Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 


Match the headings and the paragraphs of the text you have read. There is one extra heading.




АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

 

Методические указания к практическим занятиям по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов всех направлений подготовки и всех форм обучения

 

Составитель Л. М. Калянова

 

Тюмень

ТюмГНГУ

 

 

Английский язык. Методические указания к практическим занятиям по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов всех направлений подготовки и всех форм обучения / сост. Л. М. Калянова; Тюменский государственный нефтегазовый университет. – Тюмень: издательский центр БИК, ТюмГНГУ, 2015. – 34 с.

 

 

Методические указания рассмотрены и рекомендованы к изданию на заседании кафедры естественно-научных и гуманитарных дисциплин « 26» февраля 2015 года, протокол № 7.

 

Аннотация

 

Данные методические указания предназначены для студентов имеющих базовые знания по английскому языку не ниже среднего уровня и изучающих вопросы нефтегазового дела в рамках профессионального иностранного языка. Цель методических указаний – подготовить студентов к профессиональному общению на английском языке.

Указания могут использоваться как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов. Тексты составлены на основе аутентичной учебной и научной литературы.

   

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Предисловие………………………………………………….…4

 

Unit I

ENGINEERING JOBS……………………………………….…..5

 

Unit II

OIL FORMATION…………………………………………….…8

 

Unit III

HOW OIL BECOMES OIL……………………………………...11

 

Unit IV

OIL EXPLORATION……………………………………………14

 

EXPLORATION METHODS……………………………………15

Unit V

OIL EXTRACTION……………………………………………...20

 

Unit VI

LIFE OF AN OIL WELL (PART I)………………………………23

 

Unit VII

LIFE OF AN OIL WELL (PART II)………………………….…..27

 

Unit VIII

DRIVE MECHANISMS…………………………………………..29

 

БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК…………………………...33

 

 

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

 

Целью данных методических указаний является формирование уровня иноязычной компетенции, позволяющего бакалавру ТюмГНГУ использовать иностранный язык как средство межкультурной коммуникации в профессиональных сферах общения.

Методические указания включают восемь разделов, в основу которых положен тематический принцип. В каждом разделе представлена система упражнений для усвоения лексики (аутентичные тексты, лексический минимум, подстановочные упражнения, предтекстовые и послетекстовые задания, нацеленные на развитие навыков устной и письменной речи, упражнения по переводу). Грамматические упражнения представлены на базе терминологии по специальности.

Методические указания предназначены для студентов технических вузов, обучающихся по направлению “Нефтегазовое дело”.

 

В результате освоения дисциплины студент должен:

Знать: грамматические структуры изучаемого языка в объеме необходимом для овладения языковой и коммуникативной компетенциями, определенными целями изучения данной дисциплины; основы техники перевода.

Уметь: осуществлять поиск новой информации при работе с текстами из учебной, научно-популярной литературы, периодических изданий, инструкций, проспектов и справочной литературы; понимать устную (монологическую и диалогическую речь) на бытовые и специальные темы; осуществлять устный обмен информацией при обсуждении проблем общенаучного и общетехнического характера.

Владеть: навыками устной разговорно-бытовой речи и профессионального общения по широкой специальности вуза; навыками всех видов чтения: ознакомительным чтением - количество неизвестных слов, относящихся к потенциальному словарю, не превышает 2-3% по отношению к общему количеству слов в тексте; изучающим чтением – количество неизвестных слов не превышает 5-6% по отношению к общему количеству слов в тексте; допускается использование словаря; навыками письменной фиксации информации, получаемой при чтении текста и навыками письменной реализации коммуникативных намерений.

 

UNIT I

ENGINEERING JOBS

1. Match the following engineering jobs with their translation and give an explanation to each of these jobs:

1. chemical engineering дорожный транспорт
2. civil engineering машиностроение
3. electrical engineering металлургия
4. marine [mə´ri:n] engineering разработка программного обеспечения
5. metallurgical engineering нефтепромысловое дело
6. mechanical engineering инженерное проектирование
7. transportation (traffic) engineering гражданское строительство
8. petroleum engineering электротехника
9. software engineering химическое машиностроение
10. design engineering кораблестроение

