are very busy and don't have cycling paths, so cycling can be a bit dangerous in Britain, many people find quiet country roads and spend their whole holidays exploring their homeland on their bikes. More extreme sports like rock climbing also attract people. And, of course, the famous British eccentricity is the cause of unusual sports like extreme ironing. Extreme ironing is a serious sport where teams of people compete at who can do their ironing in more extreme conditions. Extreme ironing is now an international sport with serious competitions and organised events.

Of course, not all British people keep fit by engaging in extreme sports. Many go to the gym, swimming pool or fitness classes. However, it has to be said that the British are not the most sporting nation in the world. You see, watching TV often gets in the way. Increasingly, British people spend their free time watching TV. The only comforting thing is that they are not on their own - most of the world seems to be doing the same!

As far as actually going away on holiday, many British people choose to spend their holidays abroad, preferably somewhere warm and dry. Spain, France and Greece are regular destinations, due to convenient location and kind climate, but by far the greatest numbers use the USA, especially Florida and California for their holidays. City breaks are also a good idea for changing the scenery and enjoying new places without too much trouble.

 

Answer the questions:

1. Can British people be fined for an unmown lawn?

2. What are the most popular recreational activities?

 

Choose the right answer to the question:

Why can cycling be dangerous in the UK?

a) the cyclists often break traffic rules

b) there are no cycling paths

c) traffic is very heavy in most places and there few cycling paths.


Text 4

CLASS SYSTEM

Some things about Britain make sense only to the British. Of these, probably the strangest is social class. There are three main class divisions in Britain with some 'in between' variations (such as 'upper middle'): upper, middle and lower or working class. And people in Britain are very conscious of class differences.

The different classes in Britain tend to eat different food at different time of the day (and call the meals by different names), they like to talk about different topics, they enjoy different pastimes and sports and have different ideas about the correct way to behave.

The easiest way to guess the class to which the person belongs to is to listen to the way he or she speaks. A person's accent in Britain is an identity card. Other people will be able to say what social background you come from, where you were born or educated, and what kind of job you do.

Changing an accent is difficult, even for actors. To achieve the desired accent, a British person must speak it from childhood. This is one of the reasons why people still send their children to expensive private schools. It is not only that the education there is better, but because, as adults, they will have the right accent and manners, and equally importantly, they will make good social contacts that they can use later in life.

A person's vocabulary is also very important. Here is a good class-test you can try: when talking to an English person, say some­thing too quietly for them to hear you properly. A lower-middle or middle­-class person will say 'Pardon?'; an upper-middle class will say 'Sorry? (or perhaps 'Sorry — what?'); but an upper-class and a working-class person will both say 'What?' The working per­son, however, will drop the 't' — 'Wha'?'

'Toilet' is another word that makes the higher classes exchange knowing looks. The correct upper class word is 'lavatory' or 'loo'. The working classes all say 'toilet', as do most lower-middles and middle-middle classes, the only difference being the working-class dropping of the final 't' again.

An interesting thing about the class system in Britain is that very often it has nothing to do with money. A person with an upper-class accent, using upper-class words, will be recognized as upper class even if he or she is unem­ployed or homeless. And a person with working-class pronunciation, who calls a sofa a settee, and his midday meal 'dinner', will be identified as work­ing class even if he is a multi-millionaire living in a grand country house.

 

Answer the questions:

1. How many major class divisions are there in Great Britain?

2. What are the differences between the social classes?

 

 

Choose the right answer to the question:

Is it difficult to achieve the desired accent?

a) no, if you speak it from childhood

b) yes, for everyone

c) what other features can be used to distinguish class background?

 

Text 5

BIG RED LONDON BUSES

On October 25th 1911, the London General Omnibus Company ran their last horse-drawn omnibus through the streets of the capital. Then followed the era of the tramcar, but since then the big red motor bus has been London's 'king of the road'. Every day, thousands of Londoners use the big red buses to move around town; and lots of tourists know that a one-day London bus pass, valid on all regular bus routes, offers a wonderful way to see the sights of Britain's capital city.

