Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 


Adjectives formed from stems different from those of the corresponding nouns




 

Mn E noun Corresponding adjective of Latin origin
blood sanguinary
body corporeal
book literary
brother fraternal
cat feline
child puerile
cloud nebular
daughter filial
day diurnal
dog canine
ear auricular
earth terrestrial
egg oval
eye ocular
father paternal
fire igneous
foe hostile
fox vulpine
friend amicable
hand manual
head capital
heart cordial
heaven celestial
home domestic
horse equine
house domestic
husband marital
island insular
kidney renal
knight equestrian
life vital
light lucid
lip labial
man human
milk lactic
mind mental
moon lunar
mother maternal
mouth oral
name nominal
night nocturnal
nose nasai
ox bovine
room spacious
sea marine
sheep ovine
sight visible
skin cutaneous
son filial
spring vernal
stream fluvial
star stellar
sun solar
time temporal
tongue lingual
tooth dental
town urban
tree arboreal
truth veracious
war bellicose
water aqueous
wife conjugal
worm vermicular
woman feminine
youth juvenile

 


Etymological doublets

 

Word Etymology Translation Doublet Etymology Translation
abbreviate L. сокращать (слова) abridge F. cокращать (рассказ)
artist L. артист, художник artiste F. певец, балерина, артистка
balsam Gk., L. бальзам balm F. бальзам, болеутоляющее средство
canal L. канал channel F. канал, пролив, русло
captain L. капитан chieftain F. вождь (клана, племени)
cart L. телега, повозка chart F. карта (морск.), схема, таблица
cavalry L. кавалерия chivalry F. рыцарство
corps L. корпус corpse F. труп
dike E. плотина, канава, ров ditch E. канава, ров
emerald F. изумруд smaragdus Gk., L. изумруд
fragile L. хрупкий, ломкий frail F. хрупкий, болез­ненный
gaol L. тюрьма jail F. тюрьма
hospital L. госпиталь, больница hotel hostel F. F. гостиница общежитие
legal L. легальный loyal F. верный, лойяльный
liquor L, жидкость liqueur F. ликёр
major L. майор mayor F. мэр
nay Sc. нет no E. нет
of E. предлог off E. наречие, послелог
pauper L. нищий poor F. бедный
rout L. разгром, поражение; пирушка route F. маршрут, курс, путь
salon L. салон saloon F. салон, бар, кабачок
screech Sc. пронзительно кричать shriek E. вопить, кричать
screw Sc. винт, шуруп shrew E. сварливая женщина
senior L. старший sir F. сэр
shade E. тень, полумрак shadow E. тень
skirt Sc. юбка shirt E. рубашка
suit L. прошение, тяжба, процесс и др suite F. свита; набор, комплект
wage E. зарплата gage F. залог
whit E. нисколько, совсем нет wight E. (шутл.) человек, существо

Blends

 

adtevac = adsorption + temperature + vacuum

admass n (advertisement + massmedia) общество, находящееся под сильным воздействием рекламы

angledozer = angle + bulldozer

animule = animal + mule

blaxploitation n (blacks + exploitation) эксплуатация чернокожих

boatel n (boat + hotel) гостиница на берегу реки

breathalyzer n (breath + analyzer) прибор для проверки дыхания водителя на содержание алкогольных паров

brunch = breakfast + lunch

cablegram = cable + telegram

carnapping n (car + kidnapping) похищение автомобилей

cashmat n (cash + automat) автомат для выдачи наличных денег по предъявлению специального жетона

chortle = chuckle + snort

colourcaster n (colour + broadcaster) спортивный комментатор, сообщающий о событиях в живой, красочной форме

colourthon n (colour + marathon) изобилие красок

contrail n (condensation + trail) паровой след за самолетом

dawk n (dove + hawk) политический деятель, пытающийся соединить реакционные взгляды с либеральными

dynetic adj (dynamic + magnetic) обладающий сильными магнитными свойствами

dumbfound = dumb + confound

Eurailpass n (European + rail + pass) проездной билет, действительный для всех железных дорог Европы

educreation n (education + creation) педагогическая теория сочетания обучения с воспитанием