2. Learn the following vocabulary:

1. design engineer дизайнер
2. production engineer инженер производства
3. technical engineer инженер-техник
4. test/laboratory technician [´tek´niʃ(ə)n] инженер-лаборант
5. service technician технический специалист инженерной службы
6. installation (maintenance) technician [´meintinəns] техник по обслуживанию
7. production planning and control technician технолог по планированию и управлению производств. процессом
8. inspection technician инженер-инспектор
9. designer (draftsman) конструктор, проектировщик (чертежник)
10. skilled worker мастер, квалифицированный рабочий, специалист
11. mechanic оператор, механик, техник, слесарь
12. welder сварщик
13. electrician электрик
14. to create производить
15. to extend расширять, продлевать
16. to update обновлять, модернизировать
17. application применение, использование
18. reliability надежность; безотказность
19. component [kəm´pounənt] составная часть; комплектующий
20. to ensure гарантировать, обеспечивать
21. to handle управлять чем-либо
22. fault дефект, недостаток
23. to occur [ə´kə:] происходить, случаться
24. cost-effective доходный, прибыльный
25. to require требовать(ся)
26. to maintain сохранять, содержать в исправности
27. to install устанавливать, монтировать
28. preventative maintenance планово-предупредительный ремонт
29. repairs ремонт
30. incoming входящий; поступающий
31. outgoing выходной; исходящий
32. specifications задание; техн. требования
33. to manufacture производить, изготовлять, делать
34. in accordance with согласно чему-либо
35. joining соединение
36. to wire подключать
37. to carry out производить, выполнять

 

3. Read and translate the text below and do the exercises:

 

ENGINEERING JOBS

 

Professional engineers may work as:

Design engineers: They work as part of a team to createnew products and extendthe life of old products by updatingthem and finding new applications for them. Their aim is to build quality and reliabilityinto the design and to introduce new components and materials to make the product cheaper, lighter, or stronger.

Production engineers: They ensurethat the production process is efficient, that materials are handledsafely and correctly, and that faultswhich occurin production are corrected. The design and development departments consult with

them to ensure that any innovations proposed are practicable and cost-effective.

Just below the professional engineers are the technical engineers. They requirea detailed knowledge of a particular technology – electrical, mechanical, electronic, etc.

Engineering technicians may work as:

Test/Laboratory technicians: They test samples of the materials and of the product to ensure quality is maintained.

Installation and service technicians: They ensure that equipment sold by the company is installed correctly and carry out preventative maintenanceand essential repairs.

Production planning and control technicians: They produce the manufacturing instructions and organize the work of production so that it can be done as quickly, cheaply, and efficiently, as possible.

Inspection technicians: They check and ensure that incomingand outgoingcomponents and products meet specifications.

Designers (draftsman ): They produce the drawings and design documents from which the product is manufactured.

There are also many skilled workers, such as:

Mechanics:They can be different in accordance withtheir work- engine mechanic, maintenance mechanic, and others.

Welders: They do specialized joining, fabricating, and repair work.

Electricians:They wireand install electrical equipment.

 

4. Give the Russian equivalents to the following English verbs and compose sentences with them:

1) to create 6) to require

2) to extend 7) to occur

3) to update 8) to maintain

4) to handle 9) to carry out

5) to ensure 10) to install

 

5. Give the English equivalents to the following expressions:

1) найти новое применение

2) создать новую продукцию

3) модернизировать продукцию

4) профилактический уход (ремонт)

5) необходимый ремонт

 

6. Translate the following phrases:

1) incoming information; professional engineer; engineer taking part in the experiment; joining detail.

2) innovations proposed; detailed knowledge; equipment sold; highly skilled work; produced by the plant; well-done work.

 

7. State who fulfills the following tasks:

1) tests completed motors from a production line.

2) finds out why a new electronics assembly doesn’t work.

3) sees that the correct equipment is available on a production line.

4) finds a cheaper way of manufacturing a workpiece.

5) repairs heating system installed by their company.

6) sees that a new product is safe to use.

 

UNIT II

OIL FORMATION

Oil and natural gas have been foremost on people’s minds for the past years. Nations and the world are run by oil. It fuels our cars, our homes and provides us with electricity. It is used in the making of plastics and cosmetics. Oil is also prevalent in our lives, but most people don’t know where the oil we use comes from.

 

1. Learn the following vocabulary:

1. crude oil сырая нефть

2. mixture смесь

3. hydrocarbons углеводороды

4. separation разделение, разложение на части

5. refining очистка, перегонка (нефти)

6. volatile летучий, быстро испаряющийся

7. viscous густой, вязкий

8. residue [´rezidju:] остаток

9. reservoir [´rezəvwɑ:] rock порода-коллектор

10. source rock материнская порода

11. porous пористый

12. porosity пористость

13. permeable (impermeable) проницаемый (непроницаемый)

14. permeability проницаемость

15. cap rock покрывающая порода, покрышка залежи

16. sulfur сера

17. nitrogen азот

18. oxygen кислород

19. feedstock исходное сырье

20. split up разделять

21. arranged систематизированный

22. tarry [´tæri] смолистый

23. alter изменить

24. sink погружаться

25. decay разрушаться, разлагаться

26. fine-grained мелкозернистый

27. exert оказывать (давление)

28. trap ловушка

29. property свойство

30. shale сланец

31. accumulate накапливать, накоплять

32. limestone известняк

33. sandstone песчаник

 

2. Read and translate the text below and do the exercises:

OIL FORMATION

 

Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with minor proportions of other chemicals such as compounds of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. To use the different parts of the mixture they must be separated from each other. This separation is called refining.