The idea of the 'double decker' is actually much older than the motor bus; it is simply a continuation of the system that was used for public transport in the age of horse-drawn vehicles, when some of the passengers sat inside, and the rest travelled on the roof. If it rained, passengers could take a sort of oil-cloth cover out of the back of the seat in front of them, and pull it over them, but they still got pretty wet. It wasn't until the 1930s that all new buses became equipped with roofs over the upper deck. Today the only open-topped buses are the special tourist buses. The most famous London buses, how­ever, are not those that filled the capi­tal's streets in the 1930s, but the pow­erful 'Routemasters' which date from the 1950s and 60s. These are the buses that have been taken all over the world, the buses that you can see in the tourist brochures, and the ones which have been sold, in miniature, to millions of visitors and souvenir hunters.

The Routemaster is a legend in itself! With its open platform at the back end, the Routemaster is still the most popular bus in London, because passengers can climb on and off when they want, even if the bus is moving (though this is not recommended!).

These buses were designed specially for London, by people who knew what London needed, and they have served their purpose well.

Things started to go wrong for the London bus in the late 1960s. That was when the Ministry of Transport decided that it would only give financial assistance to bus companies that bought new buses with doors! They had to choose other models instead. Today, European Union rules also stipulate that new buses for public transport must have doors. Determined to keep the buses that Londoners (and tourists) want, London Transport has decided to keep the old Routemasters going as long as possible. The RM was taken out of use in June 2007 due to a law requiring busses to have access for disabled people. However London Transport has kept two RM routes running as tourists’ attractions. They are routes No 9 and 15. Both run from Trafalgar Square and run past many of London tourist sites. Five hundred of the popu­lar old buses have been renovated, and are now back on the road as good as new, if not better! The London Transport museum at Covent Garden has exhibits of all London buses from 1850 to the present day including the RM.

The black London taxi cab is another tradi­tional symbol of London. It looks old-fash­ioned and clumsy, but in fact it's comfort­able and speedy. Besides, London taxi dri­vers know the city very well. They spend up to two years studying and memorizing 25,000 streets, as well as the locations of hospitals, hotels, theatres, clubs, museums, etc. Then they have to pass a very difficult test called 'The Knowledge'. So when you climb into the famous black cab you can be absolutely sure that it'll get you wherever you want and by the quickest possible route.

Answer the questions:

1. Why was the RM taken out of use?

2. What kind of test do London taxi drivers have to pass?

Choose the right answer to the question:

Is the RM an open-topped bus?

a) yes b) no c) no, but it was before 1960s.


Text 6

FAMILY LIFE

In 1870, the average family had five or six children and it was a typical Victorian family. Each member of the family had its own place and chil­dren were taught to 'know their place.' The father was often strict and was obeyed by all without question. The children were taught to respect their father and always spoke politely to him calling him 'Sir.' Very few children would dare to be cheeky to their father or answer him back. When he wanted a little peace and quiet he would retire to his study and the rest of the family were not allowed to enter without his special permission. The mother would often spend her time planning dinner parties, visiting her dressmaker or calling on friends, she did not do jobs like washing clothes or cooking and cleaning. Both parents saw the upbringing of their children as an important responsibility. If a child did something wrong he would be punished for his own good. 'Spare the rod and spoil the child' was a saying Victorians firmly believed in. For poorer families their greatest fear was ending up in the workhouse, where thousands of homeless and penniless families were forced to live. If your family was taken into the workhouse you would be split up, dressed in uniform and have your hair cut short.

The family in Britain is changing. People get married at a later age and many career-oriented women don't want to have children immediately. They prefer to do well at their jobs first and put off having a baby until late thirties. In 1969, the law made it easier to get a divorce and now Britain is often called 'the divorce capital of Europe'. That means that there are more and more one-parent families.

