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Section 3: Corruption and Remedies against it




Text 1 During a research recently carried out by TRANSCRIME on corruption in the 15 European Union countries, six main patterns of corruption and different patterns of criminal responses to corruption were outlined: § systematic corruption (Italy, France, Spain and Belgium); § emerging systematic corruption (Germany and Greece); § sporadic corruption (Ireland, Austria and Portugal); § casual corruption (the Netherlands, Finland, Denmark and Sweden); § English corruption (United Kingdom); § managing others' corruption (Luxembourg). With reference to legal responses the main criteria used for this analysis were: a) the definition of the crime of corruption; b) the distinction between passive and active corruption; c) the definition of passive and active subjects involved in the crime of corruption; and d) sanctions. The results show that there is less homogeneity with respect to the definition of the crime of corruption. The differences in definition are related to the fact that corruption takes on different forms in the various European countries, depending on each cultural and social context. It is important to study the cultural background of the various countries in order to discover the constant elements of corruption and thus to adopt the most effective preventive measures. For instance, when referring to «corruption prone environment» in Italy, we are talking about a phenomenon that is deeply rooted in the cultural tradition of Italian society, in the sense that corrupt activities are practised and accepted by normal citizens. The penal codes of the United Kingdom and Germany envisage various levels of corruption crimes (misdemeanours or felonies), according to the position held by the actor. Another distinction is related to the nature of the corruption act, in that it may be linked with, or contrary to the functional role of the actor. In the case of the passive receipt of a bribe by a public official in order to speed up a service for which he/she is competent, the penalty of a fine is envisaged. On the other hand, a public official who authorises the issuance of a licence although this is not under his/her competence, is committing an offence. In Austria (Article 304, paragraph 1), Denmark (Article 144), Finland (Article 40), Germany (paragraph 332), the Netherlands (Article 363) passive corruption involving abuse of the public function is punished with a higher penalty than in the case of corruption that does not involve the abuse of a public function.

 

§ Vocabulary notes

 

  remedy ['remIdI] 1) средство от болезни, лекарство; 2) средство, мера (против чего-либо); 3) средство судебной
      защиты, средство защиты права
  pattern ['p{t@n] модель, система
  sporadic [sp@'r{dIk] единичный, случайный
  casual ['k{Zju@l] 1) случайный; 2) непреднамеренный;
      3) случайный, нерегулярный
  criterion(Lot.) [kraI'tI@rI@n] критерий
  pl.criteria [kraI'tI@rI@]  
  distinction   различие, отличие, разница
  homogeneity [,hom@u³e'nI:@tI] однородность
  to be related   относиться, иметь отношение
  background   предпосылка, данные, объяснения, фон, истоки
  prone   склонный
  prone to anger   вспыльчивый
  He is prone to   Он склонен к быстрым действиям.
  prompt action.    
environment [In'vaI@r@nm@nt] окружающая обстановка, окружающая среда  
rooted   вкоренившийся, коренящийся  
penal   уголовный  
the penal code   уголовный кодекс  
to envisage   предусматривать, рассматривать  
misdemeanour [,mIsdI'mI:n@] судебно наказуемый проступок,  
    преступление  
felony   уголовное преступление  
contrary to   противоположный  
bribe   взятка  
             

 

§ Words and Grammar

 

a Write down the nouns formed from the following verbs:

to research – research

to corrupt............................... to service ..........................................

to respond.............................. to issue..............................................

to outline................................ to penalize........................................

to refer ................................... to fine................................................

to define................................. to break.............................................

to link..................................... to notify.............................................

 

b Write down the nouns from which the following adjectives are formed:

 

criminal – .. crime..................

systematic............................... normal...................................

cultural................................... functional..............................

effective................................... corrupt..................................

 

с Choose the antonyms from the box:

long ago, similar, old, active, extraordinary, sporadic, secondary

passive – .......active..........

 

systematic................................... emerging .........................................
recently...................................... normal ............................................
different ................................... main ..............................................

 

dMatch the English and Russian equivalents:

 

 

e Write down a short sentence with each of the following words:

criterion – criteria..........................................................................................................

phenomenon – phenomena analysis – analyses...........................................................

 

f Insert the correct prepositions and make sentences on the basis of the text with the following word combinations:

a research .on. corruption......................................................

responses ... corruption..........................................................

reference ... legal responses...................................................



subjects involved ... the crime of corruption........................

with respect... the definition of the crime............................

the differences ... definition..................................................

to relate ... the fact.................................................................

to depend ... the context.......................................................

to refer ... corruption prone environment.............................

g Complete the list of words associated with corruption.