Crude oils from different parts of the world, or even from different depths in the same oilfield, contain different mixtures of hydrocarbons and other compounds. This is why they vary from light colored volatile liquids to thick, dark oils – so viscous that they are difficult to pump from the ground.

Hydrocarbons vary in structure depending on the number of carbon atoms and the way in which the hydrogen atoms combine with them. Hydrocarbons can be arranged as straight chains, branched chains or closed rings. There are two main chemical families of hydrocarbons – the alkanes and the alkenes.

As the structure of hydrocarbons varies so much, thousands of synthetic products can be manufactured with many different properties. Hydrocarbons with small molecules make good fuels. Methane (CH4) has the smallest molecules, and is a gas, used for cooking and heating and generating electricity. Gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel and fuel oil are all liquid fuels.

Hydrocarbon molecules can be split up into smaller ones, or built up into bigger ones, or altered in shape, or modified by adding other atoms. This is why they are a very useful starting point (called a chemical feedstock) for making other materials. Even the thick black tarry residue left after distillation is useful. It is called bitumen, and is used in tarmac for road surfacing, and for roofing.

Oil is formed from the remains of tiny plants and animals (plankton) that died in ancient seas between 10 and 600 million years ago. After the organism died, they sank into the sand and mud at the bottom of the sea. Over the years, the organisms decayed in the sedimentary layers. In these layers there was little or no oxygen present. So microorganisms broke the remains into carbon-rich compounds that formed organic layers. The organic material mixed with the sediments, forming fine-grained shale, or source rock. As new sedimentary layers were deposited, they exerted intense pressure and heat on the source rock. The heat and pressure distilled the organic material into crude oil and natural gas. The oil flowed from the source rock and accumulated in thicker, more porous limestone or sandstone, called reservoir rock. Movements in the Earth trapped the oil and natural gas in the reservoir rocks between layers of impermeable rock, or cap rock, such as granite or marble.

 

UNIT III

HOW OIL BECOMES OIL

1. Learn the following vocabulary:

1. depression впадина

2. restricted basin ограниченный бассейн

3. decompose – decomposition разлагаться - разложение

4. expansion распространение (на большую площадь)

5. recover oil добывать нефть

6. adjacent (to) смежный, прилегающий

7. pocket карман

8. apex [´eipeks] вершина

9. fold складка

10. migrate мигрировать, перемещаться

11. lens [´lenz] чечевицеобразная залежь, линза

12. pinch out выклиниваться

13. unconformity несогласное напластование

14. truncated [´trʌŋkeitid] срезанный, эродированный

15. fracture разлом, трещина

16. preserve [pri´zə:v] сохранять

17. interweave [ˏintə´wi:v] перемешивать, вкраплять

18. compaction уплотнение

19. mudstone = mudst аргиллит

20. thrust fault сброс

21. cook подвергаться тепловой обработке

22. kerogen [´kerədʒi:n] кероген (органическое вещество биту-

минозных сланцев)

23. abundance распространенность, изобилие

 

2. Read the following text and do the exercises:

HOW OIL BECOMES OIL

Petroleum (literally rock oil, from the Greek petra- for rock and Latin – oleum for oil) is a general term used to refer to all forms of oil and natural gas that is mined from the earth. What most people concern themselves with is crude oil, the liquid mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons, and natural gas, which is a gaseous mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are complex molecules that are formed from long strings of hydrogen and carbon, such as propane (C3H8) or butane (C4H10).

Petroleum is the final product that we get out of the ground. But how does it get there? Petroleum begins as living animals, microscopic organisms (like diatoms or plankton) that live in the oceans. When these organisms die, their bodies sink and collect on the ocean floor. These organisms live all over the oceans and their bodies fall and collect on the ocean bottoms all over the world. When the organic matter becomes buried and begin to decompose, they are referred to as kerogen. Despite the apparent abundance of dead organisms raining down on the ocean bottoms, there are specific conditions that must be met for these organisms to be transformed into petroleum.

First, the area that the kerogen collects must be a restricted basin, a depression where sediment can accumulate and where there is poor water circulation. When the oxygen is gone, the decomposition stops and the remaining matter are preserved. The kerogen must be buried under sediment where it will be altered through high temperatures and high pressures. As the heat and pressure breaks down the kerogen, the hydrocarbon chains are freed. Long chains of hydrocarbon are oil; shorter chains are gas, generally methane (CH4) and condensates such as ethane, propane and butane. As the heat and pressure continues, the longer chains will continue to break into shorter chains. If the process continues long enough, all that will remain will be methane.

Compaction of the sediment, and the expansion of the kerogen as it is transformed into petroleum cause it to be forced out of the rock it was created in (the source rock) and into nearby sediments. If these sediments are porous enough (have microscopic holes) and permeable enough (allowing for the flow of liquids), then the petroleum will migrate through the rock. Since gas and oil are lighter than water, they can travel through water-saturated rock. Eventually the oil will stop migrating as it meets rock that is not porous or permeable, and will collect in a trap. It is these petroleum traps that geologists search for and that the oil companies drill into to recover the oil. Despite the simplicity, there are several conditions that must occur, otherwise, no oil will be made.

