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Чердак, мансарда (garret, loft)



Чердак», голова

Nut

Орех

Голова, башка

Чудак, дурачок, сумасброд

Cock-eyed

Косоглазый

Странный, нелепый, абсурдный

Пьяный (амер.)

Mob

Сборище, толпа

Стадо животных (австрал.)

Банда, воровская шайка

Snob

Сноб

Сапожник

Человек, принадлежащий к низшим слоям общества

Chap

Парень

Дитя, ребенок (диалект)

Трещина, щель

Humbug

Обман, жульничество, уловка

Обманщик, мошенник, притворщик

Чушь, вздор, ерунда

Мятная конфета (брит.)

cheerio [ʧɪərɪ'əu]

За ваше здоровье (тост)

2. будьте здоровы! всего хорошего!

 

6) Suggest neutral synonyms to the poetical words:

pto behold: 1. увидеть, заметить, узреть = to see

2. созерцать, рассматривать, наблюдать = to gaze, to observe

pto deem: полагать, считать =to consider, to think, to suppose

pa gore: кровь, пролитая в сражении; запекшаяся кровь = blood

pan array: убор, наряд, одеяние, облачение = clothing, finery

plone: одинокий, замкнутый, уединенный = secluded, solitary

pmurky: темный, тусклый, неясный = dark

pnigh: близкий, ближний = near, close

poft: часто = often, frequently

palbeit [o:l’bi:it] (all though it be that): хотя (и) = even though, even if, although

pere: до, перед = til, until, before

 

7) Define the meaning of the barbarisms and give their corresponding English equivalents.

Bon mot [bɔːŋ'məu] - остроумное выражение, острота, красное словцо (a clever remark) = a quip, a remark

Et cetera - и так далее = and so on, and so forth

Alma Mater - альма-матер (об университетах и колледжах) = university, college

Ad hoc - непродуманный, спонтанный, случайный (not planned, but arranged or done only when necessary) = spontaneous, unplanned

Tete-a-tete - разговор наедине, с глазу на глаз, тет-а-тет (a private conversation between two people) = one on one, in private, privately

Lection 2.

Choose your own passage for analysis and identify the type of English to which it belongs - formal, informal or nonstandard. Characterize the passage by elements of style. Note the particular words and constructions that cause you to label the passage as you do so. Explain the choice of words according to the formality of the situation in which they are used in the passage under analysis.

A capacitor is like a small bucket that is able to store electrons. To store a 1 in the memory cell, the bucket is filled with electrons. To store a 0, it is emptied. The problem with the capacitor's bucket is that it has a leak. In a matter of a few milliseconds a full bucket becomes empty. Therefore, for dynamic memory to work, either the CPU or the memory controller has to come along and recharge all of the capacitors holding a 1 before they discharge. To do this, the memory controller reads the memory and then writes it right back. This refresh operation happens automatically thousands of times per second.

 

1. It belongs to the formal type of English (it’s a professional terminology). It is a technical text that describes the process of working of the Random Access Computer Memory.

2.

capacitor - конденсатор (electro technology)

electron(s) - электрон (physic)

the memory cell - ячейка памяти запоминающего устройства (information and computer technology)

the dynamic memory - динамическое запоминающее устройство (information and computer technology)

the CPU - центральный процессор (information technology)

the memory controller - регулятор памяти (technical term)

the refresh operation - операция обновления (information and computer technology)

2) With the help of a dictionary define the stylistic value of each of the following words (f=formal, n=neutral, c=colloquial, s=slang, d=dialect, l=literary, t=terminology, p=poetic, fam=family, etc.).

a. begin (n), commence [начинать] (f), start (c), initiate [вводить в курс дела] (f)

b. phoney [ложный, фальшивый, обманщик] (s), sham (n), false (f)

c. intelligent (n), smart (s), highbrow (f), brainy (c)

d. man (n), chap (c; d - дитя, ребенок), fellow (c), guy (s)

e. to die (n), to perish (f, l), to kick the bucket (s), to pass away (c), to decease (f, l)

f. money (n), cash (c), currency (f), legal tender (f, t), specie, dough (c)

G. wife (n), spouse (f, l), madam (f), mistress (n), better half (c, p), sweetie (c, fam)

The following letters are written in a mixture of formal and informal styles. Rewrite the business letter in a consistently formal or unmarked style and the friendly letter in an informal style.

