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Нужно ли бояться тестирования при приеме на работу?
Всё чаще при приеме на работу кандидаты проходят тестирование, при этом отношение к нему далеко не однозначно. Многие стараются отказаться от этой процедуры. Менеджеры кадровых агентств и фирм воспринимают это как негативный симптом. Кандидату не следует опасаться тестов, ведь психологи понимают, что никто не совершенен.
Основные цели тестирования: определение способностей и характера кандидата для выяснения, какую работу лучше всего ему предоставить, и стоит ли его дополнительно обучать; выявление скрытых целей и мотивов поиска работы для понимания того, насколько качества и установки кандидата соответствуют принципам корпоративной культуры фирмы.
Каждый стремится казаться лучше, чем он есть, но отвечать на вопросы лучше всего честно, поскольку серии похожих вопросов выявят вашу неискренность. В компаниях с хорошей организацией труда и здоровой корпоративной культурой тест – необходимый инструмент в работе. В целом, процедура тестирования полезна. Существует два вида тестов.
Первый вид тестов - профессиональный, когда кандидату предлагают что-то вроде «контрольной» по его основной профессии. Это могут быть вопросы или проверка на профессиональных тренажерах. Так, переводчику предложат перевод, программиста усадят за компьютер. Перед бухгалтером выложат целый комплект накладных и спросят, в каких случаях используют эти бумаги.
Второй вид тестов - личностные. В одних Вас могут попросить рассказать о хобби, эпизодах из жизни. В других ответы готовы и нужно выбрать ответ - "Да" или "Нет". Здесь может быть заложена некоторая доля «коварства». Например, в вопросе: "Готовы ли Вы работать по 12 часов в день?" - может быть скрыта попытка выяснить вашу искренность, а не трудолюбие и преданность фирме.
Специалисты считают, что если человек хочет попасть на хорошую работу, он должен проявить готовность пройти все предварительные стадии и продемонстрировать желание “пойти навстречу” кадровому агентству, согласившись потратить немного личного времени на заполнение анкеты. Так что не бойтесь тестирования! Это – один из способов найти то, что вы ищете!
5. Write a paragraph to answer the question: ‘What factors should employers take into consideration while hiring people in Russia?’
TASKS FOR LISTENING
Listen to Dialogue 1. Mark the statements as true or false.
1. The student wants to apply for a full-time job.
2. He is a good swimmer but he has never taught swimming.
3. He needs money for traveling to Spain.
4. He is ready to work on Saturdays.
5. He has tried a variety of part-time jobs.
6. He doesn’t get the job.
Listen to Text 1. Answer the following questions.
1. When does the speaker come to work? Why?
2. What does she like about her job?
3. What used to make communicating with clients impersonal?
4. Does she find her job routine?
5. Who does she sometimes build up a good relationship with?
6. What part of her job doesn’t she like?
Listen to Text 2. Choose the correct answer.
1) Before becoming a guide, Hilary Osborn worked as
a) a radio-presenter; b) a chauffeur; c) a cashier:
2) For her new job she had to buy
a) some equipment; b) a car; c) maps.
3) For her new job Hilary had to take an intensive course of
a) driving; b) making videos; c) regional studies.
4) Hilary is paid
a) 2, 000 pounds a day; b) 240 pounds a day; c) 18 pounds a day;
5) The relationship between her and the clients is
a) close friendship; b) that of an employer and employee; c) quite distant.
E D U C A T I O N
System of Education
· Great Britain. There are two systems of primary and secondary education in the country – the state school and ‘public school’. The former is in the majority; the latter are few in number but of great influence.
All children must, by law, receive a full-time education from the age of five to sixteen. Any child may attend, without paying fees, until they are eighteen. Education at this stage is compulsory.
Elementary Еducation. In the state primary school there are two sections – an infant section, from five to seven, and a junior section, from seven to eleven. Before their elementary schooling some children have an opportunity to attend one of the nursery schools.
There is no official control of curriculum in the elementary system. State laws provide a general framework within which the state schools operate and the central government provides a large part of the money. The Department of Education and Science establishes standards to which school ought to conform and from to time it sends out one of Her Majesty’s Inspectors to visit and make a report on the work of the school. They give advice to the teachers and suggest new ideas, but their function is above all advisory which means that in a state school the head teacher has plenty of autonomy in deciding what is to be taught and how teaching is to be carried out.
Secondary Education. At this stage of education, there are various types of schools.They are: grammar school, comprehensive secondary school, secondary modern school and ‘public school’. The first three schools belong to the state system, while public school belongs to the category of independent schools. They are supported entirely by fees and private funds. The best known of these are the ‘public’ boarding schools for boys aged thirteen to seventeen or eighteen. Many of them also take day-boys and day-girls. Among the most famous public schools are Eton, Harrow, Rugby and Winchester. To send a boy to a leading public school costs about & 900 to & 4 000 a year.
