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Galatea; Cyclops Polyphemus; Bacchus; Paris; Ariadne; Pan; Selena; Mercury.




1. She was the daughter of Minos [Pmain@s], the king of Crete [PkrÖt]. She gave a ball of thread to Theseus [PïÖsjüs] so that he could find his way back from the Labyrinth [Pl{birinï].

2. The god of shepherds and herds, he was extremely ugly. He was half-god, half-goat. He had a beard, horns on his forehead [Pfþrid] and a hairy body.

3. He served as a herald of gods; there were wings on his helmet and his heels; and he bore a sceptre [Psept@].

4. He was the giant with supreme natural powers, he had one eye and tended his herds. He lived in a cave on the island of Sicily. He was a cannibal and did not have knowledge of wine. He was occupied only with his sheep.

5. He was the son of the king of Troy. Zeus gave him a diffi­cult job of judging which of the three goddesses Hera, Athena or Aphrodite ought to receive the golden apple (the apple of discord) with the words: "To the most beautiful".

6. The god of wine and gaiety. Wherever he went, he spread the culture of wine and the rituals associated with every stage of its cultivation.

7. The goddess of Moon, the daughter of the Titans [Ptait@nz] Hyperion [haiPpi@ri@n] and Thea [Pïi@].

8. The nymph who was loved by the shepherd Acis [Peisis] and by Cyclops Polyphemus. Polyphemus, jealous of Acis' success in winning the love of the nymph, crushed him under the rock, but the nymph turned him into a river.

V. Translate the text into English.

Аннибале и Агостино Карраччи и их двоюродный брат Лодовико основоположники барокко. В 1585 в Болонье они создали "Академию направленных на истинный путь". Новое направление получило название "болонский академизм". Принципы болонской Академии, которая стала прообразом всех европейских академий будущего, наблюдаются в твор­честве Аннибале Карраччи, самого талантливого из братьев. Искусство Карраччи получило признание и распространение, так как отвечало официальной идеологии. Братья Карраччи -художники монументально-декоративной живописи. Их са­мое знаменитое произведение - роспись галереи Фарнезе в Риме на сюжет "Метаморфоз" Овидия, типично для бароч­ной живописи.

Аннибале Карраччи - родоначальник героического пейзажа. Карраччи скрупулезно изучал природу. Он считал, что для того, чтобы она стала предметом изображения, ее необходимо облагородить (to polish). Пейзаж с деревьями, руинами, с маленькими фигурками людей подчеркивает ве­личие природы. Идеи Карраччи были развиты его учени­ками, в творчестве которых принципы академизма были почти канонизированы.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Carracci's ceiling painting.

2. Carracci's landscape.

UNIT X CARAVAGGIO (1573-1610)

The real giant of seventeenth-century painting in Italy is Michelangelo Merisi, called Caravaggio after his native town in Lombardy. After studying with an obscure local master, he ar­rived in Rome around 1590. Considered a revolutionary painter Caravaggio was the leading artist of the Naturalistic School. He lived on the fringe of respectable society. His short life was marked by violence and disaster. Caravaggio was a lifelong rebel against convention. He shocked conventional people by represent­ing religious scenes in terms of daily life. He was in chronic trouble with authority and had to flee Rome in 1606 after he killed a man in a brawl over a tennis match. During the next years he wandered around Italy. Caravaggio died of malaria in his thirty-seventh year on his return journey to Rome, with a papal pardon in sight. Nev­ertheless the style of this unruly genius revolutionized European art.

In 1597 Cardinal del Mount obtained for Caravaggio the commission to paint three pictures of Matthew and scenes from his life for the Contarelli Chapel in the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome. The greatest of these is the Calling of Saint Matthew, painted about 1599-1600, an event often represented but never in this soul-stirring way. The background is a wall in a Ro­man tavern; a window is the only visible background object. Matthew is seated "at the receipt of custom" (Matthew 9:9) with three gaudily dressed youths at a rough table on which coins are visible; figures and objects are painted in a hard, firm style that seems to deny the very existence of Venetian colourism. Suddenly, Christ appears at the right, saying, "Follow me". His figure is almost hidden by that of Peter. Christ shows only his face and his right hand, illuminated by a strong light from an undefined source at the upper right.