 

1 to carry out a research on corruption.........................................................

2 a pattern of corruption ..............................................................................

 

h Encircle the Participles and translate the following into Russian:

 

1 Corruption takes on different forms in the various European countries, depending on each cultural and social context. ...Коррупция принимает различные формы в различных странах в зависимости от культурных и социальных условий.....................................................................................................................

2When referring to 'corruption prone environment' in Italy, we are talking about a phenomenon that is deeply rooted in the cultural tradition.......................................................................................................................

3 The Penal Code of the UK envisages various levels of crimes according to the position held by the actor...........................................................................................................................................................................

4 Passive corruption involving abuse of the public function is punished with a higher penalty.......................................................................................................................................................................

 

§ Suggested activities

 

h Complete the following sentences on the basis of the text:

 

1 The six main patterns of corruption in Europe are:...........................................................................

2 The main criteria used for the analysis were:.....................................................................................

 

i Write out the answers from the text:

 

1 What research on corruption was carried out?.......................................................................................

2 What did it result in?...............................................................................................................................

3 Why were there differences in the definition of corruption?..................................................................

 

j Explain the meaning of the following terms in English:

 

• passive corruption

• managing others' corruption

• emerging systematic corruption

Text 2

Italy has also adopted this line of action as is shown in Article 319 (Corruption for an Act that is Contrary to Official Duties) which is cited below: «The public official who omits or delays, or who has omitted or delayed an act of his/her office, or who has committed an act that is contrary to his/her official duty... is punishable with two to five years of imprisonment».

In accordance with Article 318, corruption in relation to official duty is punishable with between two months and three years of imprisonment. In several cases, the criminalisation of active corruption depends on the nature of the act carried out by the passive actor. The Netherlands and Denmark do not punish active corruption if this does not induce the public official to abuse his duties. On the other hand, Germany punishes this type of active corruption, although it envisages a lighter sanction (maximum two years of imprisonment) than that applied for corruption involving abuse of official duties (3 months to 5 years of imprisonment). In Portugal, the above-mentioned corruption was criminalised on 1 October 1995. The other states have not made any distinction in this respect. From an analysis of legislation in the various countries of the European Union, it is impossible to identify a distinction between active and passive corruption in all of them.

These two criminal acts represent the two faces of the same coin since corruption crimes involve more than one actor and presuppose at least one person offering or promising an advantage and another person accepting or receiving the advantage. However, in most cases it appears that the corrupter cannot be prosecuted for having participated in the transgression of the corrupted person, and vice versa. As far as the definition of the passive actor is concerned, numerous countries including Denmark, Sweden, Holland, the United Kingdom and Italy, have adopted a wide definition that covers public functionaries, judges, members of Parliament, political figures, members of the Armed Forces, functionaries of the Central Bank, and legal and economic consultants, in order to guarantee greater correctness in the public services.

Other countries like Finland and Portugal, have opted for a more limited extension of the above-mentioned concept, so as to cover only certain categories of public functionaries and elected offices. Austria, for example, does not extend the law related to corruption to members of an autonomous economic authority. Greece and Germany deal with corruption of judges and referees in a specific separate article. In fact, the most significant differences between the legislation of the various states relate to the definition of the passive actor. This represents one of the main obstacles in the international fight against corruption, and it is hoped that all states will decide on a single definition of the public official. There is no problem regarding the definition in the case of the active party. Since active corruption is not a crime belonging to a certain category, it can be perpetrated by anyone, whereas in the case of passive corruption, the actor can only be a very qualified person.

 

§ Vocabulary notes

 

to cite   1) ссылаться, цитировать;
    2) вызывать в суд (преимущественно церковный)
to omit [@'mIt] пренебрегать, упускать
to induce [In'dju:s] убеждать, побуждать, склонять, заставлять
to induce smb to do smth   заставить кого-либо сделать что-либо
to presuppose [,prIs@'pouz] предполагать
transgression [tr{ns'greSn] проступок, нарушение (закона и т.п.)
vice versa (Lat.) [,vaIsI'v@:s@] наоборот
functionary ['föÎkSn@rI] должностное лицо, чиновник
to opt   выбирать
referee [,ref@'rI:] третейский судья, арбитр
obstacle ['obst@kl] препятствие, помеха
to throw obstacles in smb's way   чинить препятствия кому-либо
to overcome obstacles   преодолевать препятствия
to perpetrate ['p@:pItreIt] совершать (ошибку, преступление и т.п.); шутл. сотворить
to perpetrate a pun   сочинить каламбур
whereas [wE@r'{z] тогда как
qualified ['kwolIfaId] 1 ) компетентный; 2) подходящий,
    пригодный; 3) ограниченный

