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Mining Education in Great Britain




(continued)

At present in Great Britain there are a number of universities and colleges which give instruction in mechanical engineering, mining, metallurgy, etc. These institutions provide full-time and part-time education. It should be noted that technical colleges con­fer diplomas' on college graduates.


A university graduate leaves with the degree of Bachelor of
Arts or Bachelor of Science,2 which is an academic qualification
awarded by universities. [

For example, the University in Cardiff has become one of the largest in Wales. It is one of the four colleges which together with the Welsh National School of Medicine form the University of Wales. There is the Mining Engineering Department in the Univer­sity of Wales. The Department deals with the whole range of extrac­tive industries such as coal and metalliferous mining, quarrying and oil technology.

After graduating from the college a student can be recommended for entry to the university by a college authority and he can apply for admission to the university.3

At the Mining Department students may take several courses such as geology, mining engineering, mine surveying, quarrying, manage­ment studies and others. It has become a tradition that the courses are based on an intensive tutorial system. It means that students are allotted4 to members of the teaching staff5 for individual tuition separately in mining, in quarrying and in mine surveying. The system is founded on that* of the older universities of Great Britain.

At the Department of Mining Engineering of the Newcastle Uni­versity mining has now become a technically advanced profession. The Department of Mining Engineering trains industrially experienced en­gineers through various advanced courses in rock mechanics and sur­face excavation. For many years the Mining Engineering Department at Newcastle has recognized the need for highly-qualified engineers and realized that the courses in rock mechanics and surface excavation are of great importance for mining engineers.

At the University a student studies for three or four years. The
organization of the academic year is based on a three-term system
which usually runs from about the beginning of October to the
middle of December, from the middle of January to the end of
March and from the middle of April to the end of June or the be­
ginning of July. '

Students course is designed on a modular basis. Modules are self-contained 'units' of study, which are taught and assessed indepen­dently of each other. When a student passes a module, he (she) gains a credit. All modules carry a number of credits. At the end of the term, the number of credits a student gets, determines the award he (she) receives. Each module is continuously assessed by coursework and/or end-of-term examinations.


Admission to the British universities is by examination and se­lection. The minimum age for admission to the four-year course is normally 18 years. Departments usually interview all the candidates. The aim of the interview is to select better candidates.

Just over half of all university students live in colleges, halls of residence, or other accommodation provided by their university, another third lives in lodgings or privately rented accommodation; and the rest live at home.

ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ

1. confer diplomas— присуждают дипломы

2. Bachelor of Arts— бакалавр искусств; Bachelor of Science— бакалавр наук

— ученые степени, присуждаемые в Англии и США оканчивающим уни­верситет

3. to apply for admission to the university(college) — подать заявление о приеме

в университет (колледж)

4. are allotted— распределяются

5. teaching staff— профессорско-преподавательский состав

6. ... on that of the older universities— на системе (that — слово, замещающее

"the system") более старых университетов

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

22. Определите, капе предложения соответствуют содержанию текста.
Подтвердите свои ответы фактами из текста.

1. At present there are about a hundred technical institutions in
Great Britain.

2. It should be noted that British colleges confer degrees.

3. As a rule a college authority recommends the graduates for
entry to the university.

4. At the Mining Engineering Department of the University of
Wales the students study only metalliferous mining.

5. At the Mining Engineering Department the courses are based
on an intensive tutorial system.

6. The Mining Engineering Department at the Newcastle Univer­
sity has recognized the importance of teaching rock mechanics and
surface excavation (open-cast mining).

23. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Are there man> technical institutions in Great Britain?

