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Group the following words into motivated / non-motivated and define the type of motivation.

Buzz, cock-a-doodle-do, chirp, cry, ding-dong, discuss, hiss, grunt, mew, speak, talk, twitter, write, beaver, blackboard, driver, hammer, gardener, ladder, lecturer, sunrise, workaholic.

7. Compare the type of motivation in the correlative lexical items:


English Belarusian Russian
bluebell званочак колокольчик
holiday свята праздник
marriage вяселле свадьба
Match запалка спичка
new moon маладзiк новолуние
rainbow вяселка радуга
ring пярсценак кольцо
snowdrop пралеска подснежник
thistle чартапалох чертополох

Additional exercises:

Define the type of motivation in the following lexical units.

Bedroom, crash, payment, cuckoo, chicken, singer, nobleman, backbencher, boom, tulip, fox, announcement, department, store, the eye of a needle, fox (a sly person), on the other hand, Milky Way.

Analyze the following lexical units according to their structure. Speak about bound morphemes and free morphemes.

1. reservation

2. de-restrict

3. airline

4. lengthen

5. light-minded

6. counterculture

7. specialise

8. pleasure

9. workaholic

10. bottle-opener

Supplementary material



1.1. Prefixes

1.1.1. Prefixes of Germanic Origin Which Still Exist as Separate Words


Prefix Form of the independent word Etymology Examples (Examples in Column I include the prefixed words, while in the examples given in Column II the prefixes have fused with the stem of the word and no longer are felt as prefixes)
      I II
after- after OB afternoon,afterthought, after-crop
all- all OE always, almost alone, also
by- by OE byroad, byway, bypath, byword
fore- before OE forearm, forebode, forefather, foresee, foretell, forecast, forerun forehead
forth- forth OE forthcoming, forthright
in- in OE insight, inmate, inlet
mis- miss (n. and v. in the sense of "failing to do smth.") OE miscarry, misbelieve, misbehave, misdeed, miscall mistake
off- off OE offal, offspring, offshoot
on- on OE onset, onslaught
out- out OE outlet, outcast, outside (forms verbs with the meaning of "exceeding", "excelling", "surpassing"): outract, outdare, outsleep, outwalk
over- over OE overtake, overturn, overlook, overflow, overcoat, overall
under- under OE undergrowth, underbred, underlet, undertake, undernourish, underfed understand
up- up OE upshot, upstairs, uplift
with- with OE withstand, withdraw