In the state schools, the variety of patterns of secondary school is bewildering. Some authorities are introducing a two-tier pattern (зд. двухуровневая система), with ajunior high school from 11 to 14 or 15 and a senior high school from 14 to 18; others are concentrating on ‘sixth form colleges’, all pupils in the 15-18 age range doing advanced work. Yet the most generally accepted pattern is the one that retains the original wide age range of the grammar school from 11 to 18.
At the age of 16 all children in Britain take the school-leaving examination and get a certificate of secondary education. Those who want to continue their education at university have to stay on at school for two more years and take another exam at an advanced level. The advanced level examination is very important because on the results of this examination the universities choose their students as there are no entrance examinations.
Higher Education.There are over forty universities in Britain. They can be divided into several types.
The term ‘old universities’ refers to Oxford and Cambridge which were the only two universities in England until the nineteenth century. Oxford is governed by a governing council, while each college is governed by its Fellows (the members of the governing body) who are responsible for teaching their own students through a tutorial system, whereby each student gets personal tuition once a week.
Each college in Cambridge is largely independent and the university’s administration is run by a governing council called the Senate. Cambridge is more developed than Oxford in scientific studies. Other aspects are similar to those in Oxford.
The Open University. As the name suggests, it is open to everybody, and does not demand the same formal qualifications as the other universities. The university offers courses through one of the BBC’s television channels and by radio and has tutors and counsellors all over Britain, who read papers written by students and discuss them at meetings or by correspondence.
Apart from the universities there are polytechnics (institutions for advanced full-time and part-time education, especially in scientific and technical subjects) and colleges of higher education for those who fail to get to university or who choose more practical courses.
· In the USA schools for children from 6 to 13 are called elementary or grade schools. The school is called so because each year of study is a grade. The next stage is secondary school with its subdivisions – junior high school (grades 7-9) or middle school (grades 5-8) and senior high school (grades 10-12 or 9-12).
Children in high school are called ‘students’. Instruction in compulsory subjects is supplemented with a great variety of optional courses (‘electives’). This type of school has been adapting itself to the social needs offering driver’s education, cooking classes, health education and computer science.
Many high schools have a ‘tracking system’ according to which students are grouped by academic ability and motivation. No overall
exam is taken in order to graduate. You just have to pass all the final exams given each semester.
Public schools in the United States belong to the state system.
Higher Education.The system of higher education in the USA comprises universities, four-year colleges, technical training institutions and community colleges(a community collegeisa junior college established to serve a certain community and sometimes supported in part by it, often focusing on career, rather than academic progress).
Unlike the European system of higher education, colleges and universities in the USA do not have their own entrance examinations. Rather, admission is based on scholastic achievement in high school and performance on standardized national tests (the SAT - the Scholastic Aptitude Test); a two-part examination which must be taken by all students who wish to attend US universities. Students in their senior year take the SATs and have the results sent to the colleges they want to attend or ACT - American College Testing. In addition, colleges and universities may require applicants to submit samples of their writing.
Depending on the source of financing higher education institutions may be either state-supported or private. The tuition fee at a private university can be $ 20.000-25.000 a year. The fee at a state university can be ten times less as that. There is at least one university supported by public funds in each state. A group of old and highly-respected universities of the eastern USA is called Ivy League.They are Columbia, Harvard, Cornel, Princeton and Yale Universities, Dartmouth College and the University of Pennsylvania.
Church and state are separated in the USA therefore religion cannot be taught in state-supported schools.
Answer the following questions.
1. What are the main stages of education in a) Great Britain; b) the United States?
2. What are the peculiar features of the elementary system in Great Britain?
3. What types of schools are there at the secondary stage a) in Great Britain? b) in the USA?
4. What is a ‘public’ boarding school in Great Britain?
5. Why is the advanced-level examination very important in Great Britain? What are a) the SAT b) ACT?
6. What are the main types of university education in a) Great Britain b) the USA?
7. Does the term ‘public school’ mean the same in the U.K. and the USA?
Additional Vocabulary: to advance one’s potential; to award a degree; to benefit society; to get an individual tuition; to offer a practical (theoretical, etc) course; to pay tuition fees; to provide general education; to receive the quality education; to resist learning;
extra-curricular activities; adult education; full-time education; curriculum (pl. –la, -lums); an access course; a vocational course; an institution of higher learning; entrance requirements; a co-educational school; drop-out rate.
Mind the preposition: to be educated at a college, university; to offer a course in radio-engineering, etc; to decide on one’s career; to do a degree on a part-time basis; to be supplemented with; to study by correspondence; at an advanced level; a degree in history, economics, etc.; oncollege, university graduation.
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