First, there needs to be a source rock that contains the organic matter to be converted into petroleum. This source rock is generally shale or other mudstones. There must be a reservoir rock, usually sandstone or limestone that is porous and permeable where the oil can be stored and transported. There needs to be a trap, something that is non-porous and non-permeable that will hold the petroleum in the reservoir and prevent it from migrating further. Finally, there needs to be enough heat and pressure to sufficiently cook the oil and gas out of the kerogen. If anyone of these conditions is not met, then petroleum cannot be formed.

The important step in the process is the trap. Something needs to block or trap the petroleum so it will accumulate into a large enough deposit for geologists to be able to locate it. Petroleum traps come in several varieties, in various sizes and can be made through structural processes (like folds and faults), or by sedimentary processes.

Structural traps work by folding or breaking the reservoir rock and placing it adjacent to an impermeable rock layer, like shale. There are three types of structural traps. One of the most common is a trap from the folding of the rocks. Anticlines bend the reservoir rock and create a pocket at the apex of the fold where the petroleum cannot migrate. Normal and thrust faults can result in petroleum traps by breaking the reservoir rock and moving it so that it is against an impermeable rock layer.

The other way to trap petroleum is through stratigraphic traps. The diagram shows five different types of stratigraphic traps. The differences between these and structural traps is that these traps occur by the nature of how the sediment was deposited and not whether it was broken or folded. The first two, sandstone lenses and sandstone pinch-outs, are the result of the changes in deposition of the sediment. Thick layers of mud are covered by thinner layers of sand from migrating shoreline, or by the sand deposited by large rivers. As sea level changes or rivers migrate, the different sand and mud layers are interwoven creating lenses or pinch-outs. These sand layers allow the petroleum to accumulate and the mudrock layers trap the petroleum.

Unconformities can create traps by burying truncated sandstone or limestone layers with layers of mudstone. Finally, salt domes can push up through buried sediment and deform the overlying layers of rock. This causes folds and fractures to form in the rock, trapping the oil salt domes are the primary places where the oil is found.

 

3. State whether the following sentences are true or false:

1. A restricted basin is not the place for the kerogen to collect.

2. Decomposition does not stop when the oxygen is gone.

3. The oil continues migrating in porous and permeable rocks.

4. The traps are important steps in the process of oil accumulation.

5. Structural geology is the subject for the students to miss.

6. Structural traps are of two types.

7. Stratigraphic traps are the ones that occur by nature.

8. It takes thousands of years for the petroleum to be made.

9. There are some specific conditions for the organisms to be met.

10. Shorter hydrocarbon chains are oil.

UNIT IV

OIL EXPLORATION

Oil explorationis the search by petroleum geologists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth’s surface. Oil and gas explorations are grouped under the science of petroleum geology.

1. Learn the following vocabulary:

1. oil seep выход нефти
2. pockmark оспина
3. hydrocarbon generation образование углеводородов
4. deposit месторождение
5. gravity survey [´sə:vei] гравиметрическое исследование
6. magnetic survey магнитная съемка, магнитная разведка
7. scale features особенности рельефа на карте
8. subsurface geology подземная геология
9. seismic survey сейсморазведка
10. reflected sound wave отраженная звуковая волна
11. process of depth conversion процесс глубинного преобразования
12. substructure profile [´proufi:l] разрез (профиль) пласта
13. identify (v) определять, идентифицировать
14. evaluate (v) оценивать, рассчитать
15. determine (v) измерять, определять
16. buoyancy [´boiənsi] плавучесть
17. buoyant [´boiənt] легкий, плавучий
18. caprock вышезалегающая экранирующая порода
19. seal (v) – sealed – a seal придавать непроницаемость - изолированный - изолирующий слой
20. lead (n) [´li:d] возможная ловушка углеводородов
21. matured [mə´tjuəd] hydrocarbons зрелые углеводороды
22. source rock материнская порода
23. expel (v) вытеснять
24. prospect поиск, разведка, изыскание, перспективный участок
25. chance of success перспектива
26. hydrocarbons in place углеводороды в пласте
27. recoverable hydrocarbons промышленные запасы углеводородов
28. volumetric equation уравнение объема
29. saturation насыщенность
30. shrink (v) сжиматься
31. expand (v) расширяться, увеличиваться в объеме
32. ratio [´reiʃiou] соотношение, коэффициент
33. GRV (gross rock volume) суммарный объем породы
34. FVF (formation volume factor) объемный коэффициент пласта
35. burial [´beriəl] захоронение
36. reservoir пласт – коллектор; пластовый резервуар (нефти, газа)
37. precursor [pri´kə:sə] предшественник

2. Read the following text and do the exercises:

EXPLORATION METHODS

Visible surface features such as oil seeps,natural gas seeps, pockmarks(underwater craters caused by escaping gas) provide basic evidence of hydrocarbon generation(be it shallow or deep in the Earth). However, most exploration depends on highly sophisticated technology to detect and determine the extent of these deposits. Areas thought to contain hydrocarbons are initially subjected to a gravity surveyor magnetic surveyto detect large scale featuresof the subsurface geology. Features of interest (known as leads) are subjected to more detailed seismic surveyswhich work on the principle of the time it takes for reflected sound wavesto travel through matter (rock) of varying densities and using the process of depth conversionto create a profileof the substructure.