Despite his oft-expressed contempt for Renaissance mas­ters, Caravaggio often visually, as if in a vernacular translation, quoted Michelangelo Buonarroti. Christ points along the beam of light with a strikingly real hand whose gesture repeats that of God the Father in the Creation of Adam. Matthew points to his own breast as if to say, "Who, me?" In this realistic scene happens the triumph of divine love. Christ instils a new soul in Matthew.

In 1601 Caravaggio painted the Conversion of Saint Paul. It was a favourite subject during the Counter-Reformation. This scene was usually shown with a vision of Christ descending from heaven, surrounded by clouds and angels. Against a background of nowhere Saul has fallen from his horse toward us, drastically foreshortened. He hears the words; but his servant hears nothing and looks down at his master unable to account for the light that shines all around and has blinded Saul. In this picture climax reaches the stage of cataclysm.

Caravaggio's paintings were condemned by Bolognese art­ists and critics in Rome, and some were even refused by the clergy. Nonetheless, a decade after his tragic death Caravaggio's everyday naturalism, his hard pictorial style, his intense light-and-dark con­trasts had inspired a host of followers in Rome, Naples, Spain, France, the Netherlands. His revolutionary art must be considered a major factor in the formation of two of the greatest painters in the 17-th century Rembrandt and Velazquez.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Caravaggio [kÓrÓPvÓddÆou]; Rembrandt [Prembr{nt]; Mat­thew [Pm{ïjü]; Saul [sþl]; Lombardy [Plömb@di]; Netherlands [PneD@l@ndz]

NOTES

Calling of Saint Matthew - "Призвание апостола Матфея"

Conversion of Saint Paul - "Обращение Савла"

"at the receipt of custom" (Matthew 9:9) - "у сбора пошлин"

TASKS

I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.

1. Caravaggio's life was happy and eventless.

2. The style of this genius revolutionized European art.

3. Caravaggio never rebelled against convention.

4. The Calling of Saint Matthew is a realistic painting.



5. Saint Paul was pictured drastically foreshortened.

6. Caravaggio's naturalism inspired a great number of fol­lowers in Europe.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. Where was Caravaggio trained? What society did Caravaggio live in? What was Caravaggio's relationship with authority?

2. How did Caravaggio protest against convention?

3. How did Caravaggio arrange the figures in the Calling of Saint Matthew? What did Caravaggio deny in this painting?

4. What was Caravaggio's attitude to the Renaissance mas­ters? How did Caravaggio quote Michelangelo in the Calling of Saint Matthew? What was the source of this quotation?

5. What was the favourite subject during the Counter-Reformation? How did Caravaggio picture it? Did Caravaggio paint Saul against a background of nowhere? Was it Caravag­gio's greatest achievement? What were his other achievements?

6. How were Caravaggio's paintings treated by artists and critics during his life-time? Did this attitude change after his death?

III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

a background of nowhere; a hard, firm style; light-and-dark contrasts; pictorial style; drastically foreshortened; a long-life rebel; conventional people; to represent religious scenes in terms of daily life; an unruly genius; to obtain a commission; scenes from smb's life; to represent an event in the soul-stirring way; a background object; to deny the existence of; the realistic scene; Venetian colourism; to quote; gaudily dressed youths; a vernacular translation; the beam of light; to instil a new soul; to descend from heaven; an unidentified source of light; Renaissance masters.

ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

изображать религиозный сюжет как повседневное событие; луч света; обыватели; венецианский колоризм; перевод на народ­ный язык; вдохнуть новую душу; тяжелый, жесткий стиль; цити­рование; изобразительный стиль; свет без указания источника; заказчики отказывались от картин; ниспровергать классические традиции художников Ренессанса; спустя десятилетие; излюб­ленный сюжет; божественная любовь; нейтральный фон; единст­венный различимый предмет на заднем плане; реалистические сцены; новаторское искусство.

iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Caravaggio 's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.

1. Christ points along the beam of light with a strikingly real hand whose gesture repeats that of God the Father in the Creation of Adam.

