Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии

Barriers to entry, cartel, dominant-firm oligopoly, economies of scale, monopolistic competition, monopoly, monopsony, natural monopoly, oligopoly, perfect competition

1………..exists when products are homogeneous, and there are a great many firms too small to have any influence on the market price, and firms can easily enter and exist the industry.


2. A………is a market in a particular product in which a single producer can fix an artificial price.


3.……….is the situation in which there is only one buyer.


4.A…….is an industry in which the efficient existence of more than one producer is impossible; examples include public utilities such as water, gas and electricity, where it would be inefficient to have several competing companies laying their own networks of pipes or cables.


5.………exists when many producers of slightly differentiated products are able to sell them at well above their marginal cost.


6.An……….is a concentrated market dominated by a few large suppliers. This is very frequent in manufacturing because of economies of scale and the cost barriers of entering an industry.


7………….are factors which cause the average cost of producing something to fall as output increases.


8. ………..are economic or technical factors that make it difficult or impossible for firms to enter a market or compete with existing suppliers.


9. A…………..is one in which a market leader can indicate its preferred price to smaller competitors.


10. A…………is a group of producers or sellers who fix prices and quantities in order to avoid competition and increase profits. This is illegal in many countries, most notably the USA.


VI. We generally describe the economy as consisting of three sectors:

- the primary sector: agriculture, and the extraction of raw materials from the earth;

- the secondary sector: manufacturing industry, in which raw materials are turned into finished products (although of course many of the people working for manufacturing companies do not actually make anything, but provide a service – administration, law, finance, marketing, selling, computing, personnel, and so on);

- the tertiary sector: the commercial services that help industry produce and distribute goods to the final consumers, as well as activities such as education, health care, leisure, tourism, and so on.

Classify the 18 activities from the passage according to which sector they belong to:

1. advertising products 2. assembling

3. building 4. cutting metal

5. calculating prices 6. digging iron ore

7. distributing added value 8. laying cables

9. maintenance 10.marketing products

11. mining coal 12. milling metal

13. packaging products 14.pressing metal

15. pumping oil 16. smelting iron

17. transportation 18.welding metal


primary secondary tertiary


VII. Translate into English:

1. Чтобы основать свое дело, необходимо привлечь инвесторов, для чего нужно составить бизнес-план, в котором указать финансовую отчетность и прогнозы, возможные доходы и необходимый оборотный капитал. Это нужно для того, чтобы получить согласие предпринимателя инвестировать в вашу фирму.

2. Не забудьте также о возможных проблемах, таких как снижение спроса, что может привести к убыткам в бизнесе.

3. При учреждении новой фирмы необходимо решить, будет ли это товарищество, единоличная корпорация или компания с ограниченной ответственностью.

4. Так же необходимо определить, в каком экономическом секторе (первичном, вторичном или третичном) будет действовать ваше предприятие.

5. Владелец бизнеса должен учитывать пожелание акционеров получить как можно большую прибыль.

6. В случае недолжного управления компанией менеджмент может быть заменен на ежегодном собрании акционеров.

7. Правительственные постановления запрещают различные монополистические объединения предпринимателей. Такие как картели и олигополии, монополии и монопсонии, однако существуют естественные монополии, деятельность которых регулируется государством.


Text B

Business plan


Annual percentage rate Годовая процентная ставка
Asset Имущество
Balance sheet Балансовый отчет
Bank loan Банковская ссуда
Benefit (v) the customer Приносить пользу потребителю
Break-even analysis Анализ точки самоокупаемости
Break-even point Точка самоокупаемости
Cash flow statement Отчет о потоке наличности
Develop (v) a marketing strategy Разрабатывать маркетинговую стратегию
Direct debit Прямой дебет
Equipment Оборудование
Financial management Финансовый менеджмент
Fixed assets Неликвидные активы
Income statement Отчет о доходах
Interest-only payment Выплата только процентов
Lease (rent) agreement Договор об аренде
Legal regulations Правовое регулирование
Market Рынок
Operating costs Эксплутационные расходы
Operating expenses Операционные расходы
Pay (v) its own way Окупаться
Plan (v) a budget Составлять бюджет
Product Продукт
Profitability Доходность, рентабельность
Real value Реальная стоимость
Road haulage Грузовые перевозки
Security Обеспечение
Service Услуга
Solvent Платежеспособный
Start-up costs Издержки на открытые предприятия
Venture Коммерческое предприятие
Year of operation Год финансовой операции

I. Read and translate this text:


Any worthwhile endeavour requires planning. Thinking through and writing up a business plan will help you to chart a steady course for your new business.