 

Words and Grammar

 

a Write down the words from which the following ones are formed:

 

imprisonment – to imprison.........

criminalisation.....................definition..........................................

corrupter..............................accordance........................................

functionary............................referee................................................

 

b Match the English and Russian equivalents:

 

 

с Choose the synonyms from the box:

to provide for, to commit, to cover, to quote, to ignore, to define, to make

to induce –...to cover................

to envisage.............................to cite......................................

to perpetrate.........................to omit....................................

to include...............................to identify................................

 

d Choose the correct prepositions and write down a few short sentences on the basis of the text:

 

contrary to/in smth in relation with/to smth to depend of/on smth to belong in/to smth in/at this respect in/at several cases

 

 

e Add as many nouns as possible which can be used with the following adjectives:

punishable.............................. active................................................

official....................................passive..............................................

corrupted................................legal................................................

 

f Encircle the ing-forms and translate the sentences into Russian:

 

1 They apply this sanction involving abuse of official duties.....(adv. Modifier of manner) Они применяют эту санкцию в случае правонарушения, связанного со служебными обязанностями......................................................................................................................................................

2 These acts presuppose at least one person offering or promising an advantage and another person accepting or receiving the advantage........................................................................................................................

3 The corrupter cannot be persecuted for having participated in the transgression of the corrupted person........................................................................................................................................................................

 

g Write down what parts of sentence the word that is, if it can be omitted in these sentences or not and translate the sentences into Russian:

 

1 Article 319 speaks about corruption for an act that is contrary to official duties...........................................

2 It envisages a lighter sanction than that applied for corruption.......................................................................

3 It is hoped that all states will decide on a single definition of the public official...........................................

 

h Write down the answers to the following questions using the text:

 

 

i Translate the following sentences into Russian:

 

1 In Portugal, the above mentioned corruption was criminalised on 1 October, 1995.

2 It is impossible to identify active and passive corruption in all of them.

3 As far as the definition of the passive actor is concerned, many countries have adopted a wide definition.

4 Finland and Portugal have opted for a more limited extension.

5 There is no problem regarding the definition in the case of the active party.

6 In the case of passive corruption, the actor can only be a very qualified person.

 

j Write down a plan and compose a title of the text.

 

Text3

As far as the actual moment of the commission of the corruption crime is concerned, there are no major differences. What matters is the collusive agreement, in the sense that the corruption is perfectioned when the passive actor does not expressly refuse the advantage offered to him. The fact that the promise is really maintained is not relevant for the purposes of the commitment of the offence. According to German, Austrian, Greek and Danish legislation, the legal interest that is protected by the corruption law is violated by the simple collusive agreement. The legal authority has only to prove the abstract relationship between the illegitimate advantage and the performance or violation of the public function. Passive corruption involves the commission or omission of an act on the part of the passive actor.

With respect to an analysis of the sanctions, it can be noted that almost all countries envisage more severe sanctions for passive corruption since the beneficiary of the bribe holds a public office and therefore represents the state institutions. On the other hand, the same sanctions are envisaged for both the corrupter and the corrupted person in Italy, Portugal, Finland, Greece and Sweden. The penalties that are traditionally envisaged by all the countries studied are pecuniary sanctions and incarceration, the minimum and maximum duration of which vary noticeably from one country to the other. The Netherlands and Portugal inflict the mildest sanctions for corruption crimes, with three and six months of imprisonment respectively. In addition to the traditional sanctions, several countries envisage additional sanctions. In Finland, Sweden and Greece the authorities can confiscate illicit proceeds and, in some cases, inflict disciplinary measures such as dismissal from work. If the profits gained from corruption cannot be found, the Romanian penal law imposes the payment of a sum equivalent to the benefit received on behalf of the corrupted person.