However, marriage and the family are still popular. Most people in Britain still get married and stay together until the end of their lives. The majority of divorced people marry again, and they sometimes take responsibility for a second family. Relationships within the family are also changing. Parents treat their children more as equals than they used to. Children have more freedom and the things they are interested in reflect this: music, computers, television, the Internet, fashion, shopping and money.

As for young British people, they are keen to become independent and can't wait to move out of their parents' homes, although for some of them this may be financially impossible. Members of a family try to keep in touch, but they see less of each other than they used to. This is because people often move away from their home town to a different part of the coun­try to find a job, which makes it more difficult for them to be in regular contact with their par­ents. That's why Christmas is so important in Britain. It's the traditional season for reunions and relatives often travel many miles in order to spend the holiday together.

 

 

Answer the questions:

 

1. How many children were there in a typical Victorian family?

2. Why is Britain called 'the divorce capital of Europe'?

 

Choose the right answer to the question:

Why do young British people leave their parent’s homes?

a) their parents are too strict with them

b) they want to be independent

c) they want to live and work in different part of the country


Text 7

OXBRIDGE

Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Britain. Known together as 'Oxbridge' (the word was invented by Lewis Carroll, the author of 'Alice in Wonderland' and a lecturer in mathematics at Oxford), they have been chosen as national icons. Of the two universities Oxford is the oldest. Nobody knows for sure when it was founded but teaching was already going on there by the early 12th century. Life was hard at Oxford at that time because there was constant trouble, even fighting, between the townspeople and the students. Then one day a student accidentally killed a man of the town. The Mayor arrested three other students who were innocent, and by order of King John they were hanged. In protest, many students and teachers left Oxford and settled in another little town, and so the University of Cambridge was born.

Since then there has been constant friendly (and sometimes not-so-friendly) rivalry between Oxford and Cambridge. In the early centuries, Oxford and Cambridge were the only universities in the country - if you wanted a uni­versity education, that's where you went. But in those days student life was very different from what it is now. Students were not allowed to play games, to sing or to dance and all the lessons were in Latin. Until the late 19th century, only men were allowed to be students at the two universities.

Both Oxford and Cambridge students refer to each other as 'the other place'. Oxonians sometimes call Cambridge 'a pale imitation of the real thing'. (Cambridge's colours are light blue). Cantabrigians (people of Cambridge) refer to Oxford as 'the dark side' (Oxford's colours are dark blue).

Oxbridge is made up of independent colleges. The 'University' is just an administrative body that organises lectures, arranges exams, gives degrees, etc. Today, there are 70 colleges at Oxbridge, and each college has its name, its coat of arms and its own buildings, including a chapel, a library, a dining hall and rooms for students to live in. Each college has its own character and its own traditions. Students go to lectures that are arranged by the University and are open to all students. The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Some courses, such as medicine or languages, may be one or two years longer. The students may work for other degrees as well.

Oxbridge has 35,000 students from the UK and all over the world. Oxbridge graduates often become powerful and suc­cessful members in British society, and many leading people in professions such as the law and politics have traditionally been 'Oxbridge-educated'.

Sport is a very important part of Oxbridge life. Colleges within each university often compete with each other in various tournaments. The most famous competition between the two universities is the Boat Race, a rowing race which takes place every year on the River Thames. It's a popular national event and is shown on television.

 

Answer the questions:

1. Who invented the word 'Oxbridge'?

2. Could women study at universities in the 19th century?

 

Choose the right answer to the question:

What is the name of the most famous competition between the two universities?

a) chess tournament

b) basketball

c) a rowing race


Text 8

Rolls Royce

 

