Архитектура Аудит Военная наука Иностранные языки Медицина Металлургия Метрология
Образование Политология Производство Психология Стандартизация Технологии 

Checking and Valuing Features

The approach to this we will pursue treats this relationship like an agreement relationship. We assume that there is a tense feature on the verbal complex, and that this tense feature has to be the same as the tense feature on T. This gives us the following basic configurations:

a. T[past] . . . V+v[past]

b. T[present] . . . V+v[present]

c. *T[past] . . . V+v[present]

d. *T[present] . . . V+v[past]

We specified that an uninterpretable categorical feature on a head (that is, a c-selectional feature) was checked by a matching categorical feature, and that when this happened, the uninterpretable feature deleted. As far as selectional features go, we assumed that they are checked under the syntactic relation of sisterhood. We now draw a distinction between categorial features and noncategorial features, and we allow the latter to be checked under c-command. We will call the operation that checks features under c-command Agree. Agree An uninterpretable feature F on a syntactic object Y is checked when Y is in a c-command relation with another syntactic object Z which bears a matching feature F. If we look at the various configurations we just saw above, we can see that we can rule out the ill-formed ones by assuming that whatever tense feature is on the verbal complex is uninterpretable. Tense features, as one might expect, are interpretable when they are on T:

a. T[past] . . . V+v[upast] зачеркнуто

b. T[present] . . . V+v[upresent] зачеркнуто

c. *T[past] . . . V+v[upresent]

d. *T[present] . . . V+v[upast]

How we ensure that the “right” uninterpretable featureappears on the little v in the first place. We could, of course, just say that it depends onthe choice that is made in the intial set of words (the numeration). If you choose a little vwith a [upast] feature, and end up Merging in a T with a [present] feature, then the featureswon’t match, and the uninterpretable [upast] feature wont be checked. This pure checkingapproach is conceptually rather neat, since it would mean that we could use exactly thesame technology as we have already developed.However, there is an alternative which we will explore here, which is to say that little vsimply is specified as having an uninterpretable tense feature, and what happens when thisfeature is checked is that it gets a value form the tense feature on T. Recall that featureswere classed into types: [past] and [present] were tense features; [nom] and[acc] were case features; [1], [2], and [plural] were φ-features and so on. We can say that T bears a tense feature which has, for example, the value [past] and thatv bears an uninterpretable tense feature which is unvalued. What the checking operationdoes is value the tense feature of little v, as well as check it (since it is an uninterpretabletense feature).

Schematically we have the following:

T[tense:past] . . . v[utense: ] → T[tense:past] . . . v[utense: past]

In this structure, [past] on T is a tense feature, and so it matches the unvalued tense feature on v. The tense features match the unvalued tense feature on little v receives a value from the tense feature [past] on T. We can make this more general, and incorporate it into our definition of Agree as follows:


In a configuration

X[F:val] . . . Y[uF: ]

where . . . represents c-command, then F checks and values uF, resulting in:

X[F:val] . . . Y[uF: val]

The advantage of this second approach (checking by valuing), is that, instead of generating an ill-formed structure with non-matching features and then ruling it out because of the presence of an unchecked feature, we simply never generate the ill-formed structure in the first place. The advantahe of this is that it reduces the number of possible derivations that we need to consider when we generate a sentence.

Applying the System

The core of the analysis will be that it is v that hosts an uninterpretable feature which can take a tense feature as its value. We will call this feature Infl (for inflection):

Little v contains an uninterpretable inflectional feature [uInfl: ].

Firstly, we will build a vP, where V has raised to v. We assume, for concreteness, that V adjoins to v, giving the following structure:смотрите лекцию в тетр. 1ое дерево

Tense on Auxiliaries

We now turn to progressive and perfect auxiliaries, and investigate how their tense features are checked.

The Perfect Auxiliary

The perfect auxiliary is Merged outside of vP, as we can see from VP-preposing:

I’d planned to have finished, and [finished] I have

It forces the main verb to be in the past participle form:

I have eaten/*eat/*ate/*eating

Lets assume that the perfect auxiliary have has the interpretable categorial feature [Perf].

Recall that we said that v had to be instantiated with an uninterpretable inflectional feature. Let us suppose that Perf is a possible value of such a feature. This will mean that [Perf] on have and [uInfl: ] on v will Agree, and that [uInfl: ] on v will be valued as [Perf]:

have[Perf] . . . v[uInfl: ] → have[Perf] . . . v[uInfl:Perf]

The derivation will then go as follows: Once vP has been built up, Perf merges with it. Perf Agrees with uInfl, valuing it. In the Spellout component, the checked [uInfl:Perf] feature on little v is spelled out as a participle affix. We have then the following structure (note that I have specified a [uInfl: ] feature on Perf to, since it will end up being the tensed element in the clause): Смотрите 1ое дерево в тетр Perfect

At this point in the derivation, the same null head T that we met above merges and checks a uInfl feature on have, valuing it as (for example) [past]: Смотрите 2ое дерево в тетр Perfect

When have comes to be spelled out, it will be spelled out in its past form, had, via the appropriate morphological interface rule. So far, the treatment of tense marking on a perfect auxiliary is just the same as that on a main verb. However, there is good evidence that the Perfect auxiliary actually raises to T, in the same way that a main verb raises to v. This means that we have the following structure, rather than: Смотрите 3е дерево в тетр Perfect

The Progressive Auxiliary

Assume that the auxiliary be has an unterpretable categorial feature Prog, and that it therefore projects ProgP. This feature values the [uInfl] feature of little v, so that little v ends up being pronounced as -ing at a point in the derivation before subject raising takes place: Смотрите 1ое дерево в тетр Progressive

Hierarchy of Projections: T i (Perf) i (Prog) i v i V

The bracketted heads are those whose appearance is optional. Summarizing, we have seen that English, in addition to Modals, do and to, has a null T head which checks tense features on the head of the projection which it is sister to. We claimed above, that if this projection was an auxiliary, then this auxiliary moved and adjoined to T. We will review the evidence for this in the next section.

