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Continue the sentences to transfer the ideas expressed in the text using

such phrases as: to give order to information (form to ideas, expression and feeling

to artifacts) that documents human experience; typography (visual arts, page layout

techniques); designing, designs; logo (organized text, shapes, color); blurring

distinction, over-lapping of advertising art, graphic design and fine art.

1. A product package as well as magazines and advertisements might

include ….

2. For producing the final result, a graphic designer may use ….

3. In the relatively recent explosion of visual communication in the XXth

and XXIst centuries, there is sometimes ….

4. Graphic design often refers to both … by which the communication is

created and … which are generated.

5. The essence of graphic design is ….

Interior design

Fig.4. Interior design (living-room)

Interior design is a multi-faceted profession in which creative and technical

solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment.

These solutions are functional, enhance the quality of life and culture of

the occupants, and are aesthetically attractive. Designs are created in response to and coordinated with code and regulatory requirements, and encourage the principles of environmental sustainability.

The interior design process follows a systematic and coordinated methodology, including research, analysis and integration of knowledge into the creative process, whereby the needs and resources of the client are satisfied to produce an interior space that fulfills the project goals.

The work of an interior designer draws upon many disciplines including

environmental psychology, architecture, product design, and traditional decoration (aesthetics and cosmetics). They plan the spaces of almost every type of building including: hotels, corporate spaces, schools, hospitals, private residences, shopping malls, restaurants, theaters, and airport terminals. Today, interior designers must be attuned to architectural detailing including floor plans, home renovations, and construction codes. Some interior designers are architects as well.

There is a wide range of disciplines within the career of interior design.

Domestically the profession of interior design encompasses those designers who may specialize in residential or commercial interior design. Within residential design one can specialize in kitchen and bathroom design, universal design, design for the aged, multifamily housing amongst others. Other interior designers may dwell in the commercial or contract realm of interior space design. In addition to the above commercial interior designers may specialize in furniture design, healthcare design, hospitality design, retail design, workspace design, sustainability, and if they are a registered architect they can focus on the interior architecture of a space. It is the intent of the professional interior designer to improve the psychological and/or physiological well being of their clients. The professional interior designer achieves this by understanding their clients′ needs, seeking appropriate solutions, respect their clients social, physical and psychological needs and applying them in a safe and ecologically sensitive manner that promotes the health, safety and welfare of the clients. Interior decoration deals with the home renovations that can be easily and quickly changed, and at lower budgets such as changing kitchen cabinets, selecting wall paper, selecting furniture and usually does not deal with structural building codes. An interior decorator does not need a degree, but may have a diploma or certificate in interior decorating, while an interior designer would have a four year degree in interior design.


multi-faceted – разносторонний

enhance – увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать (особое качество, значимость, ценность, важность, привлекательность чего-либо) environmental

psychology – экологическая психология, психология влияния на человека факторов окружающей среды

to be attuned to – настроенный,

приспособленный, гармоничный

residential design – проектирова-

ние, дизайн жилых помещений

retail design – дизайн магазинов

hospitality design – дизайн гости-

ниц и ресторанов, развлекатель-

ных учреждений (клубов, казино и т.д.)

healthcare design – дизайн интерьеров учреждений здравоохранения


Say whether these sentences are true or false.

1. Interior design is a multi-faceted profession in which technical, not

creative solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment.

2. Interior design process includes but not limited to analysis and integration

of knowledge into creative process.

3. The professional interior designer seeks appropriate solutions, often

contradicting clients needs satisfying his social, physical and psychological


Answer the following questions.

1. How could knowledge of architecture benefit interior designer?

2. What is the difference between interior decorator and interior designer?

3. Give examples of residential and commercial design.

4. What is intent of professional interior designer?

5. What does interior decoration deal with?



Kinds of interior

A. Residential interiors.

Residential interiors are obviously much freer and much more personal

for both the interior designer and the occupants than other types of interiors. In fact, homes that have been designed unconsciously by creative occupants without any standard decorative rules are often the most beautiful ones. Certain planning and functional considerations are constant in any residence, and, although these too may be ignored by the occupant who wishes to be strongly individualistic, they can provide at least basic guidelines.

