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What does knowing a new word mean?

· It is not enough just to know the meaning of a word. You also need to know:

- what words it is usually associated with

- whether it has any particular grammatical characteristics

- how it is pronounced

· Try to learn new words not in isolation but in phrases.

· Write down adjectives together with nouns they are often associated with and vice versa, e.g. royal family; rich vocabulary.

· Write down verbs with the structure and nouns associated with them, e.g. to add to our knowledge of the subject; to express an opinion.

· Write down nouns in phrases, e.g. in contact with; a train set; shades of opinion.

· Write down words with their prepositions, e.g. at a high level; thanks to your help.

· Note any grammatical characteristics of the words you are studying. For example, note when a verb is irregular and when a noun is uncountable or is only used in the plural.

· Make a note of any special pronunciation problems with the words you’re learning.


1. How could you record the following?

a) chilly b) dissuade c) king

d) up to the ears e) independent f) get married

2. What would you record beside the following words?

a) scissors b) weather c) teach

d) advice e) lose f) trousers

3. What might you note beside the following words?

a) comb b) catastrophe

c) photograph / photographer


What should you do when you come across new words?


When you are reading something in English, don’t look up every new word or expression or you will soon get fed up. Only look up something that is really important for understanding the text. When you have finished reading, look back at what you have read and then perhaps look up some extra words and write down new expressions that interest you.

Similarly when you listen to English don’t panic when you hear some words or expressions that you don’t know. Keep listening and the overall meaning will often become clear.

When you read or listen to English it is sometimes possible to guess the meaning of a word you don’t know before you look up or ask its meaning. Decide first what part of speech the word is and then look for clues in its context or form.


Before you read the text below, check whether you know what the underlined words mean.


A tortoise is a shelled reptile famed for its slowness and longevity.

The Giant Tortoise of the Galapagos may attain over 1.5 metres in length and have a lifespan of more than 150 years. Smaller tortoises from Southern Europe and North Africa make popular pets. They need to be tended carefully in cool climates and must have a warm place in which they can hibernate.


Which of the marked words can you perhaps guess from the context or from the way the word is formed? Guess and then check whether you were correct by using a dictionary. Some words are impossible to guess from context or the structure of the word. In such cases, ask someone or go to a dictionary for help.

N.B. Vocabulary study and practice is recommended in accordance with the number of the lesson in “Keep up your English” textbook.


Lesson 1


1. Fill in the missing verbs in the appropriate forms:


to rise / to arise / to raise

1. He … his eyes and stared at the blank wall for a moment. 2. It was long after midnight when the guests … to go. 3. Her voice … to a scream.

4. When it came to practical things the usual difficulties …. 5. The children … and followed me out of the room. 6. Let’s hope that such problems will not …. 7. She felt a warm wave of sympathy … within her. 8. The temperature … to ten above zero. 9. Protests were … and criticisms voiced.


to lie / lay

1. He … down the hammer and picked up the handsaw. 2. I could see the cat … in wait for its victim. 3. He … the matter before the committee with all its pros and cons. 4. The poor fellow was … up in hospital with another heart attack. 5. It was a mistake which … him open to criticism.

6. He would … around the whole day doing nothing and thinking nothing.

7. What he did amounted to killing the goose which... the golden eggs.

8. She … down and fell asleep. 9. She … down the baby carefully. 10. He fell asleep the moment he … his head on the pillow. 11. Europe … north of Africa. 12. He … a hand on my shoulder and said softly: “Are you Mr Brown? ” 13. Life … in front of you. 14. If you dare … a finger on her … 15. They … a tax / a duty on tea. 16. It … with you to decide the question. 17. The trouble … in engine. 18. They tried to … the blame for the crime on me. 19. The hens are … well now. 20. Lomonosov … the foundation of Russian science. 21. Place it in a … position. 22. … bricks is a skilled job.


to keep / to preserve / to retain

1. In Britain there are many places which still … their old Celtic names. 2. There are many ways of … vegetables for the winter. 3. The manager succeeded in … control over the company. 4. I don’t like … old clothes.

5. If you want to … fit, exercise and eat vegetables as much as you can.

6. These manuscripts were … in the library of the local museum.


to go / to leave / to quit / to clear out / to withdraw / to depart / to retire

1. The police are after you, you’d better …. 2. In accordance with the old English custom the ladies … after dinner. 3. When it was time for him to …, she said she would … too. 4. In silence the widow …. 5. Aunt Polly was … from the field with a slipper in her hand and triumph in her eyes.