1.1.2. Prefixes of Romanic Origin

Prefix Meaning or function Examples
    I II
ab- Signifies "from", "away", separation, or departure. Abnormal abuse, absent, abstain
ad- Expresses adherence or addition, proximity, or merely intensification. admixture, admix
ante-, anti- Denotes "preceding", "in front of" or "prior to". antechamber anticipate
bis-, bi-, bin- Means "twice", "two". bicarbonate, bicentenary bicycle, biscuit, binocular
circum-, circu- Adverbially signifies "around", "about", "on all sides". Circumfuse ,circumrotation, circumstance, circuit
con-, co- 1. Means "with", "together". confraternity,confrontation, configuration, cooperate, cotidal, cosignatory condition, conduct
2. Corresponds to the Russian co. correlative (соотносительный)
contra-, counter- Means "against", "contrary", "in opposition". contradistinction, conradistinguish, counterrevolutionary, counterattack contradict, countermand
de- The prefix de- has sometimes a meaning opposite to the meaning of a(d)-, e. g. descend - ascend, or of in-, en-, e. g. decrease — increase, decamp — encamp, etc. Means: 1)"down"; descend, degrade, decrease, depose
2) separation. depart, decamp, deduce, deduct
Signifies reversing or undoing of an action. demerit, deodorize, demobilize deplete
dis- Denotes: 1) separation or parting from; 2) reversal, undoing, negation or depriving. dismember, disown, disunion, disaffection distract, disperse, dismiss, disease
duo- Means "two". duodecimal duodenum
ex- Denotes: 1) "formerly but not now"; 2) "out of"; 3) "beyond". ex-minister, ex-king, ex-president; export, exhale; exceed express
extra- Forms adjectives denoting "beyond", "outside of", "outside the scope of". extraordinary, extraspecial (edition), extracerebral, extra-nuclear, extra-parental extravagant
in- Means "not", "non-", "un-". infirm, incapable, inactive, inaccurate, inability
il- An assimilated form of in- ("not") and of in- ("in"). illiterate, illogical, illumine illicit, illegible, illegitimate
ir- An assimilated form of in-. irrational, irregular, irresponsive, irrespective, irresolute irrigate, irruption
en- (em-is used before b, p, or m) Signifies "in", "into"; forms verbs; sometimes the prefix adds a mere intensive force. enclose, enact, encircle, enlarge, enliven, embank enchant, employ, embargo
inter- Means "together", "between", "among". interlace, interglow, interjacent, international
intro- Signifies "to", "into", "within", "inward". introduce, introspection, introversion
mis- Means "amiss", "wrong", "ill", "wrongly". misadventure, mischance mischief, miscreant
non- Means "not", "un-", "in-". nondescript, non-party, non-stop (flight) nonsense
op- Means "against". oppress, opposition
per- Signifies: 1) "throughout" (in space or time); 2) "away", or "over"; 3) "completely", "thoroughly", "perfectly". perspicuous, perennial, persuade, perturb, perfect
post- Means "after", "subsequent", "later". postdate, postwar postpone, postscript
pre- Denotes priority. prearrange, preallotment, pre-war, pre-revolutionary prepare, predict
re- Means: 1) "again"; reread, rewrite, renew, recollect, reform, recreate
2) "back". restore, retrace, return, retreat
retro- Means "back", "backward". retroversion, retroaction, retrogradation retrospective
sub- Signifies: 1) "under", "below", "beneath"; subcellar, subterranean, submarine, subcu­taneous, subdivision
2) "next lower than", "subordinate to", "inferior in rank". subjudge, subcommittee, subdeputy, subdivision, subdean, subeditor submit
super- Signifies "above", "over". supernatural, superdread superlative, superman,
trans- Means "over", "through", "across", "beyond". Trans-Atlantic, transcontinental, transplant transmit, transfer
ultra- Means "beyond", "excessively", "ex­ceedingly", "beyond what", "uncommon". ultrramarine, ultramodern, ultraradical, ultraliberal, ultraviolet
vice- (vis-) Means "instead of", "in place of" (cf. the Russian вице-) vice-president, viscount, vice-governor

1.1.3. Prefixes of Germanic Origin


Prefix Meaning or function Examples
    I II
a-, an- 1. In OE "a" (meaning "of"). arise
2. In OE "of" (orig. meaning "off"). adown
3. In OE "and-". answer
4. In OE "ge-". aware, afford
5. In OE "on-". awaken, ashamed
be- OE — be. In Mod. E. forms: 1) verbs with a reinforcing sense of "about" or "over", or with a meaning of "all around", "all over"; beclasp, bedash, bescreen, bewrap
2) transitive verbs with the force of "to affect" or "by means of"; bedew, beflag, begem
3) verbs with the sense of "thoroughly", "completely", "violently", "repeatedly"; bedazzle, bemuddle, besmear
4) verbs with the sense of "away", "from"; bereave
5) transitive verbs implying action done for, to, at, by, over, against; becrawl, begroan, beleap
6) verbs (from adjectives or nouns) with the force of "to make" or "to cause to be"; becripple, befool
7) verbs with the sense of "to name". bebrother, belady
for- Used with verbs to indicate prohibition, exclusion, failure, neglect. forsay
May also be used with intensive force denoting "completely", "overwhelmingly". forbruise, forride
un- 1. Signifies "not". unwilling, unbearable, unable
2. Shows the reversal of an action. tie — untie, bind — unbind, do — undo

1.1.4. Prefixes of Greek Origin

Prefix Meaning or function Examples
    I II
a- Means "not", "un-", "non-". Atheist, atheism apathy, anonymous
amphi- Signifies "about", "on both sides", "of both kinds". amphitheatre amphibious
anti-, ant- Signifies "opposite", "against", "instead". antitype, antithesis, antiaircraft,antarctic
dis-, di- Means "twice", "double". dissyllable diphthong
poly- Means "many" or "much". polysyllable, polytheist polyglot