The planning of modern houses or apartments must take into consideration

the location of certain needs in relation to others. The dining space should

be near the food-preparation area, and the food-preparation area should be accessible to the entrance used to bring in food supplies and remove waste. Access to children’s sleeping areas should not be through the adults’ living spaces. Access to bathrooms should be close to the bedroom areas and should not be through living or dining spaces.

The furniture arrangement for a living space must take into account the

occupant’s life-style and preferences. If a space is planned for young people, no seating might be provided other than the floor, but, for the more conservative or older occupants, comfortable seating for conversation and other activities is essential.

Open-plan houses (living, dining, eating facilities without separate

rooms) work splendidly and beautifully for some people but might not be the

ideal answer for a family with many children and a desire for privacy at the

same time. The special storage needs that must be considered for many homes

vary from bookshelves to storage areas for bicycles, from facilities for recorded music to storage of sporting equipment. Such facilities can often be added by interior designers, if not provided by the architect.

There are several types of residence, and each one may require a different

approach, partially based on economic considerations. The private house owned by the occupant warrants not only built-in designs and other permanent design features (lighting, flooring, etc.) but, in general, lends itself naturally to anything within the imagination of the designer and the budget of the owner. Cooperative apartments are prevalent in larger cities, and those that are bought outright by the owners can be designed and changed as long as the structure of the building is not tampered with. A different approach is usually called for in rented apartments or houses. Major changes and special furniture and other built-in features would be considered a poor investment by the client and would, as a rule, be frowned upon by the landlords.

In the past, professional help for residences has been basically reserved

for wealthy clients. The residences involved were often status symbols, and the furnishings were to a large extent traditional furnishings and antiques. The best of such ornately designed homes are authentic, museum-like interiors, which indeed only the very affluent can afford.

Today, instead of being limited to the service of the wealthy, the designer

has a widening and important opportunity in a totally different aspect of residential interiors: mass housing and low-income housing. Such designers, as well as helping to create more liveable spaces for those with limited housing budgets, can also be of great help in assisting occupants to choose simple, sturdy, attractive, and functional furnishings. A major problem for many people, on a variety of income levels, is the high cost of furnishings; mistakes in judgment are too costly to be discarded and thus must be endured. The help of professionals can minimize this problem and also protect low-income families from being induced to buy installment-plan furnishings of poor quality and design.


open-plan house – «дом открытой

планировки» (с большими комна-

тами, окна выходят на обе сто-

роны здания)

to tamper with – вмешиваться,


affluent – изобильный, обильный;


induced – вынужденный

installment-plan – покупка в рас-


B. Public interiors.

Although many designers are engaged in residential interior design, there

has been a marked shift away from that field since 1950, and more designers

than ever work in the design of public, institutional, and commercial spaces.

Space planning for business firms, governmental agencies, and institutions is a significant aspect of office design and is concerned primarily with planning, allocation of spaces, and interrelations between offices, departments, and individuals.

The aesthetic or design phase varies with the degree of importance attached

to offices by the clients. In a large firm, the clerical, accounting, or filing

areas tend to be well designed in terms of lighting, efficiency, space, and function but have few frills or design features. The executive offices, reception areas, and conference rooms, on the other hand, are frequently elaborately and luxuriously designed, since they serve as images for the corporations as well as status symbols for their occupants. Decisions relating to size of offices and their furnishings are basically arrived at through functional considerations. An executive frequently must seat groups of people in his office. A department manager or clerk will rarely need more than one or two extra chairs.

A rather recent innovation in office design is known as office landscape.

The system was developed in the 1960s by a German team of planning and

management consultants offered the idea not to build the traditional permanent walls and private offices but to arrange a large open space in a purely functional plan. Divisions between people and departments are created by free-standing screens, and plants are often used to divide and enhance space. Office landscape has been used in several major installations in the United States, following considerable popularity in Europe.