If you don’t know where you are going, you will end up somewhere else.

The business plan is a written document that clearly defines the goals of a business and outlines the methods for achieving them. It serves as your company’s roadmap.

A business plan:

- Acts as the management and financial blueprint for a business start-up and profitable operation of a business venture.

- Explain specifically how a business will function and details how a business will be capitalized, managed and marketed.


Business description

In this section of your business plan, you should provide a detailed description of your business. In describing your business, an excellent question to ask yourself is: “What business am I is? ’ Describe your products, services and market. Be sure to include a through description of what makes your business unique.

The description of your business should clearly identify goals and objectives. It should clarify why you are, or what you want to be, in business.


Products and Services

In this section of your plan, describe what you intend to sell, what it does, why buying it will benefit the customer, and what makes it unique or special.

Try to describe the benefits of your goods and services from your customer’s perspectives. Successful business owners endeavour to understand what their customers want or expect from them.

Understanding the customer is most important in winning customer satisfaction and in building profits.


Sales and Marketing

One key to successful selling is to know your customer – their likes, dislikes, needs, and expectations. By identifying these factors, you can develop a marketing strategy that will allow you to understand and fulfill their needs.

Know your competition. Consider their advertising and pricing strategies. If you understand why your competitors succeed, you can better position yourself to compete with them.

Plan your pricing strategy. Whether you price above or below your competition, first establish a policy. Then you can monitor prices and operating costs and adjust to ensure profitability.


Operating Requirements


In this section of your business plan, explain how the business will be managed on a day-to-day basis. Discuss hiring and personnel policies.

Discuss insurance, lease or rent agreements, legal regulations, and other operating requirements of doing business.

Account for any equipment necessary to produce your products or services. Describe the production process and delivery of those products and services.


Financial Management

Sound financial management is one of the best ways for your business to remain profitable and solvent.

To effectively manage your finance, plan a sound, realistic budget by determining the actual amount of money needed to open your business (start-up costs) and the amount needed to keep it open (operating costs).

In this section of your business plan, you need to prepare a sales forecast, cash flow projections, projected income statements, a break-even analysis, and a balance sheet.

Unless you are thoroughly familiar with financial statements, get help in preparing your flow and income statements and your balance sheet. Your aim is to understand the financial tools well enough to gain their benefits. Your accountant can help you to accomplish this goal.


Management Profile

The most important asset your business has is its people. It is important to identify the skills you need as well as those you possess, for any skills you lack will have to be hired.

This section of your business plan identifies the owners and key employees. It discusses the skills and experience they bring to the business.


II. Choose the right answer:

  1. Why is a business plan important?
  1. It is required by your bank
  2. It provides direction and focus for the business
  3. It is required to apply for an SBA Guaranteed Loan
  4. It acts as a blueprint for the business
  5. All of the above


  1. The Business Description section should answer the question:
  1. Who is my competition?
  2. How will my business be managed?
  3. What business am I in?
  4. What are my operating expenses?


  1. Becoming aware of the benefits of your goods and/ or service from the customer’s perspective helps to build:
  1. Company description
  2. Customer loyalty
  3. A good product price
  4. Sound financial management


  1. Identify your customers and their likes, dislikes, and expectations allows you to:
  1. Match your competition
  2. Operate your business more efficiently
  3. Anticipate business expenses
  4. Understand and fulfill customers’ needs


5.The following should be discussed in the Operating Requirements section:

  1. Insurance, lease or rent agreements and legal regulations
  2. A complete description of your products and services
  3. Your strategy
  4. The owners and key employees and their skills and experience


6.Financial Statements are very helpful for the new business owner because:

  1. They help to employ accountants
  2. Sound financial management is one of the best ways to remain solvent
  3. They make it possible to better define your product or services
  4. They help to determine employee policies


III. Read this letter and write an appropriate word below to fill each of the gap:



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