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The Attributive Clauses. Придаточные определительные предложения
Придаточные определительные предложения выполняют функцию определения, всегда стоят после определяемого слова и являются правым определением.
Придаточные определительные предложения присоединяются к главному предложению:
а) относительными местоимениями who, whom, whose – для одушевленных существительных, which – для неодушевленных существительных, that(иногдаwhose) – для одушевленных и неодушевленных существительных:
б) относительными наречиями when, where, why, how:
в) бессоюзно. Придаточные определительные предложения могут соединяться с главными предложениями и без союзного слова, если союзное слово не является подлежащим придаточного определительного предложения:
При переводе на русский язык следует восстановить пропущенное союзное слово.
The house in which we live is new.
The house we live in is new.
При переводе необходимо поставить предлог перед союзным словом:
Дом, в котором мы живем, новый.
The Adverbial Clauses. Придаточные обстоятельственные
Придаточные обстоятельственные предложения
· выполняют функции различных обстоятельств;
· присоединяются к главному предложению различными подчинительными союзами и союзными словами;
· могут стоять как после главного предложения, так и перед ним.
Если придаточное обстоятельственное предложение стоит перед главным предложением, оно обычно отделяется от него запятой.
Аналогично обстоятельствам выделяют следующие типы обстоятельственных придаточных предложений: времени, места, причины, цели, следствия, образа действия, условия и другие:
При грамматическом анализе сложного предложения рекомендуется пользоваться следующей инструкцией:
1. Определите количество простых предложений, входящих в состав сложного предложения.
2. Идентифицируйте главное и придаточные предложения; уточните границы предложений.
3. Найдите подлежащее и сказуемое в главном и придаточном предложениях; установите тип каждого придаточного предложения.
4. Выявите смысл каждого предложения в отдельности и всего сложного предложения в целом.
5. Выполните перевод сложного предложения.
I. Find out the subjects and the predicates in the following compound sentences. Translate.
1. Most of us were in the hall, the doors had been closed and latecomers had to wait outside. 2. George was very good at mathematics, yet he was never given good marks. 3. Some job stress can be beneficial but overstress is dangerous to humans. 4. The quality of food bears directly on your health and you should select what foods to eat. 5. Fresh fruits and vegetables are the healthiest, frozen foods are the next best thing, and canned foods are the least nutritious. 6. Sugar gives a burst of energy to the nervous system, and dairy products have a congestive effect. 7. Now the planet’s “green lungs” are being destroyed, its ozone layer ruined, the global warming sets in, the acid rains fall out, the rivers grow shallower, and the oceans get polluted. 8. Science and technology are closely related, technology provides science with new and accurate instruments for investigation and research. 9. Children should have equal opportunities to get an education, whether they come from rich or poor families.
II. Translate the following complex sentences with the subject clauses. Mind the connectors.
1. That theory must be accompanied by practice is the law of higher education. 2. What great changes have taken place in our country for the last 10 years is known to everybody. 3. Who has sent me this letter is not known. 4. Where I shall find all the necessary data for my report is still a question. 5. How a personal computer is used must be known to every specialist. 6. That the engine stopped running surprised everybody. 7. How hot the atmosphere becomes over any particular region depends on a number of factors. 8. Who will conduct the experiment is not yet known. 9. That Internet is the fastest and most reliable way to obtain information is well known to everybody. 10. Whether steel or aluminum is taken as building material depends upon many factors. 11. That water boils at the temperature of 1000С is common knowledge. 12. That there is an analogy between job stress and engineering stress is quite clear.
III. Translate the sentences with the predicative clauses.
1. The question is whether they will finish the test in time. 2. The main point was where he could find the necessary data for his report. 3. This is why I want to be present at the lecture. 4. The trouble is that I have lost his address. 5. A very important problem is how job stress can be managed. 6. The most important feature of the English language is that it has a fixed word order. 7. The thing which greatly interested the scientists was whether other elements besides uranium possessed the property of radiation. 8. The most interesting thing about lasers is that they can transform electrical energy directly into light wave energy. 9. The primary problem is whether you can cope with job overstress. 10. The trouble is that overstress is as dangerous to humans as it is to engineering structures.
IV. Translate the sentences with the object clauses. Mind the sequence of tenses.
1. The designer asked us what we thought of his project. 2. The professor was told that the new assistant had arrived. 3. I thought I should achieve good results. 4. When setting up a plan one must pay attention to how this plan should be implemented. 5. The Curies found polonium was many times more active than uranium. 6. In 1898 the Curies announced that they had discovered the element radium. 7. We can now calculate how many atoms there are in 1 gramme of any element. 8. We can’t imagine how people could do without electrically operated devices. 9. We know that isotopes are atoms of the same atomic number but of different atomic weights. 10. We believe that automation not only makes labour more productive but radically changes its nature. 11. Now we know that 80% of industrial accidents are caused by a lack of psychological well-being.