2. Suffixes

2.1. Noun Suffixes of Germanic Origin

Table A

(In Table A those suffixes are included which were used in OE both as independent words and suffixes)

Suffix Source Function Examples
      I II
-dom OE — dom-"judgement"; Mod. E. -dom Forms nouns with the meaning: 1) "dignity", "office", "dominion", "realm" or "jurisdiction"; kingdom, dukedom, earldom, martyrdom, squiredom, Christiandom  
    2) "state", "condition", or "fact of being". freedom, wisdom, boredom  
-hood OE — had-"slate", "degree" Noun-forming suffix denoting in general state, condition, quality, character. manhood, boyhood, childhood, motherhood  
-ship OE — scipe "shape" Denotes: 1) state, condition or quality; 2) office, dignity or profession. friendship; clerkship, authorship  

Table B

(In Table B those suffixes are included which have always been used as suffixes)


Suffix Meaning or function Examples
    I II
-en Means "to make", "to render". quicken, whiten
-er Forms: 1) nouns from verbs denoting the agent; rider, miner, worker, teacher
2) nouns from nouns or adjectives of place, denoting resident of, one living in; Londoner, islander, New Zealander
-er 3) nouns from nouns, with the sense of "one who has to do with", esp. as a matter of trade, profession, etc. tinner, cutter, heater, embosser
-ier, -yer Noun suffix equivalent to -eer. gondolier, cashier, grenadier, lawyer cavalier
-ing Suffix denoting "belonging to", "of the kind", "descended from". atheling shilling
-ing Forms nouns from verbs. It means: I) "act", "fact", "art of doing"; reading, learning, feeling, teaching, hearing, boating
2) "that which does" or "that which results from", "accompanies". covering, sweepings, mooring
-ling Conveys a diminutive or a depreciatory force. firstling, duckling, seedling, nestling, hireling, underling, princeling
-ness Forms nouns denoting state, condition, quality or degree. goodness, carelessness, forgiveness, darkness witness, wilderness
-ster Originally denoted the female agent. In Mod. E. the suffix is joined to nouns and, more rarely, to adjectives, the notion of agency tending to be lost, and the suffix often having a depreciatory meaning. songster, roadster, gangster, oldster, youngster, dabster, rhymester spinster
-th Forms nouns of state or quality from adjectives. breadth, length, width, strength birth
-ie, -y Forms diminutives. birdie, auntie, laddie, lassie, granny, Billy, aunty, Johnny
-y Noun suffix denoting result of action. augury, perjury

