Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
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Text D. Что такое телекоммуникация (электросвязь)
Телекоммуникацией принято считать прием и передачу звука, сигнала, текста, знака, письменного изображения по кабельной, проводной, магнитной, оптической, радио- и другим электромагнитным системам.
Система технических средств, с помощью которой осуществляется телекоммуникация, называется сетью телекоммуникаций. Сами же технические средства телекоммуникаций это оборудование и машины, которые используются для обработки, передачи и приема сообщений телекоммуникаций.
Каналы связи. Выделяют три основных разновидности каналов связи:
1) симплексные — то есть допускающие передачу данных только в
одном направлении, (например, в телевизионной и радиовещательной сетях);
2) полудуплексные — то есть когда два узла связи соединены одним
каналом, по которому информация передается попеременно то в одном направлении, то в противоположном (в информационно-справочных и запросно-ответных системах);
3) дуплексные — позволяют передавать данные одновременно в двух
направлениях за счет использования четырехпроводной линии связи (два провода для передачи, два других – для приема данных), или двух полос частот.
По реализации каналы связи делятся на:
Спутниковые, естественно, относятся к беспроводным, т.е. к радиоканалам.
1.16 Answer these questions:
1) What are the basic parts of a telecommunication system?
2) What are the main types of data transmission media?
3) What are channels of communication and their main functions?
4) Why is the analog telecommunication system being replaced by the digital system?
1.17 Match the following words with their Russian equivalents:
1) стационарная (связь) a) fiber-optic
2) цифровая (связь) b) wireless
3) подвижная (связь) c) fixed
4) беспроводная (связь) d) discrete
5) наземный (ретранслятор) e) mobile
6) преобразовывать (сигналы) f) process
7) дискретные (сообщения) g) digital
8) ретранслятор h) convert
9) волоконно-оптическая (связь) i) ground-based
10) обрабатывать (сигнал) j) relay
1.18 Make up a list of terms you can find in the text. Translate them into English and write definitions.
1.19 Prepare a 2-3-minute presentation reflecting the history of modern-day communication technology in Kazakhstan.
Unit 2. Transmission Media
What does the efficiency of the transmission medium depend on (discuss with your partner)?
Do you believe that fiber optic is more efficient than copper cable?
Is the word “media” singular or plural? Write the following words in
singular: data, media, criteria, syllabi, phenomena, crises, analyses, theses.
Text A. Transmission Media
Transmission media are the highways and arteries that provide a path for telecommunications devices. There is a general tendency to say that one transmission medium is better than another. In fact, each transmission medium has its place in the design of any communication system. Each has characteristics which will make it the ideal medium to use based on the particular set of circumstances. It is important to recognize the advantages of each and develop a system accordingly. Factors to consider when choosing the transmission media include: cost, ease of installation and maintenance, availability, and most important, efficiency of transmission. It is important to recognize the advantages of each and develop a system accordingly.
Transmission efficiency is generally viewed as the amount of signal degradation created by the use of a particular transmission medium. The transmission medium presents a "barrier" to the communication signal. The "barrier" can be measured by many different factors. However, one common question is asked about all communication media. How far will the communication signal energy travel before it becomes too weak (or distorted) to be considered unstable? There is equipment available to extend the distance for transmitting a signal, but that adds to the overall cost and complexity of deployment.
2.1 Match the words in column A with their synonyms in column B:
2.2 Translate this sentence into Russian:
Transmission efficiency is generally viewed as the amount of signal degradation created by the use of a particular transmission medium.
2.3 Answer the following questions:
1) What factors should be considered when choosing the transmission media?
2) Why is a transmission medium called a “barrier” to the communication signal?
3) What common question is usually asked about all communication media?
4) How can you explain the term “transmission efficiency”?
Text B. Transmission lines
The most common types of transmission media used today are: Copper Wire; Fiber Optics; Radio Frequency (Wireless); Free Space Optics.
Many engineers will argue that one transmission medium is the best, or better than some of the others. The reader should keep in mind that each medium has advantages and disadvantages. Which medium is best depends upon the purpose of the communications system and the desired end results. In fact, most systems are a hybrid. That is, two or more media are combined to effect the most efficient communication network infrastructure. There are many traffic signal systems that combine a twisted copper pair infrastructure with wireless links to serve part of the system. The decision to create this type of system may have been based on economics, but that is certainly one of the reasons to choose one medium over another, or to combine the use of several.
Coaxial cable (coax):
Flexible coax has a copper wire core surrounded by copper braid. The core and braid are insulated from each other by a dielectric material such as polyethylene and covered by a PVC sheath.
