Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии
Ten things the Queen could do by using the royal prerogative
1. Dismiss the Government.
2. Declare war.
3. Disband the Army.
4. Sell all the ships in the Navy.
5. Dismiss the Civil Service.
6. Give territory away to a foreign power.
7. Make everyone a peer.
8. Declare a State of Emergency.
9. Pardon all offenders.
10. Create universities in every parish in the United Kingdom.
Eleven things the Queen takes on journeys
1. Her feather pillows.
2. Her hot water bottle.
3. Her favourite China tea.
4. Cases of Malvern water.
5. Barley sugar.
7. Her monogrammed electric kettle.
8. Her toilet soap.
9. A special white kid lavatory seat.
10. Jewellery associated with the countries she is visiting.
11. Mourning clothes and black-edged writing paper in case of bereavements.
The Queen's particular likes
1. Horse racing ("Were it not for my Archbishop of Canterbury, I should be off in my plane to Longchamps every Sunday").
2. Scottish country dancing.
3. Jigsaw puzzles.
4. Long-stemmed, deep-pink carnations.
7. Quiet evenings at home watching television with her supper on a tray.
8. Crossword puzzles.
9. Bright red dresses.
10. The Beatles film "Yellow Submarine".
Dislikes of the Queen
2. Snails ("How can you like those beastly things?" she asked Prince Philip).
3. Tennis, including Wimbledon.
4. Milk pudding.
5. The cold.
7. Any talk of Edward VIII.
8. Charles Dickens.
9. Dictating letters.
11. Cigar smoke. '
13. Listening to aft^r-dinner speeches^,* Find these т the lists above.
1. The name of a famous French horse-racing track.
2. The name of the Queen's country house in Norfolk.
3. The title of the head of the Church of England.
4. The name of the sport of hunting deer.
5. A green plant which grows on the outside walls of houses.
6. A bird which is shot, and eaten, mainly in Scotland.
7. The name of the Queen's uncle, who gave up the throne to marry a divorced American woman.
8. The name of a famous nineteenth-century British writer.
9. The name of the first stone in a new building.
Unit I. The Constitution........................................................„................71
Unit II. The System of Government.......................................................75
Unit III. The System of Checks and Balances..........................*..............85
Unit IV. American Federalism...............................................................87
Unit VI. Language Activities. Glimpses of American History..............94
Glossary to chapters II and III................................................................97
Unit I THE CONSTITUTION
TASK 1. Before reading the texts, tell the class what you remember about the system of government and the Constitution of the USA.
TASK 2. Read the text.
"Americans are a nation born of an idea; not the place, but the idea, created the United States Government."
(Theodore H. White)
A New Nation
In 1776, the thirteen weak British colonies in America came together, stood up, and told what was then the world's greatest power that from now on they would be free and independent states. The British were neither impressed nor amused, and a bitter six-year war followed, the Revolutionary War (1776-83). It's hard to appreciate today, over two centuries later, what a revolutionary act this was. A new republic was founded, turning into reality the dreams and ideals of a few political philosophers. Americans broke with an age-old tradition, and so sent shock waves back across the ocean: they decided that it
was their right to choose their own form of government. At that time, the statement that governments should receive their powers only "from the consent of the governed" was radical indeed. Something new was under the sun: a sv stern of government, in Lincoln's words, "of the people, by the people, for the people".
TASK 3. Do you know? Work in groups, and try to give answers to the following questions about the beginning of the US history.
1. When was America discovered?
2. Who were the original inhabitants of the American continent?
3. When did the first settlers from England arrive in America? What was the name of their ship?
4. Who were these people? Why do you think they left their homes for an unknown land?
5. What was the first state of the US?
6. What is the oldest big city in the US?
7. What was the first name of New York?
8. What is the name of the region where the oldest American states are situated?
9. Have you ever heard of the "Boston tea party"? What is it?
10. Why is America often called a "melting pot"?
TASK 4. Read the text.
The Constitution and the Bill of Rights
The former colonies, now "the United States of America", first operated under an agreement called the Articles of Confederation (1781). It was soon clear that this loose agreement among the states was not working well. The central, federal government \\as too weak, with too few powers for defence, trade, and taxation In 1787, therefore, delegates from the states met in Philadelphia. They wanted to revise the Articles, but they did much more than that. They wrote a completely new document, the Constitution, which after much argument, debate, and compromise was finished in the same year and officially adopted by the thirteen states by 1790.