In the Russian Federation and Ukraine alongside the confiscation of illicit proceeds, conspicuous parts of the condemned person's patrimony are requisitioned. Austria, Finland, also envisage more severe penalties in the case of aggravating circumstances. In Austria, a circumstance is aggravated if the bribe exceeds 25,000 Austrian shillings, while in Finland an «outstanding» amount of money must be involved. In the remaining four countries mentioned above, recidivist behaviour, the involvement of conspicuous sums of money, the corruption of experts, provocation, extortion and the particular role held by the passive actor, are considered aggravating circumstances. Several countries also envisage exceptional circumstances in addition to the aggravating circumstances. Austria and Denmark, for example, tolerate the payment of small sums for anniversaries.

 

§ Vocabulary notes

 

collusive agreement   улаженный тайным сговором 1) согласие; 2) договор, соглашение 2) (документ)  
to come to an agreement   придти к согласию  
agreement of opinion   единомыслие  
to perfection [p@'fekSn] 1) заканчивать; 2) совершенствовать  
expressly   1) определенно; 2) специально, нарочито;  
    3) срочно  
to maintain   1) поддерживать, удерживать, сохранять; 2) содержать; 3) оказывать поддержку, защищать, отстаивать; 4) утверждать  
to maintain one's composure   сохранять спокойствие  
to maintain one's family   содержать семью  
He maintained that he was right.   Он утверждал, что он прав.  
relevant ['rel@v@nt] уместный, относящийся к делу  
commitment   1 ) вручение, передача;  
    2) передача законопректа в комиссию;  
    3) заключение под стражу; 4) обязательство; 5) совершение (преступления)  
to violate ['vaI@leIt] нарушать, попирать, преступать  
pecuniary [pI'kju:nj@rI] денежный  
incarceration [m,ka:s@'reISn] заключение в тюрьму  
to inflicit [In'flIsIt] наносить, причинять, налагать  
mild   мягкий  
dismissal [dIs'mIs@l] 1) роспуск; 2) увольнение, отставка;  
    3) освобождение; 4) отпуск  
to dismiss   отпускать, увольнять  
profit   1) польза, выгода; 2) прибыль, доход  
on behalf of smb   от имени кого-либо  
conspicuous [k@n'spIkju@s] видный, заметный, бросающийся в глаза  
condemned [k@n'demd] осужденный  
patrimony [р@'trIm@nI] 1) наследство; 2) наследие  
to requisition [,rekwI'zISn] 1) реквизировать;  
    2) предоставлять заявку  
  to aggravate   отягчать, усугублять,
      ухудшать, обострять
  extortion   вымогательство
               

 

§ Word study

aWrite down the word families of the following words:

 

perfect – perfection, to perfect, perfectible, perfectibility...........................................

to agree...................................to violate...................................................................

to corrupt...............................to express...................................................................

to commit...............................to aggravate...............................................................

 

b Match the English and Russian equivalents and write down a few word combinations with each word:

 

 

с Mark the meanings in which the following words are used in the text, with a tick:

 

 

d Group the words from the box into a few logical groups:

incarceration, extortion, advantage, promise, offence, sanctions, beneficiary, bribe, imprisonment, punishment, profits, confiscation

 

 
Group
         

 

e Add as many nouns as you can which could be used with the following verbs:

 

to maintain friendly relations, high prises, status..............

to involve .....................................................................

to envisage .....................................................................

to inflict ....................................................................

to confiscate .....................................................................

to requisition .....................................................................

 

f Explain the meaning of the following word combinations in English:

 

 

• the actual moment of the commission of the corruption crime • a collusive agreement • to maintain promise • to perfection corruption

 

§ Suggested activities

g Complete the following sentences with the words from the box:

institutions, sanctions, legislation, corruption, agreement, beneficiary

 

1 According to German, Austrian, Greek and Danish the legal ................. interest that is protected by the................. law is violated by the simple collusive.................

2 With respect to an analysis of the.................. it can be noted that almost all countries envisage more severe for passive .................since the ... of the bribe holds a public office and therefore represents the state.................

 

h Make a diagram showing the countries and their sanctions for corruption crimes, using the information of the text.

 

i Say which country has the most reasonable legislation in this respect, and substantiate your viewpoint.