2. What is the difference between colleges and universities?


3. Is the Mining Engineering Department the only one/in the
University of Wales?

4. Does the Mining Engineering Department deal only with
metalliferous mining?

5. Can a student enter the university after he has graduated
from the college? .

6. What courses are of special importance for mining engi­
neers?

7. What do you know about the organization of the academic
year at British universities?

8. When do the students take their examinations?

24. а) Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты следующих сочетаний слов:

1. the mining engineering а) курсы по расширенной

department программе

2. the college authority б) рудоносные отложения

3. advanced courses в) средства производства

4. metalliferous deposits г) горный факультет

5. to encourage students д) открытые горные

6. to meet the requirements работы

of the University e) опытный инженер

7. means of production ж) администрация колледжа

8. management studies з) поощрять студентов

9. surface excavation и) отвечать требованиям
10. an experienced engineer университета

к) наука об управлении

б) Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты следующих слов и сочетаний слов:*

1. зависеть от условий a) the manager of a colliery (mine)

2. значить, означать б) rock mechanics

3. признать необходимость в) the only quarry

(чего-л.) г) annual output

4. ежегодная производи- д) to be of particular importance
тельность (шахты) е) to depend upon the conditions

5. начальник шахты ж) to found a department

6. добывающая промыш- (school, system, etc.)

ленность з) to recognize the need (of)

7. представлять особую и) to mean (meant)

важность к) extractive industry

8. механика горных пород

9. единственный карьер
10. основывать факультет

(школу, систему и т.д.)


25. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя следующие слова:

Mean means meaning meant

1. Computer technique is one of the ... of modern planning and
control.

2. By ... of computers and mathematical modelling it is possible
to process a hage amount of information in a short period of time.

3. Britain is not rich in mineral resources It ... that until recently
coal was the only fuel available in the country.

4. What do you ... to do? Are you going to have your practical
training at a mine or at an open-cast mine?

5. You know that the word range has several ...s.

Подберите из списков А и Б близкие по значению слова.

А. 1. to obtain Б. a) to establish

2. to call for 6) to combine

3. to understand в) to realize

4. to found r) to get

5. to provide д) to transform

6. to connect e) to set up

7. to consist of ж) to require

8. to change з) to supply

9. bed и) branch

 

10. field к) to be made of

11. quarry - л) seam

12. to receive м) opencast

13. to demand н) surface mine

27. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод
слов only н the only.

1. Until the nineteenth century Oxford and Cambridge were the
only
two universities of England.

2. The colleges of Oxford and Cambridge provide instruction
chiefly by means of lectures and they use only a tutorial method.

3. The Mining Engineering Department is the only one in the
University of Wales.

4. The University has only two types of laboratories.

5. At the Mining Engineering Department of the University of
Newcastle it has become a tradition that the courses are based only
on a tutorial system.

28. Изучите таблицу значений that (those) с примерами, затем переведите
предложения, обращая внимание на многозначность слова:


That (those)

 

Указательное местоимение (that — ед ч., those — мн.ч.) Слово-замени­тель ранее упо­мянутых сущест­вительных (that — ед.ч., those — мн.ч.) Относительное местоимение, вводит опреде­лительное при­даточное пред­ложение Союз — вводит дополнительное придаточное предложение 1 i
Look at that man. — Посмот­ри на того чело­века. Look at those people. — По­смотри на тех людей The calorific power of coal is 2-4 times greater than that of wood. — Теплотворная способность угля в 2-4 раза боль­ше, чем дерева. The letter that came in the morn­ing is from my husband. — Письмо, которое пришло утром, от моего мужа. She says that she did not receive this letter. — Она сказала, что не получила этого письма.

1. It is known that the scientists have already done considerable
work in the field of automatized systems of planning and control of
underground operations. Their experience is very encouraging.

2. The calorific value of coal is 2-4 times greater than that of
wood.

S.The equipment that the postgraduates have used for carrying out their experiments is of the latest design.

4. It was clear that computers could perform the work that man
could not.

5. The geological conditions of Wales differ from those of Scot­
land.

29. а) Прочитайте вслух следующие предложения.

б) Выберите из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов правильный пере­вод для глагола-сказуемого.