electrocute = electricity + execute

dollarature = dollar + literature

flush = flash + blush

Fritalux n (France + Italy + Benelux) пять западноевропейских стран

Fringlish n (French + English) английский язык с французским произношением и примесью французской лексики, аналогично Japglish, Spanglish

fruice = fruit + juice

galumph = gallop +triumph

glaze = glare + gaze

good-bye = good-night, good-day + goodbye (god be with ye)

haylage n (hay + silage) сенаж (сено + силос)

helilift n (helicopter + lift) подвозка на вертолетах

helispot n (helicopter + spot) временная площадка для посадки вертолетов

icescape n (ice + landscape) полярный пейзаж

identikit n (identity + kit) наборный портрет преступника, составленный полицией на основании показаний свидетелей

iluiry = flash + hurry

infanticipate v (infant + anticipate) ожидать ребенка

lunarnaut n (lunar + astronaut) космонавт, исследующий Луну

meritocracy n (merit + aristocracy) правящая элита

mocamp n (motorcar + camp) лагерь для автотуристов

motorcade n (motorcar + cavalcade) колонна автомобилей

oceanaut n (ocean + astronaut) акванавт, работающий над исследованием океана

paraglider n (parachute + glider) управляемый парашют (парашют + планер)

petnapping n (pet + kidnapping) кража домашних собак и кошек

petrodollars n (petroleum + dollar) нефтедоллары

pomato = potato + tomato

Reaganomics n (Reagan + economics) экономическая программа президента Рейгана, сравните Nixonomics, Fordonomics

skurfing n (skating + surfing) сухопутный серфинг

slash = slay, sling +dash, gash

slumlord n (slums + landlord) владелец трущоб, наживающийся на бедных жильцах

slurb n (slums + suburb) пригород, застроенный дешевыми походными домами (трущобами)

smaze n (smog + haze) смог с дымком

smog = smoke+ fog

spansule n (span + capsule) капсула с лекарством, рассчитанная на постепенное поступление его в организм

stagflation n (stagnation + inflation) экономический застой с увеличением безработицы и усилением инфляции

stratocruiser n (stratosphere + cruiser) самолет для полетов на больших высотах

streetscape n (street + scape) вид улицы

swacket n (sweater + jacket) свитер, застегивающийся на пуговицы

swellegant = swell + elegant

tigon n (tiger + lion) помесь тигра и льва

trasparesscent adj (transparent + essence + scent) невидимый и надушенный

travelcade n (travel + cavalcade) колонна туристских автомобилей

Tudorbethan adj (Tudor + Elizabethan) относящийся к стилю архитектуры и мебели 1500-1700 годов в Англии

twirl = twist + whirl

vertiport n (vertical + airport) аэродром для самолетов с вертикальным подъемом и посадкой

vodkatini n (vodka + martini) мартини, разбавленное водкой

workfare n (work + welfare) помощь нуждающимся в виде предоставления оплачиваемой работы или профессионального обучения

zebrule = zebra + mule

youthquake n (youth + earthquake) студенческие волнения 1960-1970 гг.


Euphemisms

 

above your ceiling — promoted to a level beyond your abilities

absorption — a military conquest

academically subnormal — of very low ability or intelligence

academic dismissal — expulsion from college

accident — 1) involuntary urination or defecation; 2) an unplanned pregnancy

action — 1) vice or illegal activity, or its proceeds; 2) the brutal harassment of supposed opponents; 3) a chance of casual copulation

adventure — 1) a war; 2) a sexual relationship with other than your regular partner

affair — a sexual relationship with someone other than your regular partner

affair of honour (obsolete) — a duel

alcohol — an intoxicant

all-rounder — a person of both heterosexual and homosexual tastes

ammunition — lavatory paper

angel of the night — a prostitute

answer the call — 1) to die; 2) to urinate

armed struggle (the) — terrorism

at half-mast — with the trouser zip undone

at liberty — involuntarily unemployed

at rest — dead

at your last — about to die

aunt — 1) a lavatory; 2) an elderly male homosexual

baby-snatcher — a person with a much younger regular sexual partner

backdoor — to pass information improperly

backhander — a bribe

backward — 1) very stupid; 2) poor or uncivilized

bad fire (the) — hell

bad man — the devil

bag (the) — dismissal from employment or courtship (a synonym of sack)