The braid helps to screen the signals from interference. Coax can carry a large number of signals over long distances up to 1000 Hz. It is used to connect telephone exchanges and for cable television.
Advantages of coaxial cable:
- low cost;
- easy to install, easy to expand;
- up to 10Mbps capacity;
- moderate level of EMI immunity.
- single cable failure can take down the entire network.
Two insulated copper wires are twisted together to reduce interference effects and are enclosed in an insulating polyethylene sheath. Because the wires are twisted, unwanted stray signals picked up by one tend to be cancelled by similar signals picked up by the other. They are used for communications over longer distances, for example to connect telephones to their local exchange.
insulator (e.g. polyethylene) sheath
copper wire conductors
insulator (e.g. polyethylene)
There are two types of twisted pairs cabling:
1) Unshielded twisted pair (UTP).
2) Shielded twisted pair (STP).
1. Unshielded twisted pair is more common. It can be either voice grade or data grade depending on the condition.
Advantages of UTP:
- easy installation;
- high speed capacity;
- low cost.
Disadvantage of UTP: short distance due to attenuation.
2. Shielded twisted pair is similar to UTP but has a mesh shielding that protects it from EMI which allows for higher transmission rate.
Characteristics of STP:
- medium cost;
- easy to install;
- higher capacity than UTP;
- higher attenuation, but same as UTP;
- medium immunity from EMI;
- 100 meter limit;
Advantages of STP: shielded; faster than UTP and coaxial.
Disadvantages of STP:
- more expensive than UTP and coaxial;
- more difficult to install;
- high attenuation rate.
An inner core made from very pure silica fiber is surrounded by a similar glass sheath, known as cladding. This is covered by a protective plastic sheath. Non-visible light from lasers or LEDs can travel along the fiber by reflection from the surface where the core and cladding meet.
Although the optical fiber has a smaller diameter than a human hair, it can be used to transmit tens of thousands of signals at high speed with very low loss and no interference from other signals. Optical fiber cable can be used in corrosive environments and is light, flexible and cheap. This type of cable is gradually replacing conventional copper wire for connecting telephones and computer networks.
Advantages of Fiber Optic Cable: fast; low attenuation; no EMI interference.
Disadvantages: very costly; hard to install.
Since the invention of the Wireless Telegraph in 1896 communication system designers have sought to use wireless because of the reduced infrastructure cost and complexity, when compared to wireline communication systems. There is no need to construct miles of telephone line poles or cable trenches. Simply put in a few strategically positioned radio towers and transmit around the world. Today, wireless systems are significantly more complex because we want to allow millions of users to make telephone calls or receive feature length movies via wireless systems. There are four general types of wireless (radio) communication systems:
- Cellular Telephone.
- Basic 2-Way Radio.
- Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity), and recently, Wi-Max.
Traffic signal and freeway management systems use three of the variants to support operations, and are considering the use of Wi-Fi. The Wi-Fi/Wi-Max systems are becoming increasingly ubiquitous in their deployment, and a part of most telecommunication deployment strategies.
2.4 Read text B again and find a word or phrase that means:
- the communications channel or path over which a signal propagates;
- a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together;
- the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation, a form of luminescence;
- a type of cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield;
- a form of cable that uses a single center conductor with two shields;
- anything which alters, modifies, or disrupts a message as it travels along a channel.
2.5 Make up a list of terms you can find in the text. Find definitions to the terms. Make up 10 questions with the terms used in the text.
2.6 Translate the following phrases or sentences using information from text B: экранированная витая пара; высокая пропускная способность; это позволяет увеличить дальность передачи с уменьшением потерь из-за воздействия внешних электрических сигналов.
2.7 Read the following terms and translate them into Russian:
Media, copper wire, cable, transmission, high-speed data transmission, data communications, customer premises, high frequency, coaxial cable, bandwidth, telephone channel, local loop, long-distance network, capacity, traffic, transmission medium, wireless system.
2.8 Find all the abbreviations in the texts. Give their meanings.
2.9 Discuss the text with your neighbor in the form of a dialogue.
2.10 Find English equivalents for the following:
Одномодовый кабель (одномодовое волокно); затухание сигнала; техническая характеристика; передача данных на большие расстояния; скорость передачи данных; низкочастотные радиосигналы.
2.11 Answer these questions:
1) What are the main types of fiber cables? What is the difference between them?
2) Why is fiber considered to have the best overall characteristics for transmission efficiency?
3) What factors, besides highest transmission speed, may influence the choice of transmission media?
2.12 Compare transmission characteristics of fiber, copper, radio and infrared.
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