2. Against a background of nowhere he has fallen from his horse toward us, drastically foreshortened.

a. Conversion of Saint Paul

b. Calling of Saint Matthew

V. Translate the text into English.

Микеланджело Меризи, известный как Караваджо, дал на­звание реалистическому течению в искусстве, которое нашло последователей во всей Западной Европе. Караваджо брал темы из окружающей действительности. Реалистические принципы сделали Караваджо наследником Ренессанса, даже несмотря на то, что он часто выражал свое презрение к великим художникам Ренессанса. Караваджо утверждал принципы реалистического искусства, бросив вызов общепринятым нормам. Картины на религиозные сюжеты он писал как жанровые. Герои произведе­ний Караваджо — картежники, гадалки, авантюристы. Их изо­бражениями Караваджо положил начало бытовой живописи. Ка­раваджо накладывал краску широкими мазками, выхватывая из мрака светом наиболее важные части композиции. Эта контраст­ность световых пятен создавала атмосферу внутреннего драма­тизма. Герои Караваджо помещены в простую обстановку. Ино­гда произведения Караваджо были настолько реалистичны, что заказчики отказывались от них. Искусство Караваджо породило истинных последователей его художественного метода, полу­чившего название "караваджизма".

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Caravaggio's style and characters.

2. Caravaggio's mode of life and work.

3. Caravaggio's artistic legacy.

UNIT XI POUSSIN (1593/94-1665)

Nicolas Poussin is the embodiment of the Classical spirit. His paintings are the product not only of great imagination and pictorial skill but also of a discipline and control that grew firmer as the painter aged. Born in the small town in Normandy, Poussin went to Paris in his late adolescence. He had access to the royal collection of paintings where he was impressed by the works of Raphael and Titian, and to the royal library where he studied engravings after Raphael. After two trips to Italy, Poussin settled down in Rome in 1624. It was unlikely that he would ever enjoy official success. The world of nobles, popes, and monarchs was not for him. Poussin made only one large altarpiece for St. Peter's, and was dissatisfied with it.

An attempt by King Louis XIII to have Poussin work on ceiling painting for the Long Gallery of the Louvre ran afoul of the artist's refusal to consider ceiling paintings different from those on walls, and to turn over the execution of vast projects to assis­tants. The latter objection ruled out the customary colossal Ba­roque monumental commissions.

Poussin's paintings reflect his interest in antiquity and in Stoic philosophy. In his early work the Inspiration of the Poet, painted about 1628-29, Classical figures are arranged before a landscape in low afternoon light. Poussin attempted to recapture the magic of Titian through warm colouring unified by soft glazes and through subtle and surprising passages of lights and darks, especially the way light touches the edge of Apollo's lyre and part of his cheek, leaving the rest in shadow. This is an allegorical scene in keeping with seventeenth century ideas, the poet (it is easy to view him as a painter) owes his gifts to divine inspiration. About 1630 an illness gave Poussin a break during which he could formulate the theoretical basis of his art. Poussin abandoned his earlier lyrical style in favour of the grand manner, which required first of all a subject - drawn from religion, history or mythology -that avoided anything 'base' or 'low'. Poussin maintained that the subject must be so clarified in the painter's mind, that he will not block the essence of narrative with insignificant details. Then the painter must consider the conception, that is, the recounting of the story in an impressive way. Then the artist must devise the com­position which must not be so carefully constructed that it looks laboured, but should flow naturally. Last comes the style or man­ner of painting or drawing.

At another point Poussin explained his theory of the modes of painting by analogy with the modes or scales in Greek music, and mentioned five, the Dorian, the Phrygian, the Lydian, the Hypolydian and the Ionic. He carried his ideas of the modes systematically into execution. His Rape of the Sabines, of about 1636-37, exemplifies the Phrygian mode adapted to 'frightful wars'. The picture fulfils all Poussin's requirements for the grand manner. The subject is lofty; the conception is powerful; the com­position effortless and natural for all its references to ancient and Renaissance statuary figures and groups; and the style beyond all praise. The composition is staged in a limited space, flanked on one side by the temple portico in which Romulus stands and lim­ited at the rear by a basilica.