bags — trousers

banana republic — a poor and possibly corrupt country

bananas — mentally disturbed

basement (American) — a lavatory

bathroom (American) — a lavatory

be excused — to go to the lavatory

benefit — state aid paid to the needy

better country (a) — life after death

beverage — an intoxicant

beyond help — dead

big — pregnant

big-boned - fat

big С (the) (American) — cancer

big D (the) — death

big house (American) — a prison

big jobs — defecation

birthday suit (your) — nakedness

black lad — the devil

black velvet — a dark-skinned prostitute

blast — an intoxicant

blazes — hell

blue hair — an old woman

blue room — a lavatory on an aircraft

BO (body odour) — the smell of stale sweat

bodily functions — urination and defecation

bouncers — the breasts of an adult woman

box — a coffin

boy scouts (American) — state police

break your neck — to have an urgent desire to urinate

breathe your last — to die

broken home — a family with young children whose parents have parted

brown envelope — a bribe

brown sugar — heroin

bucket — to kill by drowning (a way of disposing of an excess of kittens)

bug — to conceal an apparatus for eavesdropping

bun — a prostitute

bun in the oven (a) — pregnancy

cage — a prison

call (the) — death

call girl — a prostitute

can (American) — 1) a lavatory; 2) a prison

canary — 1) a sexually available female; 2) an informer to the police

candy — illegal narcotics

canned — drunk

cannon — a pickpocket

carpet — to reprimand

carry — 1) to be pregnant (with); 2) to have an illegal narcotic on you

cat — a prostitute

catch — a rich marriageable adult

catch a cold (British) — 1) to contract gonorrhoea; 2) to have a trouser zip undone

cattle — a category of despised persons

cease to be — to die

celebrate — to drink intoxicants to excess

certain age (a) — old

chair (the) —judicial death by electrocution

change (the) — the menopause

chapel of ease — a lavatory

Charlie — a substitution word for a taboo subject (e.g. a prostitute, the male or female genitalia, menstruation, e.g. Charlie's come, a stupid person, cocaine, etc.)

Charlie uncle — a stupid man

charms — the sexual attractiveness of a female

chase the dragon — to smoke a narcotic

chere amie — a sexual mistress

cherry — a woman's virginity

chew a gun — to kill yourself

chi-chi — of mixed white and Indian ancestry

chick — a prostitute

chicken — 1) a youth attractive to homosexuals; 2) coward

child of sin (obsolete) — an illegitimate child

child of Venus — a prostitute

Chinese — is used in phrases to indicate dishonesty, wiliness, duplicity, or muddle, some of which follow

Chinese copy — a production model stolen from another's design

Chinese paper — a security of doubtful value

Chinese tobacco — opium

clean — free from unpleasantness, danger, or illegality

clean house — to remove incriminating evidence

cloakroom — a lavatory

close an account — to kill

close stool — a portable lavatory

closet — a lavatory

close the bedroom door — to refuse to copulate with your spouse,

close your eyes — to die

cock the leg — to urinate

cock the little finger — to be addicted to alcohol

cold — 1) dead; 2) not easily susceptible to sexual excitement

collaborator — a traitor

Colombian gold — high-quality marijuana

coloured — dyed

come home feet first — to be killed

come to your resting place — to die

concrete shoes (in) — murdered and hidden

condition — 1) an illness; 2) a pregnancy

confirmed bachelor — a homosexual

conflict — a war

confrontation — a war

confused — drunk

cook — to kill

cool — dead

cop — a policeman

copper — a policeman

copulate — to tuck

costume wedding — the marriage of a pregnant bride

couch potato — a person who habitually spends leisure time watching

television count (the) — death

country sports — killing wild animals for pleasure

cradle-snatcher — an older person marrying one much younger

credibility gap — the extent to which you are thought to be lying

criminal operation — an illegal abortion

cross-bar hotel (American) — a prison

cuckoo — mentally unbalanced

cut numbers — to make employees redundant

D — anything taboo beginning with the letter D, usually damn, damned, damnable, and the like which used to be less socially acceptable in polite speech than they are today

dark man — the devil

daughter of the game — a prostitute

DCM — a notice of dismissal from employment, the initial letters of ''Don't Come Monday'' (mainly American use: among British railway employees it denoted for one day only)

dead meat — a human corpse

depart this life — to die

deprived — poor

derailed — mad

diet of worms — a corpse

disadvantaged — poor

dispute — a strike

do away with — to kill

down below — the genitalia

downstairs — the genitalia

drop your flag — to surrender

drown your sorrows — to drink intoxicants to excess

Dutch — appears in many offensive and often euphemistic expressions dating from the 17th century antagonism between England and the Low Countries

