Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Text A. REALMS OF ENGINEERING
Traditionally, engineering activities have been grouped into certain areas of specialization. These originated as civil and military engineering, catering to man's early needs. Scientific discoveries and their development gave birth to a variety of fields of application such as mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering. Several of the more commonly accepted categories are described below.
Aerospace Engineering combines two fields, aeronautical and astronautical engineering. The former is concerned with the aerodynamics, structure and propulsion of vehicles designed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. The latter relates to flight above the Earth's atmosphere and involves the design of rockets and space vehicles incorporating sophisticated propulsion, guidance, and life support systems.
Agricultural Engineering is one of the earliest forms of engineering practiced by man. It uses agricultural machinery, irrigation, and surveying and deals with the many associated problems of crop raising and animal husbandry. Not only are the fundamental engineering subjects such as hydraulics, metallurgy, and structures of importance, but soil conservation, biology, and zoology are also necessary components. It is here that machines interface with the animal and plant kingdoms.
Chemical Engineering encompasses the broad field of raw material and food processing and the operation of associated facilities. It is mainly connected with the manufacture and properties of materials such as fuels, plastics, rubber, explosives, paints, and cleaners. It would be hard to select the most suitable material if the chemical engineer didn’t know basic and engineering chemistry.
Civil Engineering is one of the oldest branches of the engineering profession. It covers a wide field, and many subsidiary branches have grown from it. The civil engineer is mainly employed in the creation of structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, highways, harbors, and tunnels. He is usually knowledgeable in hydraulics, structures, building materials, surveying, and soil mechanics. One important area comprises water supply, drainage, and sewage disposal. It is necessary that the civil engineer should know the properties of engineering materials. A complete knowledge of these properties would be required by engineers to prevent failure of structures and machines.
Electrical Engineering, in general, deals with the creation, storage, transmission, and utilization of electrical energy and information. Most of its activities may be identified with power or communications. The field encompasses information systems, computer technology, energy conversion, automatic control, instrumentation, and many other specialities.
Industrial Engineering is mainly concerned with the manufacture of useful commodities from raw materials. Since most of the other engineering fields have a bearing on this activity, the industrial engineer requires a particularly broad view. The management of men, materials, machines, and money are all within his endeavor in achieving effective production. Plant layout, automation, work methods, and quality control are included, and, more than in most of the other traditional branches of engineering, the industrial engineer needs to have some grounding in psychology and dealing with personnel.
Mechanical Engineering develops machines for the generation and utilization of power. Mechanical engineers design turbines, engines, pumps, and their ancillary mechanisms and structures. Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, transportation, manufacturing, and vibration, are some areas falling within their domain. The art of mechanical engineering would not have received its greatest boost in the 18th century unless there had been no invention of the steam engine.
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, the production and use of metals, has two distinct branches. One deals with the location, extraction, and treatment of ores to obtain base metals, and the other with the transformation of these metals into useful forms and with the study of techniques for improving their performance in specific applications.
In addition to the fields identified above, other categories of engineering are often encountered. These include architectural, ceramic, geological, naval and marine, nuclear, petroleum, sanitary, and textile engineering.
I. Read and translate the following international words. Consult the dictionary if necessary.
Technology, specialist, category, aerodynamics, atmosphere, rocket, system, practice, machinery, problems, fundamental, metallurgy, biology, zoology, operation, material, plastics, profession, tunnel, mechanics, information, computer, energy, automatic, control, industrial, production, method, traditional, psychology, personnel, vibration, metal, textile.
II. Translate the words of the same root. Define speech part.
Tradition – traditional – traditionally
Active – activity
Special – speciality – specialize – specialization
Science – scientist – scientific
Discover – discovery
Develop – development - developer
Apply – application - applied
Electrical – electrically - electricity
Technology – technological
Machine – machinery
Main – mainly
Create – creative – creation - creativity
Build – builder – building
Know – knowledge – knowledgeable
Transmit – transmission - transmitter
Inform – informative – information
Use – useful – useless
Manage – management - manager
Extract – extraction – extractive
III. Read and translate the following phrases.
Engineering activities; civil engineering; military engineering; aerospace engineering; agricultural engineering; chemical engineering; electrical engineering; industrial engineering; mechanical engineering; mining and metallurgical engineering; architectural, ceramic, geological, naval and marine, nuclear, petroleum, sanitary, textile engineering; widely accepted designations; fundamental engineering subject; structures of importance; food processing; save conservation; particularly, broad view; base methods; useful commodities; the management of men; effective production; plant layout.
IV. Read the text ‘Realms of Engineering’. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following Russian phrases:
общепринятые категории; рост зерновых культур; сырье; строительные материалы; водоснабжение; канализация; обработка сырья и продуктов питания; управление машинами; методы работы; контроль качества; извлечение и обработка руды; научные открытия; область применения; системы жизнеобеспечения; превращение энергии; вспомогательные отрасли; вспомогательные механизмы.
V. Translate the words given in brackets.
1. The chemical engineer (должен знать основы) of both basic and engineering chemistry.
2. Many (вспомогательные) branches have grown from civil engineering.
3. Chemical engineering (заключает в себе) the broad field of raw material and food processing and the operation of associated facilities.
4. Industrial engineering is mainly concerned with the manufacture of useful commodities from (сырье).
5. (Управление) of men, materials, machines and money are all within the industrial engineer endeavor in achieving effective production.