A later work, the Holy Family on the Steps, of 1648, is probably in the Hypolydian mode, which 'contains within itself a certain sweetness which fills the soul of the beholders with joy. It lends itself to divine matters, glory and Paradise'. The pyramidal composition suggests the Madonna groups of Leonardo and Raphael which Poussin knew and studied. Like Tintoretto, he ar­ranged little draped wax figures on a stage with the lightning care­fully controlled and with a backdrop of landscape and architec­ture. He would experiment with figural relationships till he found the right grouping, then build a larger arrangement of modelled and draped figures and paint from it, referring to reality only when necessary. The grave, ideal quality of Poussin's art triumphs in Classical compositions arranged before simple, cubic architec­ture that bypasses the Baroque, the Renaissance, and the Middle Ages, going straight back to Roman models. While the faces of his figures often appear standardized and almost expressionless, the grandeur of Poussin's art appears in the balance of forms, colour, and lights. Such compositions inspired Ingres in the early 19-th century, formed the basis for the still life and figure paintings of Cezanne in the late 19-th and early 20-th centuries.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Poussin [püPs{n]; Normandy [Pnþm@ndi]; lyre [Plai@]; Paris [Pp{ris]; Louvre [Plüvr@]; Greek [PgrÖk]; Dorian [Pdþri@n]; Phry­gian [PfridÆi@n]; Lydian [Plidi@n]; Hypolydian [haip@uPlidi@n]; Ionic [aiPonik]; Sabines [Ps{bainz]; Cezanne [seiPzÓn]

NOTES

Inspiration of the Poet- "Вдохновение поэта"

Rape of the Sabines - "Похищение Сабинянок"

Holy Family on the Steps - "Святое семейство на ступенях храма"

TASKS

I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.

1. Nicolas Poussin embodies the Renaissance spirit.

2. Poussin made a lot of altarpieces.

3. Poussin was fond of ceiling painting.

4. Poussin invented five modes or scales in music.

5. Poussin formulated the theoretical basis of his art in 1648.

6. Poussin worked in the grand manner early in life.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. What do Poussin's paintings reflect?

2. What did Poussin attempt to recapture in the Inspiration of the Poett?

3. What were the main theoretical principles of Poussin's art? How did Poussin connect painting and music?

4. With what Poussin's painting is the Phrygian mode asso­ciated? Why? What is the subject of this painting?

5. Why is the Holy Family on the Steps associated with the Hypolydian mode? Whose influence can be traced in this painting?

6. How did Poussin paint his monumental compositions? Where does Poussin's art triumph? Where does its grandeur ap­pear? Who was inspired by Poussin's compositions?

III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

the embodiment of the Classical spirit; pictorial skill; the royal collection of paintings; the theory of modes; to study engrav­ings; to work on ceiling painting; by analogy with; the execution of vast projects; colossal Baroque monumental commissions; the interest in antiquity; to arrange figures before a landscape; pas­sages of lights and darks; statuary figures; an allegorical scene; to be in keeping with; to owe one's gifts to; divine inspiration; to formulate a theoretical basis of; to abandon the lyrical style; wax figures; the essence of narrative; insignificant details; to bypass the Baroque; to devise a composition; the manner of painting.

ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

интерес к античности; по аналогии с; божественное вдохновение; лира Аполлона; создать алтарный образ; обра­щаться к действительности; избегать низкого в искусстве; отказаться от лирического стиля; в соответствии с идеалами; восковые фигуры; вдохновлять художников; воплощение духа классицизма; претворить в жизнь грандиозные планы; распи­сывать потолок; сформулировать основы теории классициз­ма; теория музыкальных ладов; незначительные детали; тор­жество композиции классицизма.

iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) expound; soft; monarch; rule out; subtle; analogy;

b) sovereign; exclude; smooth; interpret; faint; comparison.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Poussin's works of art. Match them up to the given titles and describe them.

1. It contains within itself a certain sweetness which fills the soul of the beholders with joy.

2. The light touches Apollo's lyre and part of his cheek

3 The subject is lofty, the conception is powerful, the composition effortless and natural.

A. Rape of the Sabines

B. Holy Family on the Steps

C. Inspiration of the Poet

V. Translate the text into English.

Никола Пуссен - создатель классического направления в живописи. Предметом искусства классицизма провозглашалось только прекрасное; идеалом классицизма служила античность. Пуссен интересовался античным искусством и искусством Воз­рождения. В 1623 г. Пуссен отправился в Италию. С 1624 г. он жил в Риме. Влияние караваджизма чувствуется в некоторых работах Пуссена. Темы полотен художника разнообразны: мифо­логия, история. Ветхий Завет, Новый Завет. В начале 40-х годов в творчестве Пуссена произошел перелом.