6. He repeated his apologies and … the room. 7. He … the laboratory with a sign of relief. 8. He tried many jobs but … all of them. 9. What age do women … in England? 10. The UN troops were eventually … from the country.


to stay / to remain / to leave

1. We … there much longer than we expected. 2. Few … in the building after the alarm was given. 3. He could not … in his silent lodging when they were gone. 4. The two girls would gladly have … and helped the mother get dinner. 5. Andrew was inclined to ask himself why he and Christine had … at Aberlaw since the death of their child. 6. I’m afraid I’ve no time to …. 7. We decided to … in the hotel till the end of the month.

8. He was … alone in the house. 9. She … silent. 10. Don’t … your things behind when you … the train.


to stay / to remain / to linger


1. “Food is one of my few … pleasures, I am afraid”. – she said. – “With the dire consequences on my figure that you can see. Do have another helping of the pudding? ” 2. This is Song-Mi Lee, who came ten years ago from Korea on a Ford Foundation fellowship to sit at his feet as a research student and … to become his secretary, companion and wife. 3. That delicious taste … in my mouth for some time.


2. Translate into English using the following verbs according to the sense:


to stay / to remain / to linger


1.Солженицын был и остается выдающимся писателем.

2. Параллель этого романа с «Войной и миром» была и остается очевидной. 3. Он решил остаться в осажденном городе. 4. Разве ты можешь оставаться равнодушным к одной из самых ужасных катастроф человечества в нашем столетии? 5. Я много раз проветривала комнату, но запах кофе и сигарет остался. 6. Я случайно пролила томатный сок на платье, и боюсь, останется пятно.


to raise / to pick / to lift / to heave / to hoist


1. Если вы с чем-то не согласны или хотите что-то добавить, просто поднимите руку. 2. В честь двадцатилетнего юбилея школы провели собрание и подняли её флаг с эмблемой. 3. Чемодан такой тяжелый, я не могу его поднять. У тебя нет тележки? 4. Подними пуговицу с пола, мне кажется, она оторвалась от моего пиджака.

5. Подъемный кран поднимал огромные бетонные плиты.


3. Study the italicized words, discriminate between the shades of difference in their usage or in their meaning. Translate the sentences into Russian.


A. 1. The weather seems to be changing for the worse. 2. That should change her mind is out of the question. 3. You’d better change your tie. It’s too loud for evening wear. 4. She had had the dress slightly altered and now it was good as new. 5. A change in the dates made him alter his arrangements for the holidays. 6. His opinions never seem to vary. 7. You should vary your diet.

B. 1. The mistake you made was quite an ordinary sort of mistake. Such mistakes are common enough among beginners. 2. I had never known him well, but he had always seemed to me an ordinary sort of person. 3. The general idea has been expressed clearly enough, it’s the details that bother me. 4. Hardly any criticism was voiced, just a few general remarks.

C. 1. Once he had been famous in the role of Othello. 2. John Dillinger was a notorious killer. 3. The whole town was agog waiting for the arrival of the celebrated singer. 4. It was a forum of the most distinguished men of science.


Lesson 2


1. Fill in the missing words:


sight / look / view / glance

1. The mere … of the cobra made her sick. 2. It was clear by the … of him that he was not quite himself. 3. We bought a small house with a … of the mountains. 4. If you take a bird’s eye …of the Cathedral, you’ll feel the splendour of its domes. 5. Do you believe in love at first …? 6. She gave me a …. 7. She couldn’t stand the … of a dead man. 8. He could recognize her in the photo at a ….


to bring / take / carry

1. Have you … my suit to the cleaner’s? 2. You have … the children sweets again. You are spoiling them. 3. … this letter to Mr.Wells. The postman has made a mistake. 4. The students were asked to … their newspaper clippings (вырезки) to class. 5. Will you … these books to the library? 6. The chocolates you.. last time were simply delicious. 7. I’m afraid you will have to … me. I think I have broken my leg. 8. Please … your mirrors to class so that you can study the position of your lips. 9. This case is very handy for … books. 10. This suit-case is very heavy. I’m tired of … it.


2. Use “How does he (she, it, etc) look? What does he (she, it, etc.) look like? What is he (she, it, etc) like? ” in questions to which the following may serve as answers:



1. He is tall, thin and grey-haired. 2. The new secretary is very nice and polite. 3. He is sunburnt and has lost a little weight. 4. Jane is a very friendly person. 5. Our gym teacher is young and pretty. 6. Mr. Jones has aged considerably since his wife’s death.


3. Group the sentences in the following passages matching them with the proper question: “How does he / she look? What does he / she look like? What is he / she like? ” Translate the passages.


1. The girl was delicately-built, very slender, with full lips and deep-set eyes. They looked sad and made you feel sorry for her.