Dutch bargain — an unfair or unprofitable deal

Dutch concert — a cacophony

Dutch courage — bravery induced by intoxicants, implying a Dutchman is a coward when he is sober

Dutch feast — an occasion where the host becomes

guests are still sober Dutchman — a stupid person Dutch widow — a prostitute

ear — a microphone used in secret surveilance

earth closet — a non-flush lavatory

easy way out (the) — suicide

eat a gun — to commit suicide with a firearm

eat for two — to be pregnant

eat porridge (British) — to be in prison

eccentric — severely ill mentally

economically disadvantaged — poor

economically inactive — unemployed

economical with the truth — lying

elbow-bending — drinking intoxicants

electric methods — torture

elevated — drunk

eliminate — to kill

embroidery — exaggeration or lying

emergency — a war

emotional — drunk

empty out — to urinate

end — to kill

end of desire — a sexual conquest

enjoy Her Majesty's hospitality — to be in prison

enter the next world — to die

equipment — the male genitalia

erase — to kill

eternal life — death

eternity (in) — dead

everlasting life — death

exchange this life for a better — to die

excluded (the) — poor people

expectant — pregnant

extinguish — to kill

eye-opener — an intoxicant or stimulant taken on waking

face your maker — to be mortally ill

facility — a lavatory

fade away — to die

fairy — a homosexual, usually denoting a male taking the female role, but also used collectively

fallen (the) — those killed in war

fallout — radioactive matter introduced into the atmosphere by human agency

family planning — contraception

father of lies — the devil

feather your nest — to provide for yourself at the expense of others

feed the fishes — to be seasick

feed your nose — to inhale illicit narcotics through the nose

feel a collar — to arrest

feel no pain — to be drunk

fifth column — traitors within your ranks

filthy — relating to any taboo act

financially constrained — poor

finish — to kill

fish — a prostitute's customer

fish story — a lie or exaggeration

flexible — unprincipled

fly-by-night — drunk

fly one wing low — to be drunk

food for worms — dead

footless — drunk

forehead challenged — balding

forward at the knees — elderly

four-letter man — an unpleasant person, the letters are S, H, I and T

four-letter word — an obscenity

freedom fighters — terrorists

free love — unrestricted copulation outside marriage

French leave — unauthorized absence

freshen a drink — to serve more alcohol

fruitcake — a mentally abnormal or eccentric person

fruit salad — a mixture of illegal narcotics

fry — to kill or be killed

full in the belly — pregnant

funny — 1) unwell; 2) (of a male) homosexual; 3) mad

funny money — cash which cannot be spent openly

G — anything taboo beginning with the letter G (a mild expletive, usually spelt gee, a shortened form of jeez, from Jesus; in America, the leader of a gang of convicts, or a gallon of whisky; a G-man is a federal agent, working for the US government, a G-nose sniffs narcotics)

gain — to steal

garden of remembrance — the curtilage of a crematorium

gargle — an alcoholic drink

gathered to God — dead

gay — enjoying or doing something which is the subject of a taboo. Now standard English for homosexual

gentleman — a lavatory exclusively for male use

geography — the location of a lavatory

get it — to be killed

ghost — 1) a fictitious employee; 2) a writer whose work is published under another's name

girl — 1) a prostitute; 2) any female less than 50 years old

girls (room) — a lavatory for exclusively female use

give (someone) the air — to dismiss from employment

give your life — to be killed in action

glass — an intoxicant

go into the streets — to become a prostitute

gold-digger — a woman who consorts with a man because he is rich

golden years (the) — old age

gone — 1) pregnant; 2) drunk or under the influence of narcotics

gooseberry — the devil

grape (the) — wine

grass — marijuana

great certainty (the) — death

great majority — the dead

Greek way (the) — pederasty

guest — 1) a prisoner; 2) a customer

H — anything taboo beginning with the letter H (usually hell inthe expression "What the H?"), in addict use, heroin

