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Listen to Text 2. Fill in the gaps.
Immigrants are people (1) .. …… of a new life. Until a few years ago, many were welcomed with open arms. But now a growing number face rejection, hatred and even violence.
Immigrants decide to leave their own countries for various reasons. Some are in (2) ……… …… at home. Others want to join (3) ……… who already live abroad. A third group simply want a better (4) …… … ……. …… for their family.
For reasons like these, (5) ……. countries receive thousands of immigration applications every year. Some are accepted, many are (6) ……. – but in general, European immigrant populations have steadily risen since 1945. This means that countries like Britain, France and Germany are now (7) ….. -….. ……… . Some of their citizens may originally have come from Vietnam, India, Turkey, Pakistan, the Caribbean, Africa, but today they are (8) ……… . Most people are happy to live side-by-side with them, but for some others, though, immigrants only represent a (9) …. .. …….. . They take jobs from (10) ….. …….. , refuse to integrate with the rest of the population and contribute to social problems.
So – problems at home and dramatic changes at home have moved immigration to the top of today’s political agenda.
JOBS AND CAREERS
Working for pay is the common experience of people all over the world. There are several ways of looking for a job in Great Britain. Some people prefer to go to an employment agency or career centrewhere well-trained staff helps them to find a suitable job. Most agencies now have some on-line databases. These databases include the names of companies and qualifications for the posted position.
Others look through job advertisements published in local newspapers. On their last pages they publish job placement under ‘Help Wanted’ or ‘Employment Opportunities’ headings. Usually these sections alphabetically list professions wanted, salaries offered and job descriptions. They also provide the employer’s telephone number and address. Job ads for working people, clerks, secretaries etc usually go under the headlines ‘Situations Vacant’ or ‘Situations Wanted’. Vacancies for doctors, engineers, managers, teachers, etc are offered in sections headlined as ‘Appointments’.
In the first place many job applicants are interested in high salaries, career prospects and social status. However, there are candidates who consider money substantial but not the most important factor in choosing a career. The opinion is expressed by a number of applicants that since work comprises a large part of people's lives, it is essential that this area should bring fulfillment. They should also feel that their work is valuable, that it benefits society in some way. They understand that otherwise - having chosen the wrong profession - they could be easily dissatisfied with their jobs.
A payment for labour or services according to contract and on an hourly, daily or piecework basis is wages, while salary means a fixed compensation periodically, usually monthly paid for regular work. The wage-earning workers are paid weekly, usually getting their wages handed to them in cash; salary earners are paid once a month by cheques handed to them or paid into their bank accounts. Money paid to doctors, lawyers, etc for professional advice or services is fee.
The British may not like work very much but they seem to spend a lot of time doing it. The full-time employees work the longest hours in Europe and more people between ages of 25 to 60, especially women, stay in the “job market” longer than they do in most other European countries.
In the USA a lot of people are hired ona trial basis which means they have to go through a probationary period.This trial period can last from one month to three years. During this time a person’s performance is carefully evaluated and at the end of the period the employee receives a review. If the review is favourable, the employee will be given the benefits of other regular full-time staff.
· A well composed resume is vital. An important stage is a job interview. It is after the talk with an applicant for a job that a final decision is taken – to accept or to reject.
· Since the early 1960s, there have been many changes in British and American society as a direct result of the women’s movement. The movement is telling women they do not have to conform to expected social roles that limit their freedom. Many women who previously thought they could only be wives and mothers are learning to consider other life options for themselves, including full-time careers. Nowadays women are becoming doctors, mechanics, politicians, and even soldiers. At the same time, many men seek employment as nurses, shop assistants, secretaries, etc. But they often find that for no reason, they are not hired. It seems that these jobs are still considered to be more suitable for women.
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