2. She was a lovely little girl of about five, plump, with an upturned nose and dimpled rosy cheeks. Her hazel eyes and silky long hair added to her attraction.

3. Melancholy and perplexed, the woman was sitting at the table. Her faded eyes were grave and she looked upset.

4. Cruel but very clever and shrewd, he was quite an extraordinary person.

5. Mark was dark-haired and romantically handsome, with his merry laugh and charm of the person who comes from this charming country, Spain.

6. Emily was full of anxiety. She was stubbornly British and didn’t find India beautiful or exciting.

7. Rachel was a bit old-fashioned and she was sweet in a way. Her eyes were close-set and a little slanting but they didn’t spoil her pale oval face.

8. He wasn’t even that handsome: his proportions were wrong; he was too tall for his shoulders; his hair was too short; his arms were too long.

9. The immigration officer is wearing a dark-green uniform, like a soldier’s, and there are two actual soldiers leaning against the wall beside him, in crisp blue shirts with short sleeves.

10. In front of Rennie there’s a tiny woman, not five feet tall. She’s wearing a fur coat and a black wool jockey cap tilted at an angle. She must be at least seventy but it’s hard to tell.

11. He was like iron. All of us knew that he was not easily put off and that nothing could make him change his mind.

12. She was unable to control her jealousy, and her friends sometimes called her an Othello in spite of her being a woman.

13. Phil looked pretty exhausted. He had had no sleep the last night as he had a great deal to do in the hospital and could never find an hour or two to have a nap.


4. Translate into English using the following verbs according to the sense:


to encounter / to come across

1. Недавно мне встретилось интересное замечание: «Если я лгу, я оскорбляю себя больше, чем того, кому я лгу». 2. С такими серьезными трудностями в аудитории я встречаюсь впервые – вероятно, это потому, что я никогда до сих пор не преподавал маленьким детям.


5. Study the italicized words, discriminate between the shades of difference in usage or in their meaning. Translate the sentences into Russian.


A. 1. I’ve got a surprise for you. Now shut your eyes and don’t look.

2. An old man opened the door and peered at me shortsightedly. 3. She glared at them in impotent rage. 4. The child raised the lid and peeped inside the box. 5. The travellers had reached the top of the hill and were now gazing in wonder at the beautiful country lying at their feet. 6. He sat down opposite the living-room window and stared out of it as if at a vision of the past or future. 7. The crowd stood gaping. They had never seen a travelling circus.

B. 1. The boy shook the tree and the apples came failing down. 2. He trembled at the lion’s roar. 3. He was shivering with cold. 4. Her lips quivered. 5. His fingers trembled as he counted the money. 6. He shuddered at the prospect. 7. The puppy stood wobbling on its short rickety legs.

C. 1. His voice came strange and unfamiliar over the telephone. 2. Have you read the book by R.L. Stevenson “The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde”? 3. You will never mistake her. She’s got a very peculiar accent. 4. It was a quaint house with gable windows and turrets. 5. His behaviour struck us all as somewhat odd. 6. It was a queer sort of story. 7. Now she was facing the audience. She had a funny sinking feeling in her stomach as if she were falling through space. 8. What a singular remark! 9. They all agreed he was a man of rather singular habits. 10. He’s a curious fellow, to say the least. You never really know what’s on his mind. 11. The two of them together was a curious sight. 12. As she looked about the room she had a curious feeling that she had been there before.


Lesson 3


1. Recast the following using word combinations with “to make” or “to do” instead of the verbs in bold type.


1. There were three mistakes in the student’s composition. 2. He translated the text in half an hour. 3. The dean spoke at the meeting of the first-year students. 4. Gardeners usually work out-of-doors. 5. The students drew the model who posed for them.



2. Fill in the missing verbs:


to make / to do

1. She … the best of her charms to marry him. 2. It doesn’t … any sense. 3. He … well at present. 4. I like the way she … her hair. 5. He was a young writer and could hardly.. both ends meet. 6. He knew it was not the right way to … his living. His marriage … things worse. His wife tried to … her best by … her share of work about the house, but her efforts didn’t seem to … their marriage any good. 7. Nothing could … her … what she didn’t want to. 8. “That won’t …! ” he exclaimed. 9. Two and two … four. 10. “I don’t want him to have anything to … with my daughter. He is no match for her, ” mother thought. 11. It’s very important to … a very good first impression on the parents and relatives.


to learn / to find out / to get to know

1. I’ve never been in what you might call the swim, intellectually speaking. That’s why I’ve come to this conference. To improve myself. To … what’s going on in the great world of ideas. Who’s in and who’s out and all that. So tell me about structuralism. 2. They offered help as soon as they … of the accident. 3. She was extremely upset to … that he had died. 4. She is a very sweet and giving person, you just have to … her.