2.2. Noun Suffixes of Romanic Origin

Suffix Source Function Examples
      I II
-ade L -ata; F. -ade Forms nouns indicating: an action done, or the product of an action or process on raw material colonnade, blockade, lemonade brigade
-age L. -aticum; OE -age Suffix used to form nouns denoting: 1) act or process; passage, marriage, pilotage
  2) collection, aggregate, or sum total of things in, or arising from; postage, average, shrinkage, mileage
  3) when added to the verbs, it expresses the action; breakage, leakage
  4) a person. hostage savage
-an, -ian L. -anus, -aneus Forms primarily adjectives which, however, are often used substantively, with the senses of "belonging to", "following a system or doctrine". guardian, republican, librarian, grammarian dean
Fr. -ain, en Inhabitant of a place. Oxonian, Leningradian
-ence, -ance L -antiam, -entiam; F. -ance Forms nouns of action as in OE, and nouns indicating state or quality as in L. guidance, hindrance, arrogance, obedience
-ancy, -ency L. -antia Forms nouns denoting quality or state. brilliancy, vacancy, emergency, constituency
-ant, -ent L. -antem, -entem; Suffix used to form: 1) adjectives; errant, defiant
F. - ant 2) nouns denoting a person or thing acting as an agent. student, claimant merchant, pedant,servant
-ar L. -aris, -are Signifies "belonging to", "pertaining to", "like", "of the nature of". nuclear, consular
-ard, -art Low. L. -ardus; OE -ard, -art Forms derivative nouns which have an intensive, often contemptuous force. drunkard, braggart coward
-er OE -ier Forms nouns denoting a person or thing connected with. archer, practitioner, officer, carpenter, grocer butler
-eer, -o(u)r L. -or; Anglo-French -our Denotes agency. charioteer, cannoneer
  Denotes state or quality. fervo(u)r, error
-ate, -at L. -attim, -ate Forms nouns denoting chemical terms. chlorate, hydrate, nitrate
  Denotes function or person. mandate, legate, consulate, magistrate, advocate, diplomat Magnate, curate
-cy L. -cia, -tia Forms nouns indicating state, condition, office. idiocy, bankruptcy, diplomacy curacy
ее, -eу, -у L. -atus, -ata; F. -e, -ее Denotes the object of an action, the one to whom an action is done or on whom a right is conferred. devotee, absentee, refugee, grandee, trustee, assignee, grantee clergy, jury, bailee, attorney, ally
-ess L. -issa; F. -esse Forms feminine derivatives. poetess, lioness, countess, goddess, adventuress, murderess
-let F. l.+et Forms nouns with a diminutive sense. leaflet, brooklet, cloudlet, booklet hamlet
-ice L. -itius, -itia, -itium; F. -ice Denotes act, quality, condition. service, justice
-ine, -in L. -inus, -ina; F. -ine Forms nouns indicating imitations, derivative products. arsine, chlorine bulletin
-ion L. -ionem; F. -ion Forms abstract nouns. union, opinion session, legion
-ive L. -ivus Signifies: 1) having a nature or quality of (a thing); affirmative
  2) given or tending to. conclusive
-ence L. -entia Forms abstract nouns signifying action, state, quality or degree. existence
-ment L. -mentum; F. -ment Forms nouns chiefly from verbs and means: 1) state, quality or condition; amazement
  2) action; abridgement
3) process, continuance, manner. government, concealment, payment, judgement, development
-топу L. -monium; F. -monie Suffix in nouns denoting resulting thing or abstract condition. ceremony testimony, patrimony, matrimony
-or L. -or Agent or person. actor, warrior, professor doctor, emperor
-our, -eur, -eer L. -ator; Anglo-French -our Forms nouns indicating: 1) agent or person; Engineer amateur, pioneer
  2) quality or state. grandeur, behaviour, hauteur favour
-ory L. -orius; F. -oire Forms nouns denoting: 1) agent or person; 2) place. signatory, dormitory
-ry, -ery F. -rie, -erie Forms nouns denoting a general collective sense, a state or condition. machinery, slavery, trickery, husbandry, poetry fairy
-tion F. -tion Forms nouns from verbs and denotes action, state, and concrete instance or result. revolution, resolution, organization dictation
-tude L. -tudo; F. -tude Forms nouns and is equivalent to -ness. longitude, promptitude attitude, fortitude, magnitude, gratitude
-ty L. -tas, -itas; F. -te Forms abstract nouns of quality, state, condition. fraternity, liberty, cruelty, poverty, frailty
-ure L. -ura; F. -ure Forms nouns indicating act, process, being; or result (of an act), state; rank. culture, furniture, picture, seizure, (public) figure

2.3. Noun Suffixes of Greek Origin

Suffix Source Function Examples
      I II
-asm Gk. -asm Forms abstract nouns. enthusiasm
-ast Gk. -aster Forms agent nouns denoting "one who does or makes the practice of", "one who adheres to". enthusiast, gymnast
-ic, -ics Gk. -ik, -os; L. -ic, -us; F. -ique Forms adjectives with the senses "after the manner of", "of the nature of", "pertaining to"; cynic, sceptic, cleric
  "art or science". phonetics, mathematics, physics logic, music
-ine Gk. -ine; F. -ine Forms feminine names. heroine
-ism Gk. -ismos, L. -ismus Forms nouns of action naming the process, the completed action, or its result; forms the name of a system or theory or practice, etc. communism, socialism, atheism, Marxism, Leninism
-ist Gk. -istes, -ite; L. -ista Forms nouns denoting a person who practices some method or art or who adheres to, or advocates a given doctrine, system, cause. communist, socialist, dramatist artist
-ite L. -ita Forms adjectives and nouns with the senses "connected with" or "belonging to", "a native or citizen of", Muscovite
  "one of a party", "sympathizer", "follower". Leninite
-oid Gk. -o, -eides Means "like", "in the form of". Metalloid, anthropoid
-y Gk. -ia Forms abstract nouns. academy
-ia L. -ia Forms nouns, chiefly Modern Latin terms of pathology and botany. Dyspepsia, hydrophobic