1.

Mss. Jane Hobbs

Personnel Officer

Robert Donaldson and Partners

Manton Ferrace

London, W

July 2002

Dear Madam,

I met an advertisement of your company in last Friday’s Guardian. I am interested in the position of Bi-lingual administrative assistant posted in your company advertisement.

I graduated from the Hammesmith Secreterial College and received a Bi-lingual Secretary Diploma. After completing my course I spent a year in Italy where I worked as a receptionist. Mr. Joseph Keller, The Senior Manages of IPCO International, Vienna agreed to give you any further information that you require about my work.

Please respond at your earliest convenience.

Warm Regards,

Sally Brook

2.

Dearest,

I am sorry, I haven’t written. At this moment I am in Algiers. It abounds in full of frogs.

Remember, I told you about Arthur? So it is all off with him. I was right about him at first. But who I am attracted to is Robert, which is much better for all. First impressions are always right. Yes? No?

Robert and I were driving about all day in the Botanic gardens. And Goodness! He was Decent - Bestie got plastered and had a row with Mabel - Miss P Again - so that’s all right too. And Robert’s lousy girl had spent all day on board. Mum bought a shawl. Bill told Lady Mabel about his disappointment and she told Robert, who said: «Yes, we all know». So Lady Mabel said it was very unreticent of Bill and she had very little respect for him and didn’t blame his wife. Or the foreigners.

And how are you doing? Do you have any plans on this summer? Please write back soon and let me know.

Lots of Love,

Mary

Make up lists of formal and informal words.

Formal words: to comprise, to compile, experimental, heterogeneous, homogeneous, conclusive, divergent, to assist, to endeavour, to proceed, approximately, sufficient, attired, to inquire, a solitude, a sentiment, a fascination, a fastidiousness, a facetiousness, a delusion, a meditation, a felicity, elusive, cordial, illusionary, constancy, doth, to evade, bilingual, interdental, etc.

Informal words: buffer, kid, to up, pal, chum, to start, to go on, to finish, to be through, pram, exam, fridge, prop, movie, to put up, to put over, to make up, to do away, to turn up, mug, saucers, trap, to leg, car, trolley, tram, to lake, nivver, brass, mun, chap, fellow, etc.

5) Suggest neutral synonyms to the poetical words:

pto behold: 1. увидеть, заметить, узреть = to see

2. созерцать, рассматривать, наблюдать = to gaze, to observe

pto deem: полагать, считать =to consider, to think, to suppose

pa gore: кровь, пролитая в сражении; запекшаяся кровь = blood

pan array: убор, наряд, одеяние, облачение = clothing, finery

plone: одинокий, замкнутый, уединенный = secluded, solitary

pmurky: темный, тусклый, неясный = dark

pnigh: близкий, ближний = near, close

poft = often, frequently

palbeit [o:l’bi:it] (all though it be that): хотя (и) = even though, even if, although

pere: до, перед = til, until, before

 

6)Define the meaning of the barbarisms and give their corresponding English equivalents.

Bon mot [bɔːŋ'məu] - остроумное выражение, острота, красное словцо (a clever remark) = a quip, a remark

Et cetera - и так далее = and so on, and so forth

Alma Mater - альма-матер (об университетах и колледжах) = university, college

Ad hoc - непродуманный, спонтанный, случайный (not planned, but arranged or done only when necessary) = spontaneous, unplanned

Tete-a-tete - разговор наедине, с глазу на глаз, тет-а-тет (a private conversation between two people) = one on one, in private, privately

The following words appeared as slang words. Consult dictionaries to see if they still preserve this stylistic reference.

Beans

Боб, фасоль

Башка, голова

Монета

Chink

Щель, скважина (crack)

Узкая полоска света, тонкий луч

Луч света

Звон, звяканье

Attic

Чердак, мансарда (garret, loft)

Чердак», голова

Nut

Орех

Голова, башка

Чудак, дурачок, сумасброд

Cock-eyed

Косоглазый

Странный, нелепый, абсурдный

Пьяный (амер.)

Mob

Сборище, толпа

Стадо животных (австрал.)

Банда, воровская шайка

Snob

Сноб

Сапожник






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