3. Translate into English using the following verbs according to the sense:


to make / to do

1. Что бы он ни делал, все было не так. 2. В этой книге автор описывает жизнь современной Англии, и делает он это превосходно.

3. Он сделал все возможное, чтобы предупредить их об опасности.

4. На сегодня мы сделали упражнение № 11. 5. Я тебе помогу сделать салат. 6. Можно я сдам перевод в следующий раз? Я его не сделал.

7. Она все шьет для себя сама. Недавно она сделала себе прелестную шляпку. 8. Она слишком устала, чтобы что-либо сейчас делать. 9. Во время своей поездки по Волге он сделал много набросков (sketches) и рисунков.

to learn / to find out / to get to know

1. Я разочаровался в ней, узнав от тебя, что она терпеть не может музыку. 2. На страничке было написано несколько строк. Недавно я случайно узнал, что это была лишь заключительная часть письма.

3. Когда я узнала её поближе, я поняла, какой она замечательный человек. 4. Узнай, во сколько последний поезд в центр.


to accept / to admit / to receive / to take

1. В тот вечер он принимал гостей у себя в кабинете. 2. Я не могу принять вашего объяснения. 3. Не принимайте все так близко к сердцу! 4. Лекарство следует принимать по чайной ложке три раза в день перед едой. 5. В какой же институт его приняли? 6. Нельзя принимать всерьез все, что он говорит. 7. Я принял его приглашение. 8. Она приняла его предложение руки и сердца. 9. Решение было, наконец, принято.

10. Нас всегда очень хорошо принимали в этом доме.


to recognize / to admit / to acknowledge

1. Надо признать, что я отчетливо увидел, какую опасность для нас представляют такие люди, как Джим. 2. Я признаю, что была неправа. 4. Все признают её огромный вклад в мировую науку. 5. Она публично признала, что в работе над исследованием ей особенно помогал Колин.


Lesson 4

1. Fill in the missing words:


to say / to tell / to speak

1. How many languages do you …? 2. The doctor … (that) Philip should be taken to hospital. 3. “You talk too much, ” Kenneth …. 4. I can’t hear what you are …, … louder. 5. Some parents believe that children should only … when they are … to. 6. I was … not to.. a word to anybody. 7. Girls as a rule begin to … much earlier than boys. 8. It was a joke he had … twice that evening and we … him so. 9. I won’t … to you any more if you don’t … the truth. 10. His English has improved. He … more correctly and with greater ease. 11. I’ll … it once more and then I’ll ask you to repeat it. 12. Have you anything to.. in your defence?


absent / out / away

1.When I called at John’s house, he was … and his mother told me he would be home in half an hour. 2. “Helen must be ill, she has been … for more than a week, ” said the monitor. 3. Do you mind answering the telephone while I am …, I expect an important call. I’ll be back in ten minutes. 4. I was so sorry that my cousin was … when I visited Kiev, I hadn’t seen her for two years. 5. “Why were you … from the rehearsal yesterday? You won’t be ready for the performance.” 6. I’m going shopping but I won’t be … long, please, give Jimmy his medicine while I am ….

7. Angelica was … from the first formal session of the conference the next morning. 8. Morris Zapp had been having a quiet evening. Mrs Zapp was … doing good jobs, the two eldest children were … from home at college and the youngest, Mathew was … playing rhythm guitar in a school.


2. Change the parts in bold type in the following sentences using:


to be absent / to be away / to be out

1. The little girl did not attend school for a week because of a sore throat. 2. I am going to the Institute to see my teacher about my report. I don’t expect to stay there long. 3. I was very much surprised to see the lights in their house, I knew they had all gone on their vacation. 4. I wonder where George can be, he left early in the morning and he has been gone the whole day. 5. The dean is here, he came an hour ago, but at the moment he isn’t in his office.


3. Translate the following using the word “talk” in the correct form:


1. Боюсь, что Генри не выполнит своего обещания, все это – одни разговоры. 2. Простите, что прерываю ваш разговор, м-р Гендерсон. Вас просят к телефону. 3. Ходят разговоры, что завтра у нас будет свободный день. 4. Чем кончились торговые переговоры между этими двумя странами? 5. Кто-нибудь входил в комнату во время разговора с Сэмом? 6. Сегодня у меня был разговор с учителем Джимми. Я расскажу об этом позже.


4. Translate the following sentences using:


to be absent / to be away / to be out

1. Моего друга сейчас нет в городе, он уехал в Таллин.