habit — an addiction to narcotics

haircut — a severe financial loss

hairpiece — a wig

half-deck — a mentally disturbed person

half-seas over — drunk

hand — an employee

handicap — a mental or physical defect

handshake — a supplementary payment on leaving a job

happy event — the birth of a child

happy release — the death of a terminally ill patient

hard of hearing — deaf

hard room — a prison cell

hard up — poor

Harry — the devil

head(s) — a lavatory on a ship

head case — an idiot

headhunter — a recruiting agent

help yourself— to steal

hereafter (the) — death

high — drunk or under the influence of narcotics

higher state (of existance) (a) — death

high forehead (a) — baldness

historic — old

hit the bottle — to drink intoxicants to excess

holiday — a term in prison

holyweek — the period of menstruation

home economics — cooking and house-keeping

homo — a homosexual

hook — to steal

hooker — a prostitute

horny — 1) the devil; 2) excited sexually

horse — heroin

hospice — an institution for the incurable or dying

hospital — an institution for the insane

hostess — a prostitute

hot pants — an indication of sexual arousal (in Britain, where men wear trousers, only used about a female, but in America it may apply to both sexes)

hot place (the) — hell

hot seat — an electric chair used for execution

house — a brothel

house of correction — a prison

human intelligence — the use of spies

human resources — personnel

hygiene facilities — a lavatory

I hear what you say — I do not agree with you (a convenient form of words because it avoids the need to enter into discussion or argument)

impaired hearing — deafness

improving knife (the) — cosmetic surgery

incident — a war

indescribables, inexpressibles (obsolete) — trousers

in for it — pregnant (a common use, especially of pregnancy outside marriage)

in heaven — dead

inner city — slum

inquisition — torture

intact — still a virgin

intelligence — spying

in the arms of Morpheus — asleep

in the churchyard — dead and buried

in the departure lounge — about to be dismissed from employment

in the family way — pregnant

in the glue — in personal difficulty, unable to move freely

in the skin — naked

in the soil — dead

in the trade — earning a living by prostitution

in trouble — 1) pregnant; 2) detected by the police in criminal activity

intruder — an armed invader

John — a lavatory

John Barleycorn — whisky

Johnnie's out of jail (American) — your trouser zip is undone

Johnny — a contraceptive sheath

jolly — drunk (an old variant of merry)

joy — heroin

jug— 1) a prison; 2) an intoxicant

jugs — the female breasts

juice (the) — 1) intoxicants; 2) semen

knobs — the female breasts

knockers — the female breasts

labour — childbirth

ladies — a lavatory exclusively for female use

ladies' man — a man who delights in the company of women

lady-in-waiting — a pregnant woman

land of forgetfulness (the) — death

land of Nod (the) — sleep

language — swear words

last call (the) — death

late — 1) dead; 2) failing to menstruate when expected with fears of unplanned pregnancy

laughing academy — an institution for the insane

lay down your life — to be killed in wartime

leave the room — to go to the lavatory

left-handed wife — a woman living with a man to whom she is not married

legal resident — a spy accredited as a diplomat (as different from the illegal resident who spies in the host country under cover)

