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Module 4 Crime and Punishment
Unit 1 Crimes and criminals
Unit 2 Theft, murder, drugs and other crimes
Unit 3 Economical crimes
Unit 4 Punishment
Module 5 Law Enforcement
Unit 1 Traffic and vehicles
Unit 2 Crimes against property
Unit 3 Out in the community: anti-social behaviour
Unit 4 Drugs & alcohol
Unit 5 At the station
Unit 6 Crime scene investigation
Unit 7 Criminal justice systems
Unit 8 Organized crime
Unit 9 International cooperation: interpol
Unit 10 Civil and criminal penalties
LIST OF WEB LINKS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
Unit 1 LAWS OF BABYLON
The Birth of Law
Rules and laws – and the conventions or customs from which they are descended – have been a part of human life ever since our ancestors first began to live in large and settled groups. But our knowledge is vague of laws that were in effect before the invention of writing in about 3500 B.C. The earliest known legal text was written by Ur-Nammu, a king of the Mesopotamian city of Ur, in about 2100 B.C. It dealt largely with compensation for bodily injuries, and with the penalties for witchcraft and runaway slaves.
Laws of Babylon
One of the most detailedancient legal codeswas drawn up in about 1758 B.C. by Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia. The entire code, consisting of 282 paragraphs, was carved into a great stone pillar,which was set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk so that it could be read by every citizen.
The pillar, lost for centuries after the fall of Babylon in the 16th century B.C., was rediscovered by a French archaeologist in 1901 amid the ruins of the Persian city of Susa. Hammurabi's words were still legible. The pillar is now in the Louvre museum in Paris.
The laws laid down by Hammurabi were more extensive than any that had gone before.They covered crime, divorce and marriage, the rights of slave owners and slaves, the settlement of debts, inheritance and property contracts; there were even regulations about taxes and the prices of goods. Punishments under the code were often harsh. The cruelprinciple of revengewas observed:an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, which meant that criminals had to receive as punishment precisely thoseinjuriesanddamages they had inflicted upon theirvictims.Not only murderers but also thieves and false accusers faced the death penalty.And a child who hit his father could expect to lose the hand that struck the blow.
The code outlawedprivate blood feudsand banned the tradition by which a man could kidnap and keep the woman he wanted for his bride. In addition, the new laws took account of the circumstances of theoffenderas well as of the offence. So a lower-ranking citizen who lost a civil casewould be fined less than an aristocrat in the same position — though he would also be awarded less if he won.
Nevertheless, Hammurabi's laws represented an advance on earlier tribal customs,because thepenaltycould not be harder than the crime.
1. Find in the text “The Birth of Law” the words that mean the following:
the use of magic power, especially with the aid of evil spirits
a punishment imposed for a violation of law or rule
an accepted social custom or practice
payment for damage or loss, restitution
one from whom a person is descended
harm or damage done or suffered
Say whether the statement is true or false. If it’s wrong, give the right answer.
1. Our knowledge of ancient laws is vague.
2. The earliest known legal text was written by Hammurabi.
3. One of the most detailed ancient legal codes was drawn up in about 1458 B.C.
4. The entire code consisted of 282 paragraphs.
5. The pillar is now in the British Museum in London.
6. The cruel principle of revenge was observed.
7. Only murderers but also thieves and false accusers faced the death penalty.
8. The code outlawed private blood feuds.
9. In Hammurabi's laws the penalty could be harder than the crime.
Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents.
Make word combinations.
Unit 2 ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME
The Legal Heritage of Greece and Rome
The ancient Greeks were among the first to develop a concept of law that separated everyday law from religious beliefs.Before the Greeks most civilizations attributed their laws to their gods or goddesses. Instead, the Greeks believed that laws were made by the people for the people.
In the seventh century B.C., drew up Greece's first comprehensive written code of laws. Under Draco's code death was the punishment for most offences. Thus, the terms draconian usually applies too extremely harsh measures.
Several decades passed before Solon - poet, military hero, and ultimately Athens' lawgiver- devised a new code of laws. Trial by jury,an ancient Greek tradition was retained, but enslaving debtorswas prohibited as were most of the harsh punishments of Draco's code. Under Solon's lawcitizens of Athens were eligible toserve in the assembly and courts were established in which they could appeal government decisions.
What the Greeks may have contributed tothe Romans was the concept of "natural law." In essence, natural law was based on the belief that certain basic principlesare above the laws of a nation. These principles arise fromthe nature of people. The concept of natural law and the development of the first true legal system had a profound effect on the modern world.
Write the correct word in the space before its definition. There may be more than one definition for each word.
Make word combinations.
3. Answer the following questions:
1.What does the ancient Greek concept of law comprise?
2.Why were the first laws mainly attributed to divine powers?
3.What is the origin and the meaning of the word "draconian"?
4.How do you understand the concept of "natural law"?
5.What was Solon's contribution to ancient law?
Solon (b. 630 — d. 560 B.C.)
Solon, the Athenian statesman, is known as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. He ended exclusive aristocratic control of the government, substituted a system of control by the wealthy, and introduced a new and more humane law code.He was also a noted poet.
Unfortunately it was not until the 5th century B.C. that accounts of his life and works began to be put together, mostly on the evidence ofhis poems and his law code. Although certain details have a legendary ring, the main features of his story seem to be reliable. Solon was of noble descent but moderate means.He first became prominentin about 600 B.C. The early 6th century was a troubled time for the Athenians. Society was dominatedby an aristocracy of birth,who ownedthe best land, monopolized the government, and were themselves split into rival factions. The social, economic, and political evilsmight well have culminated in a revolution and subsequent tyranny (dictatorship),as they had in other Greek states, had it not been for Solon, to whom Athenians of all classes turned in the hope of a generally satisfactory solution oftheir problems. Because he believed in moderation and in an ordered societyin which each class had its proper place and function, his solution was not revolution but reform.
Solon's great contribution tothe future good of Athenswas his new code of laws. The first written codeat Athens, that of Draco, was still in force. Draco's laws were shockingly severe— so severe that they were said to have been written not in ink but in blood. On thecivil sidethey permitted enslavement for debt,and death seems to have been the penalty for almost all criminal offenses.Solon revisedevery statute except that onhomicideand made Athenian law altogether more humane.
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