2. Почему тебя не было вчера на занятиях? 3. Как мне не везёт: каждый раз, когда я захожу, секретаря нет. 4. Пока вас не было, мы прошли несколько новых тем. 5. Мы вышли погулять, и пока нас не было, почтальон принес телеграмму. 6. Меня не было в городе, когда это случилось.


to finish / to be over / to graduate / to leave / to use up / to run out of / to end / to expire / to terminate

1. В каком году ты окончил школу? 2. Когда я закончил писать сочинение, было уже 12 часов ночи. 3. Дай мне листок бумаги, пожалуйста, у меня закончилась тетрадь. 4. Мой старший брат окончил архитектурный институт, а младшая сестра окончит университет через два года. 5. После того как закончишь есть, обязательно убери со стола. 6. Собрание ещё не закончилось, оно закончится минут через 15.

7. Купи, пожалуйста, соли и спичек. У нас закончилось и то, и другое. 8. Как заканчивается фильм? – Фильм заканчивается возвращением Петра в родной город. 9. Сказки обычно заканчиваются хорошо. 10. У нас закончился хлеб – можешь зайти в магазин по дороге домой? 11. В июне 2005 года у меня заканчивается контракт и я буду искать новую работу. 12. Срок действия моего паспорта заканчивается через два месяца. 13. Лекция закончится в 15.05. 14. Фильм заканчивается в шесть часов, в семь я могу быть у вас.

Lesson 5


1. Fill in the missing words:


to propose / to offer / to suggest

1. A year has passed since Nick … to Kelly and she still hasn’t given him any answer. 2. I … we put off considering this question until the Senator arrives. 3. I … you put an end to this affair. He is no match for you. 4. He … to give her a lift. 5. The Father … that they should celebrate Mother’s Day out of town. 6. Two projects were … for consideration.


to trouble / to worry / to be anxious / to be concerned

1. Most parents are … about their children’s future. 2. May I.. you for a moment? 3. She was too … to get the first prize. 4. Don’t … about it, you’ll be all right. 5. Queen Elizabeth is … about some of the Prime Minister’s actions. 6. What.. her is that her son has taken to drugs. 7. There’s nothing to … about.


sense / feeling / sensation

1. He could sense the general … of discontent among his listeners. He wondered about the reason. 2. A … of injury persisted, though if asked to explain he would have hardly been able to put it into words. 3. She tried to rise, but she couldn’t. There was a funny … in her legs as if they weren’t quite her own. 4. He had a … about the place, it was as if he belonged there. 5. As she watched her son take his seat among the other boys in the bus she was overwhelmed by a … of loss, it was as if she would never be seeing him again. 6. To sit in the warmth of the camp fire was a very pleasant ….


2. Translate into English using “mean.


1. Что означает это слово? 2. У меня и в мыслях не было обидеть его. 3. Я нисколько не сомневаюсь в том, что она это сделала из самых добрых побуждений. 4. Когда он говорил о цветах, он имел в виду розы. 5. Что это значит? Как вы могли позвонить им так поздно? 6. Для него эта дружба значила очень много. 7. Я и не собирался приходить на вечер, всё это получилось случайно. 8. Какой чудесный альбом! Неужели он для меня? 9. Он не шутил. Он подразумевал именно то, что сказал. 10. Её мнение для меня очень существенно. 11. Как ни странно, но его слово здесь действительно ничего не значит.


3. Study the italicized words, discriminate between the shades of difference in their usage or in their meaning. Translate the sentences into Russian.


A. 1. You mustn’t disturb a person when he’s sleeping. 2. The loud cries from the street disturbed his train of thoughts. 3. She’s always worrying. She never has a moment of peace. 4. Don’t worry! Everything will be all right in the end. 5. He kept worrying about the outcome of the game. 6. I was sorry to trouble him about such a minor affair but there didn’t seem to be any other way out. 7. You needn’t bother your head about such things. 8. They were bothered by mosquitoes. 9. For once he didn’t bother to think of an excuse.

B. 1. The island was yet to be explored. 2. It was his task to explore the possibilities of the invention. 3. The case was investigated by the police. 4. The doctor examined the patient carefully. 5. The matter was examined from every possible angle.