liberate — 1) to conquer; 2) to steal

lift a leg — 1) to urinate; 2) (of a male) to copulate

lift your little finger — to drink intoxicants

light in the head — of low intelligence

limited — idle, stupid, or incompetent

live by trade — to be a prostitute

live in (mortal) sin (of a couple) — to live together without being married

loaded — drunk

locked — drunk

long home (your) — death

loo — a lavatory

look in a cup — to foretell the future

Lord of the Flies — the devil

Lord sends for you (the) — you are dead

lose the vital signs — to die

lose your (good) character — to be discovered in any impropriety

lose your lunch — to vomit

love affair — a short-term sexual relationship

love child — an illegitimate child

love nest — a place in which a mistress is housed

low girls — prostitutes

madam — the female keeper of a brothel

magic word (the) — please

make a decent (an honest) woman of — to marry a woman you have impregnated

make a hole in the water — to kill yourself by drowning

meet your Maker — to die

men ('s room) — a lavatory for male use only

mercy death — the murder of a patient thought to be terminally ill

modern conveniences (British) — a lavatory and bathroom indoors

moon people — lunatics

narrow bed — a grave

needlepusher — a person addicted to illegal narcotics

negative cash — debt

negative growth — a decline

negatively privileged — poor

Neopolitan bone—ache — syphilis

nervous breakdown — a severe mental illness

neutralize — to kill

Nick — the devil

night (the) — death

nightcap — a drink of intoxicant

nightclub hostess — a prostitute

night girl — a prostitute

night stool — a portable lavatory

no comment —I admit nothing

no longer with us — dead

no more — dead

not at home, not in — at home but unwilling to see or speak to a caller

notice — dismissal from employment

not long for this world — about to die

OD yourself — to commit suicide (taking an OD, or overdose, of drugs, legally or illegally acquired)

off the payroll — dismissed from employment

off the rails — being detected in reprehensible conduct

oil — to bribe

oldest profession (the) — prostitution

old maid — an unmarried woman who is unlikely to marry

one foot in the grave — near death

one for the road — an extra drink of intoxicant before leaving company

one-way ride — an abduction where the victim is murdered

on the needle — addicted to illegal narcotics taken by self—injection

on the shelf— (of a female) unmarried and unlikely to marry

on the take — accepting bribes

orientation — homosexuality

outhouse — a lavatory

over-privileged — rich

pavement people — homeless beggars

pay lip service — insincerely to say you agree with or support

people cuts — the dismissal of employees

periodic rest — a term in prison

persona non grata — someone caught spying

pill (the) — a contraceptive taken orally by females

pine overcoat — a coffin

place — a lavatory

place of ill fame — a brothel

politically correct — conforming in behavior or language to dogmatic opinions

powder — a narcotic taken illegally

powder room — a lavatory for the exclusive use of females

powder your nose — to go to the lavatory

precautions — contraception

present — a bribe

preventive — a contraceptive sheath, also protector

Prince of Darkness — the devil

private parts — the human genitalia, also privities and privy parts

privileged — rich

queen — a male homosexual

queer — 1) drunk; 2) homosexual

quickie — a drink of intoxicant

quit — to die

raincoat — a private investigator

red lamp — a brothel

redundant — dismissed from employment

refresher — a drink of intoxicant

remains — a corpse

removal— 1) a murder; 2) dismissal from employment

rest home — an institution for the aged or mentally ill

restorative — a drink of intoxicant

retiring-room — a lavatory

reviver — a drink of intoxicant

room and board with Uncle Sam (American) — imprisonment

sack (the) — dismissal from employment

saddle-soap — flattery (its quality is to make the seat more comfortable by softening it)

sanitary man — a cleaner of lavatories

seat — buttocks

senior citizen — an old person

sensitive payment — a bribe

separate — to cease living together as man and wife

separation — death

six feet of earth — death

slow — stupid (of children) (slow upstairs is used only of adults)

smallest room (the) — a lavatory

so-and-so — a mild insult

social disease — a venereal disease

soft soap — flattery

something for the weekend — a contraceptive sheath

souvenir — an illegitimate child

spend more time with your family — to be dismissed from employ ment

stand before your Maker — to die

standstill — an attempt by government to restrict pay increases

stool-pigeon — a police informer

stupid — drunk

sweeten — to bribe

swell — to be pregnant

tail-pulling — the publication of a book at the author's expense

take a drink — to be alcoholic

take for a ride — to murder

take home — to die of natural causes

take leave of life — to die

take needle — to inject narcotics illegally

take refuge in a better world — to die

take too much — to be drunk

taste for the bottle — an addiction to alcohol

thick — stupid (a shortened form of thick in the head)