After Henry Royce's father died in 1872, the boy worked as a newspaper seller and telegram delivery boy. In 1884, Frederick Henry Royce started an electrical and mechanical business. He made his first car, a "Royce", in his Manchester factory in 1904. He was introduced to Charles Stewart Rolls at the Midland Hotel in Manchester on May 4 of that year, and the pair agreed to a deal where Royce would manufacture cars, to be sold exclusively by Rolls. A clause was added to the contract stipulating the cars would be called "Rolls-Royce". So, the most luxurious classic car in the world was born more than 100 years ago. It was the brainchild of engineer Henry Royce and car trader Charles Rolls. When they founded the Rolls Royce Company, their aim was nothing less than to make 'the best car in the world. Two years later, 'the best car' was produced. It was the famous 40/50, which was nicknamed the 'Silver Ghost' because of its quietness and smoothness. A journalist of the time wrote that the car had 'the feeling of being wafted through the countryside.' Since then the company's engineers use the term 'waftability.' Some models of the original Silver Ghost cars is still run­ning, however, and even today, their engines barely make a sound.

Almost 8,000 Silver Ghosts were made before produc­tion finally stopped in 1925. The Silver Spirit, introduced by Rolls-Royce in 1980, was the first of a new generation of models for the company.

In 1933, the colour of the Rolls-Royce radiator monogram was changed from red to black because the red sometimes clashed with the coachwork colour selected by clients, and not as a mark of respect for the passing of Royce as is commonly stated. During World War II the Rolls Royce Company produced engines for fighter planes, in particular, the famous “Merlin” engine used to power the “Spitfire” aircraft.

John Lennon's Rolls Royce (he had a Phantom V) was black, but John soon became bored with this. He had the car repainted in a psychedelic style. After Lennon's death, the car was sold for $2,299,000.

New generations of Rollers became more and more luxurious and had all sorts of luxury things - from cocktail cabinets to picnic tables. Individual buyers could have the car's equipment changed according to their needs. Of course, only a few people can afford such large, expensive cars -members of the Royal Family and other heads of state, millionaires and very rich celebrities. In 1998, the Rolls Royce Company was bought by the German company Volkswagen. These days, Rolls-Royce models look more like ordinary cars - instead of five-star hotel rooms on wheels. The small metal statue on the radiator cap at the front of every Rolls Royce is a work of art in its own right. It's called the 'Spirit of Ecstasy'. The name Rolls Royce is often used to describe something very good and expensive: for example, the Rolls Royce of electric guitars costs $ 5,000.

 

Answer the questions:

1. Who founded the Rolls Royce Company?

2. Why did John Lennon have the car repainted?

 

Choose the right answer to the question:

Why did the first luxurious classic car have the name the 'Silver Ghost'?

a) it was very beautiful

b) it ran very quietly and smoothly

c) the production of the car was limited


Text 9

THE OLDER, THE BETTER

 

The typical British person thinks that the older an object is, the better. He or she loves everything that reminds him of Ye Olde England - houses, furniture, pic­tures, china, etc. Old things have their own charm, uniqueness, their own character. They are also worth more money! No wonder that often an old "character" house costs much more than a new house of the same size. Seems strange to a Russian, doesn't it?

In Britain, where everything that is 30 or more years old is considered "antique", antique shops and markets are very popular. The cheapest places to buy antiques are chari­ty shops. They can be found everywhere. Charity shops are usually run by volunteers in support of different charities, like the British Red Cross or British Heart Foundation. People give their old unwanted possessions to charity shops for free: books, clothes, pic­tures, handbags, toys, small pieces of fur­niture. Other people can buy them at a very low price from the charity shop. Often in these shops you can buy some­thing interesting, for example, a funny brass container with a long handle. In the past, when most bedrooms in Britain had no heating, people used to put hot coal in such containers to warm the linen before going to bed

Many antique shops are located in tourist villages or towns. They can be a tiny jewellery or minia­ture toy shop, owned by some old lady or gen­tleman. Or it can be a huge enterprise, a real "Snooper's paradise" (the name of a famous antique shop in Brighton). Such places are like a museum, where you can feel the real atmosphere of the past and spend a lot of time looking at all kind of curiosities: old-fash­ioned costumes and hats, brooches, vases, glasses, silver spoons and forks, mirrors in pretentious frames. Prices in such antique shops vary from comparatively low to rather high.