Finally, when a prospect has been identifiedand evaluatedand passes the oil company's selection criteria, an exploration well is drilled in an attempt to conclusively determinethe presence or absence of oil or gas. Oil exploration is an expensive, high-risk operation. Offshore and remote area exploration is generally only undertaken by very large corporations or national governments. Typical Shallow shelf oil wells (e.g. North sea) cost $10 – 30 Million, while deep water wells can cost up to $100 Million plus. Hundreds of smaller companies search for onshore hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, with some wells costing as little as $500,000 USD.

 

Finding Oil

The task of finding oil is assigned to geologists, whether employed directly by an oil company or under a contract from a private firm. Their task is to find the right conditions for an oil trap – the right source rock, reservoir rock and entrapment.Many years ago, geologists interpretedsurface features, surface rock and soil types, and, perhaps some small core samples obtainedby shallow drilling. Modern oil geologists also examine surface rocks and terrain, with the additional help of satellite images.

However, they also use a variety of methods to find oil. They can use sensitive gravity meters to measuretiny changes in the Earth’s gravitational field that could indicateflowing oil, as well as sensitive magnetometersto measure tiny changes in the Earth’s magnetic field caused by flowing oil.

They can detectthe smell of hydrocarbons using sensitive electronic noses called sniffers. Finally, and most commonly, they use seismology, creating shock waves that pass through hidden rock layers and interpreting the waves that are reflected backto the surface.

The shock waves travel beneath the surface of the Earth and are reflected back by the various rock layers. The reflections travel at different speeds depending upon the type or density of rock layers through which they must pass. The reflections of the shock waves are detected by sensitive microphones or vibration detectors – hydrophonesover water, seismometersover land. The readings are interpreted by seismologists for signs of oil and gas traps.

 

(David Lambert “The Field Guide to Geology”,

UNIT V

 

OIL EXTRACTION

1. Learn the following vocabulary:

1. extract oil добывать нефть

2.establish (v) оценивать, устанавливать

3. refinery [ri´fain(ə)ri] нефтеперерабатывающий завод

4. reserves запасы

5. decrease (v) [di:´kri:s] уменьшать, убывать, понижаться

6. increase (v) [in´kri:s] увеличивать, повышать, усиливать

7. discover (v) обнаруживать, открывать

8. recover (v) получать (керн), добывать (нефть, газ)

9. pump (v\n) качать/насос

10. substance вещество, материя

11. сomposition состав, соединение

12. viable [´vaiəbl] жизнеспособный

13. recovery factor коэффициент нефтеотдачи

14. extract (v) извлекать (нефть, газ или

инструмент из скважины)

15. excess pressure избыточное давление

16. sluggish медлительный, медленный

17. treacle [´tri:kl] вязкая жидкость

18. seam [´si:m] пласт; тонкий слой; прослой

19. large-scale крупномасштабный

20. commercial production промышленная добыча

21. production facilities производственное оборудование

22. trap (pocket) ловушка (для отделения газа от

жидкости или нефти от воды)

23. reservoir [´rezəvwɑ:] пласт-коллектор; пластовый резервуар

24. sufficient [sə´fiʃ(ə)nt] достаточный

25. to force оказывать давление, заставлять

26. to inject нагнетать

27. atmospheric temperature температура воздуха

2. Read the following text and do the exercises:

OIL EXTRACTION

Discovering new reservesof oil is only the beginning of the story. It's then the job of a new team of economists, scientists and engineers to decide whether – and how – to go into large-scale commercial production.

Once oil or gas have been discovered,it has to be establishedhow much is there, how much can be recovered,what its quality is and how the oil and gas can be transported safely to a refineryor terminal. In other words, is the find economically viable? If so, further wells will have to be drilled and production facilities established.

The recovery factor – the amount of oil that can be economically extracted compared with the total amount estimated to be in the ground – varies widely. Twenty years ago a recovery factor of about 30 per cent was normal. Today the average is about 45 per cent. Improved technology is likely to increasethis further.

Crude oil is found in underground pockets or traps. Gas and water are generally found in the reservoir too – usually under pressure. This pressure is sometimes sufficient to force the oil to the surface of the well unaided and excess pressuremay cause problems.