V. Translate the sentences with the attributive clauses.
A. 1. The railroad line that connected Moscow with St. Petersburg was built at the close of the 19th century. 2. I addressed a student who was entering our laboratory. 3. A number whose value is to be found is called an unknown number. 4. Aluminium which is preferable to steel for certain parts of electric machinery is a very light metal. 5. The heat which a body contains is the kinetic energy of its molecules. 6. The student who is studying these diagrams will make a report at our conference. 7. The man whose report we appreciated highly spoke very well. 8. The engineer who invented this device works in our shop. 9. I work at the laboratory where new measuring devices are tested. 10. The problem which greatly interested the scientists was how protection could be given against radioactive substances. 11. In America where both the Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales are used, it is often necessary to find what reading on one scale corresponds to a given reading on the other. 12. In engineering, stress is a force that induces strain – a deformation.
B. 1. The man you ask me about works at our office. 2. The student our teacher wants to speak to is absent today. 3. The lectures I listen to at the University are very interesting. 4. Tell me something about the discoveries your friend made in this branch of science. 5. The student you want to see will come here today. 6. The man I am waiting for is late. 7. The young man you are speaking about wants to enter our University. 8. The magazine they asked me about is really very interesting. 9. The work she did last week was very important. 10. At last we found the material we were in need of. 11. The hydroelectric plant we are speaking of is not very far from here. 12. The method of work we are applying results in high efficiency. 13. He looked up the words he didn’t know in a special dictionary. 14. He approved of the method they had adopted. 15. The plan she is speaking about is of great importance for the efficiency of our firm.
VI. Change the following attributive clauses according to the models. Translate the sentences.
Model 1: This is the lecture which we attend twice a week.
This is the lecture we attend twice a week.
1. This is the device which our engineers have constructed. 2. The subject that they have chosen for the discussion is connected with the problem of job overstress. 3. At the discussion there was a new person whom we had never met before. 4. The problem of job stress which we discussed last week is very acute.
Model 2: The laboratory in which they were working was large.
The laboratory they were working in was large.
1. The man to whom I was introduced offered me a new job. 2. The staff of the college at which he arrived was not numerous. 3. The laboratory in which students are allowed to work has just been started up. 4. He was offered to work with the manager of whom he had heard much before.
VII. Complete the following sentences using a clausewiththat (which, who).
Model 1: The train leaves at 8.
You are too late to catch the train that leaves at 8.
1. Mary has two brothers. One lives in America.
Do you know the one ……….?
2. Some things were stolen.
Have you got back the things ……….?
3. A man plays James Bond.
What’s the name of the man ……….?
4. A woman answered the phone.
The woman ………. asked me to call back later.
5. A book was left behind on the desk.
The book ………. belongs to me.
Model 2: I read a book last week.
I really enjoyed the book that I read last week.
1. I met someone on the train.
Someone ………. gave me some good advice.
2. We took some photographs on holiday.
Have you seen the photographs ……….?
3. You asked for some information.
We cannot provide the information ………. .
4. You read things in the newspaper.
You shouldn’t believe all the things ………. .
5. The Beatles recorded this song in 1966.
This is one of the songs ………. .
VIII. Complete the sentences by adding when, where, whose, or why.
1. This is definitely the place where I left it.
2. Do you remember the time ………. we got lost?
3. There must be a good reason ………. he's late.
4. They are building a hospital on the street ………. we live.
5. Peter? Is he the one ………. car you borrowed?
6. Can you give me any reason ………. I should help you?
7. Mary is the one ………. desk is next to mine.
IX. Join the sentences below using who, whose, which. Make sure that the relative clause goes next to the word it gives extra information about.
Model: Peter is studying French and German. He has never been abroad.
Peter, who is studying French and German, has never been abroad.
1. I met Jane’s father. He works at the university.
2. You’ve all met Michael. He is visiting us for a couple of days.
3. Michael is one of my oldest friends. He has just gone to live in Canada.
4. Manchester is in the north-west. It is one of England’s fastest growing towns.
5. I’ll be staying with Nora. Her sister is one of my closest friends.
X. Translate the sentences with the adverbial clauses. Pay attention to the conjunctions.
1. The student could not solve the problem as he had missed many lectures. 2. Whenever you work, you ought to work well. 3. Your work may be published, though it doesn’t contain all the necessary data. 4. When Sophia Kovalevskaya came to St. Petersburg, she asked for permission to attend lectures at the University. 5. Water will not flow in a pipe unless there is a difference in pressure or water level. 6. Since air is not a compound but a mixture of the various components, each component behaves as if the others were absent. 7. Further flights by unmanned spaceships to Venus and Mars will be tried in order that these planets should be thoroughly studied. 8. Not a few scientists and medical men lost their lives before it was found out how protection could be given against radioactive rays.