В 1640 г. Пуссен приехал в Париж по приглашению ко­роля Людовика XIII. Первый период творчества Пуссена завер­шился, когда в буколические темы ворвалась тема смерти. В 40-50-е годы колористическая гамма Пуссена становится все сдер­жанней. Основное внимание уделяется рисунку и скульптурности форм. Лучшими у позднего Пуссена остаются пейзажи, в кото­рых человек трактуется как часть природы.

VI Summarize the text.

VII Topics for discussion

1. The theoretical basis ofPoussin's art.

2. The role of music in Poussin's paintings.

3. Poussin's artistic influence.

UNIT XII RUBENS (1577-1640)

Peter Paul Rubens exercised in Flanders a great stylistic authority. Born near Cologne, the son of a Protestant emigre from Antwerp, he spent his childhood in Germany. He received a thor­ough grounding in Latin and in theology, spent a few months as a page to a countess, and grew up as an unparalleled combination of scholar, diplomat and painter. Rubens spoke and wrote six mod­ern languages, and was probably the most learned artist of all time. His house in Antwerp was a factory from which massive works emerged in a never-ending stream. Although most paintings were designed by Rubens in rapidly painted colour sketches on wood, all the large ones were painted by pupils and then retouched by the master.

Rubens was the man of extraordinary character and intelli­gence. One visitor recounted how Rubens could listen to a reading of Roman history in Latin, carry on a learned conversation, paint a picture, and dictate a letter all at the same time.

Rubens first emerged on the international scene during his visit to Italy in 1600 where he remained for eight years. Artistically Rubens was an adopted Italian, with little interest in the Early Netherlandish masters. With indefatigable energy he set out to conquer the fortress of Italian art. He made hundreds of drawings and scores of copies after Roman sculpture as well as paintings.

An early work in Antwerp Cathedral, the Raising of the Cross, a panel more than fifteen feet high, painted in 1609-10, shows the superhuman energy with which Rubens attacked his mighty concepts. This central panel of a triptych is a complete picture in itself. There is no hint of Caravaggio's psychological interests. The executioners, whose muscularity recalls Michelan­gelo's figures, raise the Cross, forming a colossal pyramid of struggling figures. In this painting the typical High Renaissance interfigural composition is transformed into a Baroque climax.

The power of Rubens can be seen at its greatness in the Fall of the Damned, painted about 1614-18, a waterspout of hurling figures raining down from Heaven, from which the rebels against divine love are forever excluded.

As his style matured, Rubens's characteristic spiral-into-the-picture lost the dark shadows of his early works and took on a Titianique richness of colour.

In 1621-25 Rubens carried out asplendid commission from Maria de'Medici, dowager Queen of France, widow of Henry IV, and regent during the minority of her son Louis XIII. Twenty one large canvases represent an allegorized version of the Queen ca­reer, showing her protected at every point by the divinities of Olympus. The series were originally installed in a ceremonial gal­lery in the Luxembourg Palace. All the canvases show the magnifi­cence of Rubens's compositional inventiveness and the depth of his Classical learning; but Henry IV Receiving the Portrait of Maria de ' Medici is one of the best. The ageing King, whose hel­met and shield are taken by Cupids, is advised by Minerva to ac­cept as his second bride the Florentine princess, whose portrait is presented by Mercury, as Juno and Jupiter smile upon the pro­posed union. The happy promise of divine intervention; the youth­ful figure; the grandeur of the armoured king, and the distant landscape make this painting one of the happiest of Rubens's allegorical works. The Queen never paid for the series. But when she was driven out of France by her former protege Cardinal Richelieuw, she took refuge in Flanders. Rubens helped to support her during her twelve years of exile - a remarkable tribute not only to the generosity of a great man but also to the position of a Baroque artist who could finance a luckless monarch.