Text 4

The corrupted person who reports the payment of a bribe to the legal authorities before being investigated is not punishable according to Article 236 of the Greek penal code. This is also the case in Germany which, in addition, allows for the acceptance of benefits that have been authorised beforehand. In Sweden, when sums amounting to less than 500 SK are involved, the act is not considered a corruption crime. According to British legislation, a passive actor who is in good faith and unaware of the illicit nature of the payment is not punishable for corruption. In Romania, the party that has been forced to pay the bribe has the right to be reimbursed the amount paid. A large number of states punish attempted corruption as well as accomplished corruption. Consequently, not only the concession or acceptance of benefit of a predominantly economic nature are punishable as a major offence, but also the mere promise to give or receive. The same penalties are applied for attempted corruption that are envisaged for committed corruption.

On the contrary, Germany envisages milder sanctions for attempted active or passive corruption. According to the laws of numerous states, the benefits resulting from corruption need not necessarily be of an economic nature, but can also be of an abstract nature, such as improved career prospects, speeding up of paper work, etc. The important thing is that the beneficiary, the corrupted person or his/her family can improve their position with respect to the previously held one. The states that have adopted the wider definition of the concept of «advantage» are Germany, Greece, the UK and the Netherlands, while there are of course countries like Austria Denmark, Finland, etc. that prefer a more material definition.

Only Denmark and Sweden have laws that expressly prohibit corruption in the private sector. This is positive and should be imitated by the other states in order to encourage a greater sense of morality and correctness among the economic operators.

 

§ Vocabulary notes

 

SK=Swedish Kronor(s) faith крон(ы) Швеции 1) вера, доверие;
    2) честность, верность, лояльность
in good faith   честно
syn. in bad faith   вероломно
to reimburse [,rI:Im'b@:s] возвращать, возмещать
amount   сумма, итог, количество
to accomplish [@'kömplIS] совершать, выполнять, достигать
consequently ['konsIkw@ntlI] следовательно, поэтому, в результате
concession [k@n's@Sn] 1) уступка; 2) концессия
predominant [prI'domIn@nt] преобладающий, господствующий
mere   1) простой; 2) явный, сущий
of mere motion   добровольно
beneficiary [,benI'fIS@rI] бенефициар (лицо, получающее какую- либо сумму или выгоду)

 

Words and Grammar

 

a Write down the corresponding nouns and their translation:

 

to authorise – authority – власть ...........................

to force....................................to accomplish.........................................

to reimburse..........................to encourage............................................

to punish................................to adopt....................................................

b Write down what parts of speech the words in italics are and translate the following word combinations into Russian:

 

corrupted person ..(Partic.) коррумпированный человек.........................

legal authorities.............................................................................................

corruption crime............................................................................................

passive actor..................................................................................................

illicit nature...................................................................................................

amount paid...................................................................................................

attempted corruption.....................................................................................

accomplished corruption...............................................................................

promise to give or receive............................................................................

improved carreer prospects...........................................................................

 

с Write down if the word that can be omitted or not in these sentences and translate the sentences into Russian:

 

1 The legislation allows for the acceptance of benefits that have been authorised beforehand (No) Законодательсво разрешает принимать различные сумы и подарки, которые были заранее оформлены в официальном порядке...................................................................................................................

2 In Romania, the party that has been forced to pay the bribe has the right to be reimbursed.................................................................................................................................................................

3 The same penalties are applied for attempted corruption that are envisaged for committed corruption..................................................................................................................................................................

4 The important thing is that the beneficiary can improve his position..............................................................

5The states that have adopted the wider definition are Germany, Greece, the UK and the Netherlands................................................................................................................................................................

6Everybody knows that Denmark and Sweden have laws that prohibit corruption in the private sector..........................................................................................................................................................................

 

d Write down a few short sentences with the following expressions, on the basis of the text:

 

to report the payment of the bribe.................................................................

not to be considered a corruption crime.......................................................

to be punishable for corruption...................................................................

to envisage sanctions....................................................................................

 

Suggested activities

 

e Write down a plan of the text.

f Draw a diagram showing the cases which are not punishable, in these countries:

 

Greece:.........................................................................................................................

Germany: .....................................................................................................................

Sweden: ........................................................................................................................

the UK:..........................................................................................................................

Austria: .........................................................................................................................

gExplain the meaning of the following in English:

 

1 A large number of countries punish attempted corruption.

2 The benefits resulting from corruption can be of an abstract nature.

3 Austria, Denmark and some other countries prefer a more material definition of the concept of «advantage».

 

h Say why Denmark and Sweden have laws that expressly prohibit corruption in the private sector. Is it positive or negative, to your mind?

 





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