1. Today mining engineering has become a key industry on which the speed (скорость) of economic development depends, (a. становится, б. стало, в. станет)

1. Experience has helped the engineers to solve the problem of increasing coal output, (а. помог, б. поможет, в. помогает)

3. Research workers have developed an efficient method for
mining bedded deposits, (а. разрабатывают, б. разработали, в.
разрабатывается)


30. Назовите предложены, • жоторых глаголы-сказуемые употребляются
• одной ю форм группы Perfect. Переведите предложения:

I.They have provided the laboratory with the modern equip­ment for carrying out experiments.

2. These engineers have graduated from the college.

3. The universities have advanced courses in rock mechanics and
surface excavation.

4. Mechanization and automation of underground mines and
opencasts have advanced greatly.

5. The research workers had made a lot of experiments before
they received positive results.

6. N. had worked in the mine for many years before he became a
research worker.

31. Составьте предложения из следующих слов:

1. much time, the students, in, spent, today, have, the laboratory

2. Moscow, for Great Britain, just, left, the scientist, has

3. already, his, he, finished, work, has, laboratory

4. never, the dressing plant, have, to, we, been

5. has, the institute, graduated from, she, not, yet

32. Прочитайте следующие предложения, определите временную форму
глаголов-сназуемых. Переведите предложения.

а) 1. The engineer has just graduated from the mining engineer­ing department.

2. This year the college authority has introduced a new course
in environmental protection.

3. Have you ever been in the mine?

4. The group of researchers has not yet solved the problem of
using a new method in their work.

5. Mining has now become a technically advanced branch of
industry.

6)1. A group of experienced engineers began to design and construct anew, more powerful mining equipment for opencasts two years ago.This year they have finished their work. (The equip­ment is ready for use in industry.)

2. Some years ago coal was the only fuel available in Great Britain.

в) Until recently Britain's heavy industry was mainly in the cen­tre of England and in the London region. Such towns as Birming-


ham, Coventry and Sheffield produced heavy machinery, motor­cars and other equipment. These old industrial centres have devel­oped new branches of industry: electronics, radio, the chemical industry and others.

33. Найдите в тексте Б предложения, в которых глагол-Сказуемое
выражает законченное действие.

34. Выполните задание по следующему образцу;,

Образец: Say what the students have already done (to pass their examinations). The students have already passed their examinations.

1) Say what the students (a group of students) have (has) al­
ready done (to pass examinations, to make experiments, to present a re­
port, to write a graduation paper, to have practical work).

2) Say what the manager (the group of engineers, the authori­
ty) hasn't (haven't) done yet (to work out special methods, to design
a new computer, to equip laboratories, to introduce automated systems
of planning and control of underground operations, to provide the
laboratory with necessary equipment).

3) Say what the students (the geologists, the manager, the col­
lege, the miners) did (did not do) not long ago, last year, two
months ago, last week, etc. (to keep in close touch with industrial
enterprises, to discover new deposits, to extract many tons of coal, to
replace old equipment, to touch upon the problem of labour productiv­
ity, to attend lectures and classes).

35. Прочитайте предложения и определите, в каком из них следует
употребить форму совершенного времени (The Perfect Tense). Переведите

предложения, используя следующие слова и сочетания слов:

To graduate from; to carry out an experiment; to take a postgraduate course; the share of coal; to work out a problem; the number of postgraduates (postgraduate students); to increase; to decrease; to discover; the fuel balance

 

1. Они уже провели эксперимент.

2. Они провели эксперимент на прошлой неделе.

3. Этот молодой инженер закончил институт два года тому
назад.

4. В этом году он поступил в аспирантуру.

5. После того как геологи открыли природный газ, доля
угля в топливном балансе района уменьшилась.


36. Суммируйте содержание текста Б, используя следующие выражения.

to provide full-time and part-time education; to confer diplomas; to take courses; to become a tradition; to take examinations; to interview the students; an intensive tutorial system; to train engineers; a three-term system

37. Побеседуйте по содержанию текста Б по образцу. Используйте
разговорные формулы.