In 1630, then 53 years old Rubens married Helene Fourment, a girl of 16. The artist's happiness received its perfect em­bodiment in the Garden of Love painted about 1638, a fantasy in which seven of the Fourment sisters are happily disposed throughout the foreground before the fantastic fountain-house in Rubens's own garden in Antwerp. Cupids fly above the scene with bows, arrows , a rose garland, and torches, and on the right sits a statue of Venus astride a dolphin. All the movements of Rubens's colour, all the energy of his composition are summed up in the radiance of the picture, the happiest Baroque testament to the re­deeming power of love.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the/allowing words:

Antwerp [P{ntwýp]; Luxembourg [Plöks@mbýg]; Cologne [k@Pl@un]; Protestant [Pprotist@nt]; emigre [Pemigrei]; Medici [Pmedi¶Ö]; dowager [Pdau@dÆ@]; protege [Ppr@uteÆei]; Richelieuw [PrÖS@ljý]; Juno [PdÆünou]; Minerva [miPnýv@]; Flanders [PflÓnd@z]; Louis[Plüi]; regent [PrÖdÆ@nt]

NOTES

Raising of the Cross - "Воздвижение креста"

Fall of the Damned - "Падение проклятых"

Garden of Love - "Сад наслаждений"

TASKS

I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Peter Paul Rubens was the most educated person of his time.

2. Rubens was fond of High Renaissance masters.

3. As Rubens's style matured, it took on a richness of colour.

4. Rubens's figures were disembodied and mystical.

5. In 1621-25 Rubens carried out a splendid commission from Louis XIII.

6. Rubens depicted the major Roman gods in the portrait of Maria de' Medici.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. When and where did Rubens first emerge on the interna­tional scene? Where was Rubens educated?

2. What could Rubens allegedly do at one and the same time? How did Rubens produce his works of art?

3. What is represented in the Raising of the Cross? What kind of painting is it? Where can the power of Rubens be seen? What is depicted in this painting?

5. How did the Michelangelo and the Titian influence Rubens's works of art? In what way did Rubens's works differ from the masterpieces of the Renaissance masters?

6. What do twenty one large canvases present? What is the best painting? What does it portray? What gods and goddesses are depicted there? How are they shown? What do they symbolize? What makes this painting one of the happiest of Rubens's alle­gorical works? How long did Rubens support the dowager Queen of France? What did it show?

7. What is represented in the Garden of Love? What re­ceived its full embodiment in this picture?

III. i. Give Ritssian equivalents of the following phrases:

to exercise a great stylistic authority; a page to a countess; a never-ending stream of works; colour sketches on wood; a helmet and a shield; to emerge on the international scene; indefatigable energy; to raise the Cross; to make copies after Roman sculpture; the superhuman energy; the central panel of a triptych; to carry out a commission; dowager Queen of France; to be protected at every point by the divinities; a ceremonial gallery in the palace; conipositional inventiveness; Classical learning; the divine inter­vention; the years of exile; executioners; a tribute to; a Baroque artist; to receive its embodiment in; the Baroque testament; the energy of the composition; final coating; the redeeming power of love; Caravaggio's psychological interests; a complete picture in itself; a pyramid of struggling figures.

ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

появиться на международной арене; монументальные произведения; годы ссылки; композиционная изобретатель­ность; классическое образование; неуемная энергия; поль­зоваться большим авторитетом; нескончаемый поток работ; быть защищенным со всех сторон божествами; самостоятель­ная картина; палачи; сделать множество рисунков; копировать древнеримские статуи; центральная часть триптиха; выпол­нить заказ; вклад в; могущественный заказчик; парадная галерея дворца; божественное вмешательство; получить воплощение в; напоминать фигуры Микеланджело; искупляющая сила любви; богатство цвета; вдовствующая королева; цветные наброски на дереве.

iii. Make up questions with the given phrases.

iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms.

a) regent; to recount; testament; canvas; splendid; executioner;

b) murderer; queen; magnificent; to tell; picture; will.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Rubens's works of art. Match them up to the given titles..

1. Cupids fly above the scene with bows, arrows, and torches,

2. Grotesque figures rain down from Heaven.

3. The executioners form a colossal pyramid.

4. The gods advise the King to accept her as his second bride.





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