2.4. Adjective Suffixes of Germanic Origin

Suffix Source Function Examples
      I II
-fold OE -feald Used with numerals to form adjectives and adverbs, denoting multiplication or increase in a geometrical ratio, the doubling, tripling, etc. twofold, threefold, fourfold, manifold
-ful OE -ful Denotes "full of", "abounding in". Thankful, hopeful, powerful, dreadful
-less OE -leas Denotes (with nouns) "without", "destitute of", "not having", "free from". thankless, hopeless, powerless, senseless, worthless
-ish Germanic -isc Means: 1) similar to; greyish, reddish, whitish, foolish
  2) adds a depreciatory colouring. childish, womanish, girlish
-like OE -lie Means "like that" (or "those of"); "having the characteristic of". businesslike, warlike, tigerlike (ferocity), lifelike
-ly Germanic -lie Means: 1) "like in appearance, manner or nature", "characteristic of"; womanly, manly
  2) "rather"; cleanly, sickly, poorly, weakly
  3) "every". weekly, daily, monthly
-some OE -sum Means "similar to" or "almost the same as". troublesome, irksome, tiresome handsome
-ward OE -weard Denotes direction or course. downward, wayward, sideward
-y 0E -ig Means "characterized by", "having", "full of". mighty, crafty, angry

2.5. Adjective Suffixes of Romanic Origin

Suffix Source Function Examples
      I II
-able F. -able; L. -abilem Forms adjectives from verbs. eatable, fashionable, manageable, saleable
-al L. -alis F. -al, -el Forms adjectives having the senses "of the kind of", "pertaining to". comical, dramatical, poetical, logical -
-an, -ean L. -anus; F. -ain, -en Means "belonging or pertaining to". Roman, European, Pythagorean
-ату L. -aris; F. -aire Forms adjectives with the senses "pertaining to", "of the kind or nature of". necessary contrary, ordinary
-ese L. -ensis; F. -eis Signifies "of", "pertaining to", or "originating in" (a certain place or country), Japanese, Chinese
-esque It. -esco Denotes "in the manner or style of", "like". picturesque arabesque grotesque
-ic L. -icus Signifies "of", "pertaining to", "of the nature of", "belonging to". Celtic, domestic
-ine L. -inus; F. -ine Forms adjectives with the senses "of", "like", "pertaining to", "characterized by". infantine
-ive L. -iv, -us; F.-if Forms adjectives with the senses "having a tendency to", "having the nature, character or quality of", or "given to some action", etc. talkative native
-ous L. -os, -us, -a, -um Forms adjectives denoting "characterized by", "of the nature of", "abounding in", "full of". glorious, perilous, joyous, piteous, virtuous obvious, serious, vicious

2.6. Verb Suffixes

Suffix Source Function Examples
      I II
-en OE -en Has the sense of "to make", "to make into" or "to make like". brighten, blacken, lengthen, darken
-ate L. -atus Forms causative verbs. agitate, graduate, vaccinate aggravate
-fy L. -ficare; F. -fier Forms verbs with the senses "to make", "to produce", "to bring to a certain state", "to make a specified thing", etc. terrify, magnify, intensify
-ize, -ise Gk. -iz; L. -izare Forms verbs denoting "to make", "to conform to", "to charge", etc. organize, generalize, apologize

2.7. Adverb Suffixes

Suffix Source Function Examples
      I II
-ly OE -lice Forms adverbs from adjectives. badly, deadly, newly  
-ward(s) OE -weard Signifies direction. backward(s), forward(s), homeward(s)  
-long OE -long Signifies manner of action. headlong, sidelong  
-wise OE -wise Denotes "way", "manner", "respect". otherwise, crosswise, clockwise  

Условные сокращения

F. — French — французский язык

G. — German — немецкий язык

Gk. — Greek — греческий язык

L. — Latin — латинский язык

Mod.E. — Modern English — современный английский язык

OE — Old English — староанглийский язык

Sp. — Spanish — испанский язык

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