In the early stages of production an oilfield may have freely flowing wells, but as oil is extracted the pressure decreasesand pumpingmay become necessary. Alternatively, it may be possible to increase the pressure by injecting further gas or water into the edges of the reservoir.

In other cases, the pressure is inadequate from the beginning and pumps at the bottom of wells have to be used. The fluid extracted from the well usually contains oil, gas and water. It has to be processed so that the crude oil and gas can be transported by pipeline or tanker.

Crude oil is a natural substance whose composition varies. Even in the same oilfield, where oil is obtained from different depths, it can vary greatly in compositionand appearance. It may be an almost colourless liquid or a sluggish, black substance, so heavy that it cannot be pumped at atmospheric temperatures. Generally, however, crude oils look rather like thin, brown treacle.

There is no single solution to the problem of getting oil out. Production and transport methods will depend on where the oil is found, and in particular, whether it has been found under the land or under the sea. Obviously, it is a lot harder and more expensive to drill for oil beneath the sea than on land, which is one reason why the majority of the oil that we use is produced onshore.

There are several different types of platform that can be used, depending on the conditions. Usually, the legs of the platform must extend at least 30 metres above the surface of the sea, keeping all equipment well clear of the largest waves. For smaller offshore discoveries it is not usually economic to install a platform. In some cases, floating or underwater production systems controlled remotely have been developed.

Oil is generally produced in places far away from where it is used: in deserts, frozen wastes, jungles or far offshore. A pipeline hundreds of miles long or super-tanker – or both – may be the only way of getting the oil to the refinery where it will be turned into a useable product.

To reach the edges of the reservoir, wells are commonly drilled at an angle. It is now possible drill vertically downwards and then outwards horizontally. This can save a great deal of money, as several wells can be drilled from a single, point and oil extracted from thin seamsof rock.

3. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. Crude oil is the only hydrocarbon found in a reservoir.

2. Reservoir pressure causes problems.

3. The fluid extracted from the well usually contains oil.

4. Crude oil is a natural substance whose composition is stable.

 

4. Answer the following questions:

1. What team is needed to solve the problem of production?

2. Who usually estimates the quality and quantity of oil in a reservoir?

3. What is the reason of an increased recovery factor?

4. Is crude oil the only hydrocarbon found in a reservoir?

5. Does reservoir pressure cause problems?

6. Why is pumping so necessary?

7. What is the way to increase pressure?

8. Does oil in one reservoir differ from that of the other one?

9. What does oil look like?

10. What do production and transport methods depend on?

11. Where is it cheaper to drill oil?

12. What is the only way of getting oil to the recovery? Why?

 

5. Make your own sentences using the following expressions:

1) production

2) inject

3) production facilities

4) economically viable

5) recovery factor

 

6. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1. Сырая нефть находится в подземных ловушках.

2. Давление необходимо, чтобы поднять нефть на поверхность буровой скважины.

3. Как только нефть извлекли, давление уменьшается.

4. Нефть добывается в местах, далеких от мест, где она используется: в пустынях, джунглях, далеко в морях.

UNIT VI

LIFE OF AN OIL WELL

(Part I)

1. Words and expressions to be learnt:

1. life жизнь
2. producing well продуктивная скважина
3. barrel=bbl (bbls) баррель=42 (амер.) галлона=158,988 л.
4. to bring (brought, brought) поднимать на поверхность (зд.)
5. to end заканчивать(ся)
6. recovery добыча
7. price цена
8. cost стоимость
9. to vary варьировать, отличаться
10. field месторождение
11. basically главным образом
12. a displacement process процесс замещения
13. to expel itself вытеснять (себя), вытесняться
14. to drop падать
15. marginal production малорентабельное производство, добыча
16. output производительная мощность, зд. добыча
17. steady устойчивый, постоянный
18. yield добыча (зд.)
19. intermittently периодически, с промежутками
20. to allow позволять, давать возможность
21. well bore забой скважины
22. sure уверенный, надежный
23. supply снабжение, запас
24. a displacement agent агент (продукт) замещения
25. fortunately к счастью
26. to occur встречаться, сопровождать(ся)
27. to provide снабжать, обеспечивать
28. a well’s producing life срок продуктивности скважины
29. to abandon ликвидировать
30. flush period (of production) фонтанный период, добыча
31. settled period (of production) период добычи с установившимся дебитом
32. stripper period (of production) малодебитный период добычи
33. to tap вскрывать (пласт)
34. to drive = to expel вытеснять
35. drive режим вытеснения
36. gas cap drive режим газовой шапки
37. dissolved gas drive режим растворенного газа
38. to expend itself израсходовать (ся), вытеснять
39. water drive водонапорный режим пласта
40. surround окружать
41. to tend иметь тенденцию
42. rate темп производства, добычи
43. to reduce сокращаться, падать
44. average средний
45. pump насос, качать насосом

 

2. Read and translate the following text:

 

LIFE OF AN OIL WELL

(Part I)

The life of a producing well begins with the first barrel of oil brought to the surface. It ends when the well is abandoned as uneconomical because the cost of producing oil is greater than the price received for it. The life of a well varies greatly from field to field. A small pool may be in production for only a few years, others may produce for 75 years or more.