Outdoor antique markets are also very common in Britain. The simplest of them are the so-called "boot fairs", or actually, flee markets, that are regularly organized by local people in farmers' fields.

At boot fairs and small street antique markets people sometimes sell and buy very strange things like single old but­tons and earrings, pieces of old lace, old lamps and sewing machines, etc. It seems that both parties, sellers and customers, enjoy the process much more than a financial result.

But at big street markets like on Portobello Road in London one can buy something really original and quite valuable.

British people like visiting antique fairs. Hunting for old and valuable curiosities is a kind of national sport. Auctions, offering all sorts of inexpensive, expensive and very expensive antiques are also very popular.

For a foreigner, the most surprising are special outdoor sessions, organized by experts in antiques in different, sometimes very distant parts of Britain. These sessions, regularly shown on TV, are very popular. Indeed, it is a great fun to see happy faces of people, who suddenly realized the real and sometimes unexpectedly high market price of some old piece of china that had been stored in a dark corner for years!

 

Answer the questions:

1. What can you buy in charity shops?

2. Do prices in antique shops are always high?

 

Choose the right answer to the question:

Where can you find outdoor antique markets?

a) in charity shops

b) on Portobello Road in London c) on farmers' fields.

Текст 10

BRITAIN AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITY (EC)

Britain joined the European Community in 1973 under a Conservative government. Britain was the sixth country to join (a number of other countries have done so since) and membership was to be 'of unlimited duration'. This was in accord with the terms of the original Treaty of Rome, which started the Community in 1958. In 1975 Parliament's decision that Britain should become a member was confirmed by a referendum of the whole electorate (the first in British history): over eight million wanted to get out, but over seventeen million wanted to stay in. Therefore Britain continued to be a member, although not all the members of the Labour government which called the referendum were sure that this was the right decision.

Britain's membership has not always been easy. There have been arguments over financial and agricultural policies, and for many people the way the European Union operates remains a mystery. On the other hand, Britain's poorer regions have benefited, receiving 24 per cent of the Union's regional and social funds in 1985, for example. Overall, however, Britain is a major net contributor to the Union's funds. Nearly half of Britain's trade is with the rest of the European Union.

As a member of the European Community, Britain is part of the world’s largest trading area. The Com­munity abolished internal tariffs and certain other trade barriers, established a common customs tariff and a common policy for agriculture and made provision for the free movement of labor, capital and services. Other countries which have special links with the Community, especially the 60 developing countries have special privileges for the development of trade. Since it joined the European Union, Britain accepted the Community legislation. The Council of Ministers, the Commission and the European Parliament are the EC’s three legislative or­gans.

Through the development of political cooperation machinery, to which Britain attaches considerable im­portance, European Community members seek to co-ordinate their foreign policies and adopted common positions on a number of issues.

Membership in EC has its critics in Britain but the Government wants to play a full role in the European Community's development.

Now Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a con­stitutional monarch as head of State. Its formal title is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. "Great Britain" (England, Wales, and Scotland) came into existence when the English and Scottish crowns were united at the beginning of the seventeenth century and their parliaments a century later. Wales had come under the English crown in me­dieval times. So did Ireland, but the British and Irish parliaments were not united until1801. In1922 the southern part of Ireland, Roman Catho­lic, became a separate state. Northern Ireland, with its Protestant majority, chose to continue as part of the United Kingdom and had its own parliament between 1921 and 1972.

 

Answer the questions:

1. What are the three main organs of European Community?

2. When did Great Britain join the European Community?

 

Choose the right answer to the question:

What is it Britain now?

a) democratic republic

b) parliamentary monarchy c) federation

 

Для заметок

 

Для заметок

 

 


Для заметок

 

Мерзликина Наталья Ивановна

Шлёнская Наталья Марковна

Новикова Эмма Борисовна

Английский язык.

Рабочая программа, методические указания , контрольные задания и тексты для чтения для студентов-заочников 1 курса всех специальностей.

 

 

Подписано к печати: 11.03.09

 

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