Образец: A.: Have you read anything about

mining education in Great Britain? В.: Yes, I have. I know that... C.: I agree with you but I'd like to add... D.: I see. Let me say about...

38. Найдите в тексте Б сказуемые, в состав которых входят модальные
глаголы или их эквиваленты.

39. Выполните задание по следующему образцу.

Образец: Say how many subjects you had to take at the entrance examinations. -> I had to take four subjects.

Say1) what subjects you had to take at your entrance examina­tions; 2) what subjects you are to study in your first year; 3) what specializations your institute offers; 4) what subjects the students must study if they take a course of underground technology; 5) what subjects you study regardless of your specialization.

40. Прочитайте следующий текст и озаглавьте его. В каждом предло­
жения найдите группу «подлежащее — сказуемое».

In Russia great attention is paid to engineering education. Much depends on today's students. They will be tomorrow's engineers, geolo­gists, designers, economists, etc. They will have to cope with the tasks which the country will set before them. Today a student is to get a much greater amount of new information and this amount is growing all the time. Future specialists must acquire professional knowledge and skills and get modern methods of scientific research, advanced production technology, its organization and management. Engineers of a new type cannot be trained apart from modern production, science and technology.

They are to take an active part in accelerating scientific and technological progress.


в

41. Прочитайте текст В без словаря. Кратко суммируйте его содержание по-русски.

ТЕКСТ В

In the USA the basic aim of technical higher education is the train­ing of qualified specialists in a selected field of technology.

In the field of technical education they have a three-part programme: 1) The University programme for engineers and scientists. 2) The technical institute 'programme for engineering technicians. 3) The vocational trade programme.

The students can get mining education at special colleges and at mining departments of universities. For example, one of the oldest mining schools in the USA is the Colorado School of Mines. Early mining operations in the Territory of Colorado emphasized the need for a college to train mining engineers.

The Colorado School of Mines is situated in the mineral-producing area of the Rocky Mountains. The area is rich in non-ferrous metals such as molybdenum, vanadium, zinc and other deposits. Besides, Colorado has processing (dressing) plants, petroleum refineries and steel plants. Many coal mines are in operation throughout the area.

The field of study includes earth sciences (geology, geochemistry, geophysics and others) and engineering. The students may specialize in petrology, mineral deposits, mining engineering and other disci­plines.

Field work is an important part of training. All students take part in a summer field course during their undergraduate programme. Geology laboratories are available within the Department of Geology for study and research.

The mining engineering students study the basic sciences, principles and technologies of mineral exploration, underground and surface operations, rock mechanics, mine ventilation, surveying, mine safety and operating research. The Department operates the experimental mine. It is a large and well-equipped laboratory for teaching and research in mining operations.

The education is fee-paying. The School collects fees at the begin­ning of each semester. Semester fees include fees for health service, athletics, student centre and others. A student will not be allowed to take final examinations or be graduated if he (or she) has debts (долги) to the college.


During their course of training the students may visit surface and underground mines, oil fields, dressing plants and regions of geological interest.

A study of current curricula shows that the average American engineer receives only 10% of geology and 25% of mining in his (or her) undergraduate education in mining. As a rule, mining en­gineering programmes include: Liberal arts — 20%; Basic sciences — 25%; General engineering — 20%; Geology — 10%; Mining — 25%.

42. а) Выразите основную мысль каждого абзаца текста В одним или
двумя предложеншп».

б) Найдите в тексте В абзацы, в которых говорятся о характерных особенностях системы высшего образования в США.

43. Определите, какой из трех заголовков наиболее соответствует
содержанию текста В.

1. Education in the USA.

2. Higher Education in the USA.

3. Technical Higher Education in the USA.

44. Составьте 10 специальных и 5 разделительных вопросов к тексту В.
(Помните, что разделительные вопросы характерны для устной речи.)

ДИСКУССИЯ

Проблемы горного образования в России и за рубежом





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