сlerical – канцелярский, контор-


filing area – помещение/зона для

хранения документов

frill – роскошь, излишества, не-

нужные украшения

office landscape – дизайн офисного


C. Governmental interiors.

A notable characteristic of interior design for public buildings – such as

court rooms, assembly halls, city halls, and cultural buildings – is that the consumer is excluded from participation in decision making. Another is that in all cases the interiors try to present a very definite image or symbol. Governmental buildings, especially in the past, were designed to present a solemn, aweinspiring, majestic, and even slightly ominous look, both in their architectural composition and their interior treatment of spaces. For centuries, marble, stone, lofty ceilings, and imposing architectural elements have been traditional.

D. Institutional interiors.

Schools, hospitals, and universities are examples of institutions now extensively using the services of interior designers and architects. Certain institutional needs, such as operating rooms in hospitals, are strictly functional, yet the patients’ rooms and many other hospital facilities are very much within the scope of interior design. Until recently, however, such involvement was not prevalent, and it has been common to refer to a sterile, dull-looking space as “looking like a hospital”. A greater recognition of the influence of the environment upon human behaviour has brought about increased emphasis on interior design for all kinds of institutional interiors. Indeed, even though up to now little work has been done by designers in penal institutions, it is a safe prediction that in a short time there will be considerable concern for the environmental qualities of these institutions, as well.

E. Commercial interiors.

Contemporary designers are much involved with commercial spaces –

such as stores, hotels, motels, and restaurants. Many designers and design firms specialize in highly specific spaces such as restaurants, and others may become specialists in the design of showrooms for the garment industry. Frequently, the design of a restaurant, shop, or hotel must be keyed to a theme. It might be a nautical theme for a yacht club or a theme based on the artifacts of the particular region in which a hotel is located. Obviously, all commercial spaces must be designed in a highly functional way. A store with a beautifully designed interior will fail if it does not work for circulation of customers, for display, for storage, and above all for sales. Some of these functional needs create difficult design problems. A hotel or motel room, for instance, must be designed for use by individuals, couples, and family groups. Maintenance is also an important factor in the design of commercial spaces.

F. Religious interiors.

Religious architecture is heavily influenced by symbolic concepts as well

as by the ritual and traditions of a particular faith. Designers of religious interiors must, therefore, base their approach on a set of rules preceding all other design considerations. The simple and modest Quaker prayer-houses, for instance, express the tenets of that faith as clearly as some of the richly appointed Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

G. Industrial interiors.

Industrial interiors do not usually involve interior designers. There are, of

course, many industrial spaces, such as workshops, laboratories, and factories,

that have been planned by architects and designers, and there are a few that have stressed some aesthetic considerations. By and large, however, industrial interiors are created as strictly functional spaces. For this very reason, some of these spaces are quite beautiful. This may sound paradoxical, but, like the modern bridge or airplane, they can be extremely handsome without the conscious attempt to create beauty.

H. Special interiors.

There are many kinds of special interiors that at times fall within the larger

field of environmental design and that do not fit into a particular category or

even a professional subspecialty. Transportation design may be part engineering, part industrial design, part architecture, and part interior design. Interiors of ships are certainly interior design, but the interiors of automobiles, aircraft, and trains are often a combination of many specialties. The advent of large commercial aircraft has taken the aircraft interior out of the area of the strictly functional, and, indeed, the introduction of these large planes has seen an intense competition among the airlines to create spaces that go beyond the concept of mere seating. Also included in transportation design are the terminal buildings associated with air, road, and water transportation systems.

A less spectacular example is the field of exhibition design, another area

of design having interfaces with other fields, including, in this case, graphics

and advertising. Related to this field are museum design and exhibition and the preservation and restoration of historic buildings.

It is clear that any man-made interior or exterior space is influenced by

design or its absence. More important than a listing of the various kinds of spe

cial interiors is the underlying fact that designers are becoming involved in all

aspects of the environment.


penal institution – пенитенциарное

учреждение, тюрьма

showroom – выставочный/демон-

страционный зал

Quaker – квакер

tenet – догмат, доктрина, принцип

advent – наступление, прибыт



1. Give Russian equivalents to the following words: 1) unconsciously;

2) warrant; 3) prevalent; 4) sturdy; 5) allocation; 6) solemn; 7) ominous.



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