Lesson 6

1. Choose the proper word:


to occur / to chance / to happen / to befall

1. It was the worst thing that had ever … to him. 2. Storms often … in this part of the ocean in winter. 3. This particular conversation was reported to have … yesterday at 5 p.m. 4. He wondered how they could justify this new relationship to his family, should they … to hear about it. 5. The day.. to fall on the anniversary of his wife’s death. 6. She realized that some crushing misadventure had … her son. 7. All memorable events … in morning time and in a morning atmosphere. 8. It’s so … that they had met before.


un(comfortable) / in(convenient)

1. It is … to phone him so late. 2. The beds in this hotel are very …, soft and wide. 3. Sit down and make yourself …. 4. Come whenever it is … for you. 5. Martin Eden felt … in his new suit. 6. We have to choose a day for the excursion that is … for everybody. 7. I don’t think it is … to ask him to lend us some money, after all he hardly knows us.


2. a) Supply the correct item for each situation.


M o d e l: Student 1: What would you say about a sofa that is soft and cosy?

Student 2: It is a comfortable sofa.

Student 2: What would you say about an instrument that can be used in a number of operations?

Student 3: It is a convenient instrument.


W h a t w o u l d y o u s a y?


1. about an hour (time) of the day that was chosen to suit you? 2. about a place that was chosen because of its suitable location? 3. about shoes that cause no pain, that do not pinch? 4. about a desk that has a number of handy drawers? 5. about a can opener that works quickly and easily? 6. about trousers that do not cause discomfort, that are not tight? 7. about a large and spacious wall closet? 8. about an ironing board that is easy to use? 9. about a hard bed? 10. about a cosy armchair? 11. about a good spring mattress?


b) Answer the following questions using “(un) comfortable or (in)convenient

M o d e l: Student 1: Why don’t you wear your white shoes?

Student 2: Because they are uncomfortable.

Student 2: Why don’t you ring him up from your office?

Student 3: Because it is inconvenient.


1. Why do you keep your dictionaries on the desk and not in the bookcase? 2. Why did you sell your kitchen stools? 3. Why do people prefer to travel by metro? 4. Why does your father always wear this old jacket?

5. Why don’t you study at home; why do you go to the library?


3. Study the phrases with “mind”. Use them in sentences of your own.

1. He showed great presence of mind in handling the situation. 2. I very much feel like giving the fellow a piece of my mind. 3. To my mind a job well started is half done. 4. They say that great minds run in the same channels. 5. It takes him hours to make up his mind about the simplest things. 6. She felt disturbed and found it difficult to keep her mind on her work. 7. I do hope you keep in mind my advice. 8. You don’t look the thing this morning. What’s on your mind? 9. In discussions of this sort you should always keep an open mind. 10. First she thought she’d wear blue but then changed her mind in favor of pink. 11. Out of sight, out of mind. 12. You must admit that you have failed. The sooner you make up your mind to it, the better. 13. You’ve had time enough to decide what you want. Don’t you know your own mind? 14. He seems to have set his mind on becoming an architect.


Lesson 7


1. Study the phrases with “time”. Use them in sentences of your own.

1. He took his time over the answer. He was afraid to say the wrong thing. 2. I didn’t get to the station in time to catch the six o’clock train.

3. You’ll forget about it in time. 4. The trouble with names has put me in difficulties from time to time. 5. He was all the time waiting for something to happen. 6. The doctor encouraged his patient, though all the time he knew there was hardly any hope for her. 7. Now that you mention her name, I know who she is, though I didn’t recognize her at the time. 8. The boy was very slow in answering my questions. He must have been playing for time. 9. At times she would be inattentive and forgetful. 10. I should advise you to leave things as they are for the time being. 11. The plane arrived on time.

12. We were to enter the room one at a time.


2. Translate the following into English using “time” or phrases with “time.


1. Не торопись с ответом, обдумай все как следует. 2. Сейчас не время говорить об этом. 3. У него нет ни минуты свободного времени. 4. Он все схватывает очень быстро. Ему достаточно сказать что-нибудь один раз. 5. Когда вы, наконец, научитесь приходить вовремя? 6. Он один шел не в ногу. 7. Дети хлопали в такт музыке. 8. Время от времени я беру книги из его библиотеки. 9. Сейчас как раз самое время пересадить цветы в почву. 10. Хватит топтаться на месте! 11. Всех этих вещей хватит не только на мой век, но и на век моих детей.

12. Прошлый раз я тебе забыла передать приглашение от Ивановых провести воскресенье у них на даче. 13. Когда вы в последний раз обсуждали эту проблему? Я надеюсь, что она была полностью решена и нам уже не придется к ней возвращаться. 14. Время не ждет. Нельзя ли побыстрей?


3. Study the italicized words, discriminate between the shades of difference in their usage or in their meaning. Translate the sentences into Russian.