XI. Look at these pairs of sentences. Complete one sentence with so and the other with such a.
Note! You only use ‘such’ before a noun, with or without an adjective. If a noun is a singular countable noun, put ‘a’ (‘an’) in front of it.
You only use ‘so’ before an adjective or an adverb.
1. He was …such a… fool that no one took any notice of him.
He was ……so…... silly that no one took any notice of him.
2. The room was in ………. mess it took two hours to tidy.
The room was ………. untidy it took three hours to sort out.
3. We were ………. tired we went straight to bed when we got home.
We had had ………. tiring day that we went straight to bed.
4. It took us ………. long to get home that we missed our supper.
It took us ………. long time to get home that we missed our supper.
5. Her throat was ………. sore that she could hardly speak.
She had ………. sore throat she could hardly speak.
6. He spoke in ………. soft voice we could hardly hear him.
His voice was ………. soft we could hardly hear him.
7. I got ………. shock when I heard the news I didn’t know what to say.
I was ………. shocked when I got the news I didn’t know what to say.
8. He lived ………. long way off that we hardly ever saw him.
He lived ………. far away that we hardly ever saw him.
9. He was ………. badly injured that they took him straight to hospital.
He had suffered ………. serious injury that they took him straight to hospital.
10. The children made ………. noise we could hardly hear ourselves speak.
The kids were ………. noisy we could hardly hear ourselves speak.
XII. A. Rewrite these sentences with so…that.
1. The hill was very steep. I had to get off my bike and walk.
The hill was so steep that I had to get off my bike and walk.
2. Her writing was very small. I could hardly read it.
3. The winter was bitterly cold. All the streams were frozen.
4. His favourite shoes were very badly worn. He had to throw them away.
5. He looked very young. Everyone took him for a student.
6. Ken got very excited. He kept jumping up and down.
B. Rewrite these sentences with such…that.
1. The hill was very steep. I had to get off my bike and walk.
It was such a steep hill that I had to get off my bike and walk.
2. He was a dreadful liar. Nobody believed anything he said.
3. It proved to be a very difficult problem. Nobody could solve it.
4. We had a very good time. We didn’t want to go home.
5. His clothes were very old. They were falling apart.
6. The food was very good. We all ate far too much.
XIII. The sentences below all have though, although,oreven though.Use one of these phrases to complete them.
1. Although we were desperately hungry, …we had no time for lunch .
2. We enjoyed our holiday, even though ………. .
3. ………. , even though it was very warm.
4. I don’t play the piano now, although ………. .
5. You look very like your grandfather, although ………. .
6. Though he hadn’t stopped working all day, ………. .
7. ………. , even though his English was very good.
8. ………. , although he can be very annoying at times.
9. Although we set off early, ………. .
XIV. The sentences below all have in spite ofor despite. Use one of the noun groups given to complete them.
1. The air was fresh and clean in spite of …the heavy traffic.
2. He looked very well in spite of ………. .
3. Despite ………. she did her best to smile bravely.
4. He refused to change his mind despite ………. .
5. Despite ………. they were very close friends.
6. I didn’t earn much in Japan in spite of ………. .
7. In spite of ………. his money was still stolen.
8. He continued the race despite ………. .
9. We still had our picnic in spite of ………. .
XV. Rewrite the following pairs of sentences to make one complex sentence. Use the adverbial clauses.
XVI. Read the following complex sentences. Find out the subordinate clauses, define the type of each clause and translate the sentences.
1. We don’t know whether the new financial policy of the government will be successful. 2. Whenever man’s friends begin to compliment him about looking young, he may be sure that they think he is growing old. 3. Don’t trust a subordinate who never finds fault with his superior. 4. Everyone knows that taxation is necessary in a modern state. 5. Though everyone knows that taxation is necessary, different people have different ideas about how taxation should be arranged. 6. If you are to have a good command of a foreign language, you must read a lot. 7. Why a good vocabulary is important is obvious. 8. That poetry is difficult for some readers is a fact. 9. What caused the accident was a complete mystery. 10. They soon repaired the car, which had not been badly damaged. 11. That Charlie Chaplin was a great comedian is common knowledge. 12. I will return your book on Monday as soon as I have read it. 13. The question is what caused the job stress. 14. Whether we can help you is a difficult question.
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