The Constitution, the oldest still in force in the world, sets the basic form of government: three separate branches, each one having powers ("checks and balances") over the others. It specifies the powers and duties of each federal branch of government, with all other powers and duties belonging to the states. The Constitution has been repeatedly amended to meet the changing needs of the nation, but it is still the "supreme law of the land". All governments and
governmental groups, federal, state, and local, must operate within its guidelines. The ultimate power under the Constitution is not given to the President (the executive branch), or to the Supreme Court (the judicial branch). Nor does it rest, as in many other countries, with a political group or party. It belongs to "We the People", in fact and in spirit.
In this way, Americans first took for themselves the liberties and rights that elsewhere were the privileges of an elite few. Americans would manage their own laws And, of course, they would make their own mistakes.
They stated in the first ten Constitutional Amendments, known together as the Bill of Rights, what they considered to be the fundamental rights of any American. Among these rights are the freedom of religion, speech, and the press, the right of peaceful assembly, and the right to petition the government to correct wrongs. Other rights guarded the citizens against unreasonable searches, arrests, and seizures of property, and established a system of justice guaranteeing orderly legal procedures. This included the right of trial by jury, that is, being judged by one's fellow citizens.
The great pride Americans have in their Constitution, their almost religious respect for it comes from the knowledge that these ideals, freedoms, and rights were not given to them by a small ruling class. Rather, they are seen as the natural "unalienable" rights of every American, which had been fought for and won. They cannot be taken away by any government, court, official, or law.
The federal and state governments formed under the Constitution, therefore, were designed to serve the people and to carry out their majority wishes (and not the other way around). One thing they did not want their government to do is to rule them. Americans expect their government to serve them and tend to think of politicians and governmental officials as their servants. This attitude remains very strong among Americans today.
Over the past two centuries, the Constitution has also had considerable influence outside the United States. Several other nations have based their own forms of government on it. It is interesting to note that Lafayette, a ' его of the American Revolution, drafted the French declaration of rights when he return xl to France. And the United Nations Charter also has clear echoes of what onte was considered a revolutionary document.
TASK 5. Complete the following text with suitable words or phrases from the text above.
When the Constitution was written in 1787, there were only 13 states.
Because the (a)_____ of the Constitution saw that the future might bring a
need for changes, they (b)
a method of adding (c)
the years 26 amendments have been added, but the basic (d)
. The pattern of government planned so long ago for 13
states today meets the needs of 50 states and more than 57 times as many people.
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution, called the (f)________
assure individual (g)_____and (h)______. Added in 1791, they include
provisions for freedom of the (i)_____and of (j)______; the right of
citizens to (k)_____peacefully; the right to be (1)_______in one's own
home against unreasonable (m)_____ and (n)________ of person or
property; and the right of any person charged with (o) a speedy trial by a (p)____of fellow (q)_____.
the law to have
The Constitution (r) branches: the (s)___
the powers of the government into three
headed by the (t)_______; the (u)____, which
___ (the Senate and the House of
includes both houses of (v)____
Representatives) and the (w)_____which is headed by the Supreme Court.
The Constitution limits the role of each (x)_____to prevent any one branch
from gaining undue (y)_____.
TASK 6. Find in the text the English equivalents for the expressions below,
- вносить поправки в конституцию;
- пересмотреть документ;
- действовать в соответствии с соглашением;
- свобода совести;
- управлять своими собственными делами;
- принять конституцию;
- определить чьи-либо полномочия;
- действовать в рамках конституции;
- получить необоснованно большую власть;
- незаконный арест;
- свобода собраний;
- захват собственности;
- удовлетворять требованиям.
TASK 7. Answer the questions.
1. How does the American Constitution separate the powers of the government?
2. Has the text of the Constitution ever been changed? How did it become possible?
3. Does any governmental organ or official in the US have the ultimate power? Why?
4. What is the Bill of Rights?
TASK 8. Work in pairs and discuss the folio-wing questions.
— ...-—,- 1. What is the difference between the American Constitution
тг~тт ^ ШеВш of Rights?
2. What is the difference between the constitutions of the UK and the US?
TASK 9. Make a list of features of the American Constitution which you consider the most important and compare them with the Constitution of your country.
Unit II THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
TASK 1. Read the text.
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