A. 1. She made no special effort to entertain her guests but they seemed to be happy enough. 2. The story amused us greatly. 3. He was charmed by the house, the beautiful garden and, above all, by the landlady, a comely old woman with a delightful sense of humour. 4. There was no pleasing the woman.

B. 1. He said he would have a snack in town. 2. We invited our neighbour to take potluck with us. 3. If you want to stay healthy, you must take your meals regularly. 4. She’d only had a bite earlier in the day and now she felt terribly hungry. 5. The repast over, the ladies rose to go to the drawing-room. 6. There would be no dinner, only refreshment at the party.

C. 1. The party trudged along in the heavy snow. 2. He walked up the street with a brisk jaunty step. 3. I could hear him pacing up and down the room. 4. The boy sauntered up, his hands in his pockets, his head cocked on one side. 5. He stalked out in a passion. 6. They strolled with the other holiday-makers along the embankment. 7. He strutted about proud as a peacock.

D. 1. As the English put it, enough is as good as a feast. 2. A person whose needs are satisfied has enough, but when his needs are supplied he has sufficient. 3. Three meals a day are sufficient, but not enough for some people.







A summary (sometimes called a pré cis) is a concise presentation that gives key information about an article, an event, a TV program or a movie, or an oral presentation. Effective summaries help a reader or listener quickly understand the main purpose, content, and structure of an original work.

Summaries take many forms and appear in a variety of situations. They can be brief (as short as one sentence) or lengthy (several pages long). If it is a written work, it is approximately one third the length of the text. Summaries may be oral or written. Whether a summary is based on a book, a videotape, a lecture, or a personal experience, the basic goal is the same: to compress a broad range of information into a few well-chosen words.

Summarizing involves a combination of reading, study and writing skills. To write an effective summary, you must identify the main ideas and key details in the original work. You must also translate the original information into your own words. Putting complex information into your own words helps you understand and remember the main ideas of the original work.

If you are asked to write a summary of a written work, begin by previewing the text. To preview an article, look at the title, subtitle, introductory and final paragraphs, headings and subheadings. To preview a book, look at the title, table of contents, preface, first and last chapters, chapter openers and summaries, and any photographs and illustrations.

After previewing the text, read the work thoroughly. As you read, jot down or highlight main ideas and key details. Pay special attention to topic sentences, defined terms, examples, and lists of items (called enumerations); these features often contain important information.

As soon as you finish reading, write a sentence that expresses the central point of the work.

If you are summarizing a written work, such as a book or an article, your first sentence should identify the author, title, publisher, date of publication, and central point of the work.

Assume that readers know little if anything about the original work you are summarizing. Always include enough information to convey the central point and main ideas.

Depending on the content and on the tone of the original work, the tone you adopt may be informal or very formal. If you summarize a humorous article, you should use an informal tone to indicate to the reader that the article was humorous. Similarly, if you summarize a serious article, you should use a factual, objective tone to reflect the substance of the original work.

The language you use for a summary should reflect but not copy or imitate the wording of the original. The wording you use should always be your own. If you use another writer’s words and try to pass them off as your own, you will be plagiarizing. If you quote directly from the original source, do so sparingly. Don’t use more than two quotations in a single paragraph of your summary.

To sum it up, a summary is a shorter version of a text which:

a) contains the main idea or topic of the text;

b) contains the important supporting details of the text ( A supporting detail is a fact or example that helps to explain the main idea);

c) doesn’t contain any of the reader’s opinions (whereas an essay assumes an individual interpretation of facts, giving a writer a chance of self-expression);

d) is approximately one third the length of the text;

e) contains no introductions or conclusions;

f) should not contain illustrative details, ideas expressed in a figurative language, repetitions, colorless words like: character, nature, case, manner, kind, sort, etc.

E.g. “In spite of the fact” is substituted by “Although”, “Of a courageous character” by “Courageous”, etc.

g) sentences must be re-phrased and re-arranged.


Essay Writing


AN ESSAY is a piece of writing, usually short and in prose, on any subject. It usually assumes an individual interpretation of facts, giving the writer a chance of self-expression. According to the subject matter and the treatment it receives, essay may be divided into three main types: narrative, descriptive and reflective. The division is by no means clear-cut because most essays have features characteristic of not one particular type, but of several.

a) A narrative essay is a description of happenings as they follow one another. It is the easiest to write because the material is arranged according to the actual course of events; one knows where to start and what to do next, each paragraph being devoted to one particular episode or group of episodes.

E.g. You have decided to write about a hitch-hiking holiday. It is advisable first to write down a plan with paragraph headings: 1. What made my friend and me decide on a hitch-hiking holiday. 2. Preparations. 3. The holidays: a) setting off, b)the most interesting, amusing or memorable event: 1), 2), 3) … 4. Home again. Some thoughts on the advantages of such a holiday.