6. Mining engineering deals with the location, (извлечением и обработкой руд) to obtain base metals.
VI. Answer the following questions:
1. What categories of engineering do you know?
2. What fields does aerospace engineering combine?
3. What is aeronautical engineering concerned with?
4. What does astronautical engineering relate to?
5. What does agricultural engineering deal with?
6. What does chemical engineering encompass?
7. What does civil engineering cover?
8. What does electrical engineering deal with?
9. What do you know about industrial engineering?
10. What does mechanical engineering develop?
11. What does mining and metallurgy engineering deal with?
VII. Write out of the text ‘Realms of Engineering’ the sentences:
a) with the Subjunctive Mood;
b) with emphatic construction.
VIII. Translate the text ‘Realms of Engineering’.
IX. Put questions to the underlined parts of the sentences.
1. Scientific discoveries gave birth to many categories of engineering.
2. The chemical engineer is well grounded in both basic and engineering chemistry.
3. Civil engineering comprises water supply and sewage disposal.
4. The civil engineer is employed in the creation of structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, highways and tunnels.
5. Electrical engineering is of recent origin.
6. The industrial engineer needs to have some grounding in psychology and dealing with personnel.
7. Mechanical engineers design turbines, engines, pumps and their ancillary mechanisms and structures.
8. Other categories of engineering are often encountered.
9. Metallurgical engineering deals with the transformation of metals into usefulforms.
10. Agricultural engineering is one of the earliest forms of engineering practiced by man.
X. Make up sentences of your own with the following word combinations:
the management of men; the manufacture of useful commodities; raw materials; work methods; traditional branches of engineering; distinct branches; treatment of ores; base metals; categories of engineering; engineering activities; the rapid use of technology; sophisticated propulsion; crop raising; save conservation; food processing; air and water pollution; subsidiary branches.
XI. Make up the plan of the text ‘The Realms of Engineering’. Retell the text according to your plan.
Civil engineering did not develop until the rise of Rome. The Cloaca Maxima, the great drain of Rome, was built in the sixth century В. С. It is in existence today, but the oldest part still standing probably dates from the third century В. С. Like most ancient drains and sewers, it was at first open, but was later enclosed. The original purpose of Rome's sewers was to drain off waste waters. For efficiency, the sewers were built along the lines of the natural streams.
Lead or clay pipes were used to conduct water to the houses. The lead pipes (4 1/4 inch in diameter), were made from sheet-lead, bent around a core. Walls were 1/4 inch thick.
The Romans, although they did not invent paved roads, advanced road building to a new height. The total length of the roads built by the Romans in Britain is estimated at over 47, 000 miles. They were constructed to last forever and many are in use today; some have simply been resurfaced.
In the construction of their road network, the Romans aimed at the shortest route, regardless of obstacles. Rocks were cleared away, tunnels were dug through hills, and swamps were drained. At first the Romans built timber roads, then somewhat later, a timber road mounted on stakes, many having a covering of pavement.
Roman bridges, at first made of wood, were later built of stone. Typical Roman style was a semicircular arch and short span. The bridge builders' chief problem was to provide solid foundations.
Town building was based on camp tradition, and some towns arose out of army camps. A typical town built this way was Manchester, England.
Fusion of Roman and North European traditions was reflected in many ways. Buildings combined the Roman arch and the steep peaked roof of Northern Europe. Roman traditions were continued in an architectural form known as Romanesque.
The first significant advance over Roman methods, however, was the invention of the ribbed vault. The ribs were built independently of the wall and supported the stone-vault web.
London bridge, finished in 1209, took thirty-three years to build. It consisted of nineteen irregular pointed arches, its piers resting on broad foundations designed to withstand the Thames' current.
The use of pointed arches was another advance upon Roman methods, yet the medieval bridge was not as great an engineering achievement as was the cathedral. Providing for only one-way traffic, the typical bridge was narrow. It was not adapted to heavy vehicles.
I. Make sure you know the following words. If you don’t know any of them, consult a dictionary:
to date from; to drain off; waste water; to conduct; to estimate; to resurface; to dig; to drain; to support; to withstand; to adopt; to rest; to design; pavement; semicircular; span; to reflect; steep; vault; rib; web; pier.
II. In each of these sentences a word is missing. Provide a word from the list below and translate the sentences.
1. Tunnels were … through hills.
2. Many ancient Roman roads had coverings of ….
3. Typical Roman style was … arch and short ….
4. The ribs supported the stone vault ….
5. London bridge consisted of nineteen irregular … arches.
6. The original purpose of Rome’s sewers was … waste waters.
7. The Romans didn’t invent … roads.
Prompts: web, pavement, to drain off, dug, semicircular, paved, span, pointed.
III. Read text B without a dictionary and say whether these statements are true or false. If they are false correct them.
1. The great drain of Rome was built in the sixth century A.D.
2. Steel pipes were used to conduct water to houses.
3. The Romans invented paved roads.
4. At first the Romans built stone roads.
5. Typical Roman style was the ribbed vault.
6. The invention of the ribbed vault belonged to the Romans.
7. The use of the pointed arches was one of the Roman methods of construction.
8. London bridge consisted of nineteen semicircular arches.
9. The medieval bridge was as great an engineering achievement as was the cathedral.
IV. Suggest a few headlines to text B. Choose the best one among the headlines suggested by your fellow students.
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