touch signature — a fingerprint

tumour (a) — cancer

turn up your toes — to die

turn your face to the wall — to die

unbalanced — of unsound mind

underachiever — an idle or stupid child

underpriviliged — poor or illiterate

under the counter — illegal

under the influence — drunk

under the table — very drunk

under the weather — unwell

undiscovered country (the) — death

united — dead

unknown to men — a virgin

unmentionables — 1) (obsolete) trousers or undergarments, also unexpressibles, unspeakables, unwhisperables, indescribables and inexpressibles; 2) haemorrhoids

unplugged — mentally ill

unscrewed — mad

unsighted — blind

unwell — drunk

unwired — mentally unbalanced

use a wheelchair — to be physically incapable of walking

used — second-hand

verbally deficient — unable to read

vertically challenged — of short stature

visually challenged — ugly

visually impaired — blind or with very poor eyesight

vital statistics — the measurement of a woman's chest, waist and buttocks

WC — water closet — a lavatory with a flush mechanism

wallflower — a young woman who is failing to attract a male companion

way of all flesh (the) — death

weaker half (the) — females

weed (the) — a taboo substance which is smoked

wet job — a murder

wetness — sweat

wet nurse — a woman paid to suckle another's baby

what you may call it — any taboo object

whistleblower — a person who reveals damaging confidential information

white elephant — an unwanted possession

wipe off, wipe out — to kill

wired to the moon — mentally abnormal

with child — pregnant

with learning difficulties — unable to keep up with your peers in class

with us no more — dead

woman of the town — a prostitute

wooden box — a coffin

working girl — a prostitute

work the streets — to be a prostitute

wrinkly — an old person

write off — to kill or destroy

you-know-what — any taboo subject within the context


Archaisms

Obsolete Word Mod.E. Equivalent Translation
albeit although хотя
anon at once сразу, сразу же
athwart across через, по
aught anything что-либо
bade bid просил
bear'st bear несешь
begat begot рождать, производить
billow wave волна
brine sea, ocean море, океан
courser horse лошадь
clad clothed одетый
clomb climbed карабкался, влезал
crew crowed кричал, кукарекал
didst did делал
diest die умираешь
dire dreadful ужасный, страшный
dost do делаешь
doth does делает
drave drove ехал
eke also также
ere before перед, до, раньше
erst formerly прежде
even evening вечер
hallowed holy святой
haply perhaps может быть, возможно
hath has имеет
height called назывался, был назван
hither here здесь, сюда
Ire anger злоба, злость
kine cows коровы
main sea, ocean море, океан
methinks it seems to me мне кажется
morn morning утро
natheless nevertheless тем не менее
oft often часто
perishest perish погибнешь
quoth said сказал
rhymeth rhymes рифмует(ся)
sate sat сидел
shalt shall будет
sooth truth правда
spouse wife жена, супруга
steed horse лошадь
stove staved снабдил
swain peasant крестьянин
thee you тебя
thine your твой
thou you ты
thrall slave, slavery раб, рабство
throve thrived процветал
thy your твой
thyself yourself ты сам
troth truth правда
vend sell продавать
vernal spring весенний
wert were (ты) был
whilom formerly прежде
whit thing вещь
wight man человек
wrought worked работал
yore in ancient times в былые (древние) времена

Full Americanisms

 

backwoods 1) лесная глушь; 2) любая малозаселенная и отдаленная местность

bluejay ( = moose bird) канадская голубая сойка

bobcat американская рысь

boiled dinner блюдо из овощей

саn консервная банка

casket гроб

chickadee американская черноголовая синица

cold snap кратковременное похолодание

downtown деловая часть города

drive-in кинотеатр, магазин или закусочная, обслуживающая автомобилистов

drugstore аптекарский магазин с закусочной

easy-street богатство

electoral college коллегия выборщиков

fat cat тот, кто снабжает деньгами политиканов

five-and-ten cent storeмагазин стандартных цен

floater избиратель, голосующий за плату несколько раз в разных местах

ganglandпреступный мир

garbage-can мусорная корзина (ящик)

gimnickуловка

hallwayкоридор

jack-rabbit большой североамериканский заяц

landslide 1) оползень, обвал; 2) решающая победа (на выборах)

mailboxпочтовый ящик

mushroom (v) быстро расти

poker-faced с непроницаемым лицом

prairie chicken луговой тетерев

profiteering погоня за прибылями, доходами

rodeoсоревнования ковбоев

room (v)болеть за команду

roometteнебольшое купе

selectman чиновник местного самоуправления

stopoverостановка в пути

street-car трамвай

superette небольшой магазин

swamp-sparrow американский вид воробья

teaberry американское вечнозеленое растение с белыми цветами и ароматными красными ягодами

third house закулисные законодатели

trailтропа, проложенная через девственный лес

trouble-shooter человек, к услугам которого прибегают в критических ситуациях

tuxedo смокинг

vacation отпуск

vacationist, vacationer отпускник

vacationlandкурорт

workout тренировка

 