As an essay rarely belongs to one type only, in addition to describing events in chronological order, you are expected to express your views on the subject as well. Your narrative will also include short descriptions of people and places. For example, you might want to describe an impressive view, a lively scene or a person you met during your holiday. But your descriptions and reflections should not occupy too much space in relation to the rest of the essay. Take care to preserve the necessary balance.

Narrative essays bear a close resemblance to those short stories in which the author describes events as he himself has experienced them. In fact, practically all narrative essays could be classed as short stories.

b) A descriptive essay describes people and places at rest. It is more difficult to write because the order in which your ideas follow one another is determined not by the sequence of events, but rather by certain qualities of your ideas and the logical connection between them. You must try to give your essay a clear and logical shape, whether you start from the general and work towards particular or vice versa.

c) Reflective and argumentative essays are slightly different. The first one is primarily an exercise in contemplation upon any given subject, the second - an exercise testing your ability to discuss a problem, to argue for or against a proposition. In the first you rely more on your imagination, in the second – on general knowledge.

Compared with the descriptive and the narrative essays, these are more difficult to write, not only it is more difficult to arrange one’s ideas logically, but also because one has to devote more thought and time to the collection of ideas relevant to the subject. Here a plan is essential. The best way is probably to jot down ideas as they come into your head. Then you can try to group them together and arrange them in the order best suited to your purpose.

You can write reflective essays developing the thoughts through analysis, i.e. you start by breaking out the subject into parts, then group the various ideas together and finally arrange them in a suitable order. The greatest amount of space is generally allotted to the description of the author’s own thoughts, feelings, behaviour, etc.

Another type of organization is development by contrast. You organize your pros and cons in separate sections. The main problem in this case is that in the second part you have to remind your readers occasionally about the items contained in the first part. You may contrast pairs instead of sections throughout the essay.

Development by contrast is the most forceful means of writing an argumentative essay.



Read examples of the essays below, try to define which of the types each of them belongs to.




(By J.B.Priestly)

How difficult it is to make a beginning. I speak of essay-writing, an essentially virtuous practice, and not of breaking the ten commandments. It is much easier to begin, say, a review or an article than it is to begin an essay, for with the former you attach yourself to something outside yourself, you have an excuse for writing and therefore have more courage. If it is a review that has to be written, well, there, waiting for you, inviting your comment, is the book. Similarly with an article, you have your subject, something that everybody is excited about, and thus you know what is expected of you and you can take up your pen with a light heart. But to have nothing to cling hold of, to have no excuse for writing at all, to be compelled to spin everything out of oneself, to stand naked and shivering in the very first sentence one puts down, is clearly a very different matter, and this is the melancholy situation in which the essayist always finds himself. It is true that he need not always be melancholy; if he is full of himself, brimming over with bright talk, in a mood to take the whole world into his confidence, the essayist will find his task a very pleasant one indeed, never to be exchanged for such drudge’s work as reviews and articles; and he will step briskly on to the stage and posture in the limelight without a tremor. But such moments are rare, and the essayist at ordinary times, though he would eagerly undertake to defend his craft, cannot quite rid himself of the feeling that there is something both absurd and decidedly impudent in this business of talking about oneself for money; this feeling haunts the back of his mind like some gibbering spectre, and it generally produces one of three effects. According to his temperament, it will prevent him from doing anything at all that particular day or perhaps any other day, or it will allow him to write a few brilliant opening sentences and then shut up, or it will keep him from making a start until the last possible moment.

For my own part, I am one of those who find it difficult to begin; I stand on the brink for hours, hesitating to make the plunge; I will do anything but the work in hand. This habit is certainly a nuisance, but perhaps it is not quite so intolerable as that of some other persons, men of my acquaintance, who fall into the second category mentioned above and always find themselves making dashing openings and then coming to a stop. They will stare at what they have written, well pleased with it as an opening, and then discover that the flow has ceased, and horrible hours will pass, and perhaps many more dashing openings will have been made, before any real progress will have come about and their essay taken some sort of shape. Such writers seem to me even more unfortunate than I am, for I do at least go forward once I have made a beginning; as soon as I have summoned up courage to ring the bell I am at least admitted into the house of my choice, and am not, like these others, left kicking my heels in the vestibules of half a dozen houses perhaps without ever seeing the interior of any of them.


N o t e s


the ten commandments – the ten Mosaic laws: thou shalt not kill; thou shalt not commit adultery; thou shalt not steal; thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour, etc. (The Bible, Exodus, Ch.20).





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