The recovery of oil is basically a displacement process. Oil does not have the ability to expel itself from the reservoir, but must be moved from the rock formation to the well bore by a displacing agent. Fortunately oil has two natural displacement agents that usually occur with it–gas and water.

The varying pressures and the natural displacement agents provide general basis for different phases that are commonly called: the flush, settled and stripper periods of production.

The flush production is usually the first stage in well’s life though not always. This occurs when the drill taps an oil-bearing formation that has enough natural pressure to enable the petroleum to flow by itself. With variations three types of “drives” can generate this force.

Gas Cap Drive. Often there is a considerable cap of gas tapped above the oil in formation. When the rock is penetrated this gas expands and exerts enough pressure on the oil to move it toward the well bore leading to the surface.

Dissolved Gas Drive. This is similar to a gas cap drive. In some oil accumulations the gas does not form a cap but remains dissolved in the oil. When the formation is opened the gas expands and drives mixture to the surface. In principle, this is similar to the action of gas dissolved in soda pop; gas expands when the bottle is opened.

Water Drive. In many oil reservoirs water is present beneath the oil. In formations thousands of feet deep, the gas, oil and water exist under great pressure. When a drill opens the reservoir, the resulting release of pressure enables the underlying water to drive the oil to the well bore and in some cases, upward to the surface. As the natural water pressure reduces by oil production, water from the surrounding porous rock tends to flow into reduced pressure zone. Thus, water displaces oil and drives it toward the well bore.

The second stage in a well’s life is a settled period of production. The settled production is reached when the initial pressure of a flush well expends itself and the well’s production rate tapers off to a lower average daily flow or a “settled” rate of production. At this point the well is usually put “on pump”. Many wells never flow naturally and must be pumped from the start. Others drop in flow rate shortly after the production begins and become settled early in their lives.

The stripper period of production (the marginal production) exists when a well reaches the point of producing below its “settled” or economic rate. A stripper well is usually an older well which yield 10 barrels of oil a day but is kept in production because its output is steady and the yield is good over a long period of time. A stripper well is generally pumped intermittently allowing time for the oil to accumulate in the well bore.

Today there are nearly 400,000 stripper wells in the country and their slow but sure production gives us one-fifth of the oil supply.

 

3. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. The life of a well is just the same in every oilfield.

2. Oil has three natural displacement agents.

3. The flush production is usually the last stage in well’s life.

4. There are four types of “drives” which can generate the force that enables the petroleum to flow by itself.

5. In many oil reservoirs oil is present beneath the water.

6. Many wells always flow naturally and must not be pumped from the start.

7. A stripper well is usually a new well which yield 1000 barrels of oil a day.

 

4. Answer the following questions:

1. When does the life of a producing well begin and end?

2. How long may the reservoirs be in production?

3. What kind of a process is the recovery of oil?

4. What are the two natural displacement agents occur with oil?

5. What provides the general basis for different phases in the life of oil well and what are these phases?

6. What does the “flush production” mean?

7. What “drives” generate the force to expel oil to the surface?

8. Can you speak about each “drive” separately?

9. When do we speak that the well reaches its settled period of production?

10. What does the expression “to put the well on a pump” mean?

11. When do we speak that the well reaches its marginal production?

12. In what way are stripper wells pumped?

 

5. Complete the following sentences:

1. The life of a producing well begins …

2. A small pool may be …

3. Oil does not have the ability …

4. The flush production is usually …

5. When the rock is penetrated …

6. In some oil accumulations …

7. When a drill opens the reservoir …

8. The settled production is reached …

9. The stripper period of production …

10. A stripper well is generally pumped …

 

6. Give Russian equivalents to the following terms:

1. a producing well

2. uneconomical

3. the cost of a producing well

4. a displacement process

5. the ability to expel itself

6. a displacing agent

7. flush production

8. oil-bearing formation

9. oil accumulations

10. dissolved in the oil

11. beneath the oil

12. release of pressure

13. reduced pressure zone

14. pumped intermittently

UNIT VII

LIFE OF AN OIL WELL

(Part II)

1. Words and expressions to be learnt:

1. sufficient - достаточный

2. insufficient - недостаточный

3. to reduce - уменьшать(ся)

4. water flooding [´flʌdiŋ] - закачка воды

5. gas flooding - закачка газа

6. secondary recovery methods - вторичные методы добычи

7. to include - включать (в себя)