Native American Words

 

Arkansas название штата (индейское заимствование: Kansas «дымящаяся вода», ср. F. arc «лук», «изгиб»)

banjo банджо (искаженное слово от bandore, L. pandura, panduriит — музыкальный инструмент с тремя струнами)

blizzard буран, сильная метель (ср. G. Blitz «молния» или blitzartig «подобно молнии»)

canyonканьон (ср. Sp. canon «труба»)

carry-all тележка (ср. F. cariole)

Connecticut название штата (индейское заимствование: Quone-ktakut «длинная река»)

coyote степной волк, койот (индейское заимствование из языка племен Центральной Америки через испанский язык)

dumb 1) немой; 2) глупый (ср. G. dumm «глупый»)

freshсвежий, дерзкий (ср. G. frech «дерзкий»)

hammock гамак (индейское заимствование из языка племени арауакан)

hickory гикори, американский орешник (индейское заимствование: paecohiccora «толченые орехи»)

hooch(sl.) сокр. hoochinoo крепкий спиртной напиток (индейское заимствование)

Idaho название штата (индейское заимствование, означающее «жемчужина гор»)

Illinois название штата (индейское заимствование с французским суффиксом -ois, означающее «племя», «род»)

Indian file гуськом (способ передвижения индейцев через леса)

jazzджаз (из креольского jazz «ускорять»; вероятно, африканского происхождения)

kinnikinnichдерево, кору которого индейцы используют для курения, смешивая ее с сухими листьями (индейское заимствование из языка племени алгонквиэн)

loafer1) бездельник; 2) летун, бродяга (ср. G. laufen «бегать»)

Massachusetts название штата (индейское заимствование, означающее «горная местность»)

Mississippi река (индейское заимствование из языка племени алгонквиэн: misi «великая», sipi «вода»)

Mohawk название резервации в штате Массачусетс (индейское заимствование из языка племени ирокезов)

mosquito комар, мошка, москит (через Sp. mosca «муха»; L. musca)

muskrat мускусная крыса, ондатра; от musquash (индейское заимствование из языка племени алгонквиэн)

Ohio название штата (индейское заимствование, означающее «красивая река»)

Oklahoma название штата (индейское заимствование, обозначает «родина Красного Человека»)

racoon (coon) енот (индейское заимствование из языка племени алгонквиэн)

ranch ранчо, скотоводческая ферма (ср. Sp. rancho «столовая с общим питанием»)

saskatoon кустарник с белыми цветами и пурпурными сладкими плодами; от misaskwatomin (индейское заимствование из языка племени кри)

skunk скунс, хорек (индейское заимствование из языка племени алгонквиэн)

squash кабачки (индейское заимствование из языка племени алгонквиэн; ср. askoot-asquash «зеленая пища»)

stampede паническое бегство скота (ср. Sp. estampido «потрескивание»)

tamarack-tree американская лиственница (индейское заимствование из языка племени алгонквиэн)

Tennessee название штата (индейское заимствование, означающее «река с большим изгибом»)

toboggan длинные плоские сани, салазки (индейское заимствование из языка племени алгонквиэн)

woodchuck вид американского сурка (индейское заимствование из языка племени алгонквиэн — wejack «рыбак»; народная этимология; ср. wood и chuck)

Wyoming название штата (индейское заимствование, означающее «Великие Равнины»)





Рекомендуемые страницы:


Читайте также:

Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-03-22; Просмотров: 530; Нарушение авторского права страницы


lektsia.com 2007 - 2019 год. Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав! (0.193 с.) Главная | Обратная связь