8. carefully located - тщательно распланированное

местоположение

9. auxiliary [ɔ:ɡ´ziljəri] service wells - вспомогательные скважины

10. to permit - позволять, давать возможность

11. pattern - схема, план, сетка

12. essential - существенный, важный

13. to raise - повысить, поднять

14. case - случай

15. permeable [´pə:mjəbl] - проницаемый

16. assist - помогать, помощь

17. enhanced [in´hɑ:nst] oil recovery (EOR) - повышение нефтеотдачи

пласта

18. tertiary [´tə:ʃəri] recovery - третичная добыча

19. miscible [´misibl] displacement - вытеснение нагнетанием

смешивающихся с нефтью

жидкостей

20. acid [´æsid] - кислота

21. alkalis [´ælkəlaiz] - алкалоиды

22. to add - добавлять

23. surfactants [sə:´fæktənts] - поверхностно-активные

вещества (ПАВ)

24. considerable - значительный

25. hydrochloric [´haidrəˏklorik] acid - соляная кислота

26. frequently - часто

27. to prevent - предотвращать, мешать

28. reaction rate - скорость реакции

29. pay zone - продуктивная зона

30. to etch out - вытравливать, разъедать

31. tiny - крошечный, мельчайший

32. channel - ход, канал, путь (в породе)

33. well bore - забой скважины

34. mobile [´moubail] - подвижный, мобильный

35. to push - продвигать, выталкивать

36. steam injection - закачка пара (в пласт)

37. fire flooding - поджиг

38. in situ [in´si:tju:] (лат.) - на месте нахождения

39. fracturing - гидроразрыв

40. specially treated fluid - специально (особо)

обработанная жидкость

41. to split - раскалывать, расщеплять

42. fissures [´fiʃəz] - трещины, щели

43. propping agents - расклинивающие агенты (при

гидроразрыве пласта)

44. chemically compounded pellets [´pelits] - таблетки, гранулы

45. walnut shells - ореховая скорлупа

 

2. Read and translate the following text:

LIFE OF AN OIL WELL

(Part II)

When natural reservoir pressure is insufficient or when it has been reduced by production, oil engineers have learnt to increase the natural pressure. Water and gas flooding are often used as secondary recovery methods. Both methods include drilling, carefully located, auxiliary service wells to permit the most efficient injection pattern. This is essential for the optimum recovery. It should be noted that the applying of the secondary recovery methods permit to raise the extraction to 80 per cent in place. There are cases when some underground formations are not sufficiently permeable or crude oil is too viscous to allow the trapped oil and gas to move toward the well bore. When this happens nature is given a big assist by applying enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods or tertiary processes which may be divided into four groups: chemical, miscible (gas), thermal and exotic.

Various chemicals: acids, polymers, alkalis are added to the injection water in order to improve displacement efficiency when the major part of the oil is not recovered by water-flooding. These chemicals are called surfactants. They are pumped into reservoir and it takes a considerable time to increase the recovery of oil. Hydrochloric acid is frequently used, but in a modified form to keep the well equipment from corrosion, to prevent the acid to form an emulsion with the oil and to control the reaction rate. When the acid reaches the pay zone or production formation it reacts with certain materials in the reservoir rock etching out tiny channels through which oil and gas can flow toward the well bore. Polymers and alkalis make oil more mobile.

Miscible recovery–a fluid (usually a gas) is injected into the well. Then it is mixed with the oil, reduces its viscosity and pushes the oil from the pores to the production well, then to the surface. The most commonly used hydrocarbon gases are methane, propane, butane or carbon dioxide. But the use of such gases gives problems because of corrosion well and production equipment.

The most widely used thermal process is steam injection. Sometimes fire flooding in situ method is applied.

The fourth group processes includes microbial recovery (oil-eating microbes), electrical heating (electrical stimulation of the reservoir), fracturing. All these processes are still at the research. Let’s take, for example, fracturing.

Fracturing opens up underground channels for trapped hydrocarbons but by the force different than chemical reaction. A specially treated fluid is pumped into the producing well under extreme pressure, thus splitting rocks and opening horizontal fissures. Propping agents are added to the fluid–sand, metal or chemically compounded pellets and even walnut shells. When the pressure reduces, these propping agents keep the propped fissures open so that the oil and gas can flow toward the well bore more easily.

 

3. Answer the questions:

1. When are secondary recovery methods used?

2. What are the most commonly used?

3. What are EOR methods and when are they used?

4. What chemicals are added to improve displacement efficiency?

5. What acid is most frequently used?

6. What is miscible recovery?

7. What thermal process is most widely used?

8. What are the exotic enhanced oil recovery methods?

9. What is fracturing?

UNIT VIII

DRIVE MECHANISMS

1. Words and expressions to be learnt:

1. oil sands нефтеносный песок; нефтеносные породы

2. a pile скопление (песка)

3. to saturate [ˎsætʃə´reit] насыщать, пропитывать

4. to deliver доставлять; нагнетать; перекачивать

5. fluid жидкость; смесь жидкостей и газов

6. drive вытеснение нефти (газом, водой);

пластовый режим

7. to encounter встретить(ся); наталкиваться

8. artificial lift механизированная эксплуатация

(насосно-компрес





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