The position of Negation

In English, negation is marked by a particle not or its reduced form n’t. Negation comes in two forms: sentential negation, which simply denies the truth of the non-negated version of the sentence, and constituent negation. A simple example of sentential negation is

(95) I haven’t left yet

(96) It is not true that I have left yet.

Constituent negation, on the other hand, does not deny the truth of the whole sentence, buts rather states that the sentence is true of something which is not the negated constituent.

The following examples show this:

(97) I was sitting not under the tree (but under the bush)

(98) I was eating not a peach (but an apple)

(97) shows an example of constituent negation of a PP, and (98) shows constituent negation

of a NP. We also find constituent negation of VPs:

(99) I might be not going to the party (but washing my hair)

That this is constituent negation is a little more difficult to see. Note that it has the meaning in (100), rather than that in (101):

(100) It is true that I might be doing something other than going to the party.

(101) It is not true that I might be going to the party.

Смотрите дерево в тетр.

Strong/Weak Value

When [ulnfl:] on Aux is valued by T, the value is strong.

When [ulnfl:] on v is valued by T, the value is weak.

Word as a basic unit of language; its description, definitions and structure

The word may be described as the basic unit of language. Uniting meaning and form, it is composed of one or more morphemes, each consisting of one or more spoken sounds or their written representation. Morphemes are also meaningful units but they cannot be used independently, they are always parts of words whereas words can be used as a complete utterance (e. g. Listen!). The word has been syntactically defined by Henry Sweet and Leonard Bloomfield as a “minimum free form”. This means that a word may form a sentence. Edward Sapir was the first who pointed out such an important characteristic of the word as its indivisibility. Example: alive. This form cannot be split into two elements in spite of the fact that the forms a and live separately exist in the language with almost the same meanings attached to them. A split will cause distortion and disturbance of the meaning. On the other hand, the English language knows too many transitive forms. Example 3: altogether = all together, another = any other, etc.The external structure of the word is its morphological complexity studied by word-building. The internal structure of the word is reflected in its meaning and is making the semantic structure of the lexical unit studied by semasiology. The word is a speech unit used in and for human communication, materially representing a group of sounds or letters. A written word is a unity of graphical signs between two spaces.


Motivation and polysemy

The term motivation is used to denote the relationship existing between the phonemic or morphemic composition and structural pattern of the word on the one hand, and its meaning on the other. There are three main types of motivation: phonetical, morphological, and semantic motivation. When there is a certain similarity between the sounds that make up the word and those referred to by the sense, the motivation is phonetical.Examples are: buzz (vibrating sound like that of a bee. ), cuckoo, giggle(хихиканье),whistle, etc. The morphological motivation may be quite regular. Thus, the prefix ex- means ‘former’ when added to human nouns: ex-president, ex-wife. Alongside with these cases there is a more general use of ex-: in borrowed words it is unstressed and motivation is faded (expect, export, etc.). Re- is one of the most common prefixes of the English language, it means ‘again’ and ‘back’ and is added to verbal stems or abstract deverbal noun stems, as in rebuild, reclaim, resell, resettlement. The third type of motivation is called semantic motivation. It is based on the co-existence of direct and figurative meanings of the same word within the same synchronous system. Mouth continues to denote a part of the human face, and at the same time it can metaphorically apply to any opening or outlet: the mouth of a river, of a cave, of a furnace. Jacket is a short coat and also a protective cover for a book, a phonograph record or an electric wire. Polysemantic words possess more than one meaning. The number of meanings ranges from five to about a hundred. In fact, the commoner the word the more meanings it has. The word table,e.g., has at least nine meanings in Modern English: 1. a piece of furniture; 2. the persons seated at a table; 3. sing. the food put on a table, meals; 4. a thin flat piece of stone, metal, wood, etc.; 5. pl. slabs of stone; 6. words cut into them or written on them (the ten tables); 7. an orderly arrangement of facts, figures, etc.; 8. part of a machine-tool on which the work is put to be operated on; 9. a level area, a plateau. Each of the individual meanings can be described in terms of the types of meanings discussed above. Thus, the human earand the earof corn are from the diachronic point of view two homonyms. The earof cornis felt to be a metaphor of the usual type (cf. the eye of the needle, the foot of the mountain) and consequently as one of the derived or, synchronically, minor meanings of the polysemantic word ear.Synchronically we understand polysemy as the coexistence of various meanings of the same word at a certain historical period of the development of the English language. In this case the problem of the interrelation and interdependence of individual meanings making up the semantic structure of the word must be investigated along different lines.

Semantic contrasts and antonymy. Classifications of antonyms

Semantics is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between signifiers, like words, phrases, signs, and symbols, and what they stand for, their denotation(обозначение). Semantics contrasts with syntax, the study of the combinatorics of units of a language (without reference to their meaning), and pragmatics, the study of the relationships between the symbols of a language, their meaning, and the users of the language. Antonyms – words of opposite meaning. These words of the same language belong to the same part of speech and to the same semantic field, identical in style and nearly identical in distribution, associated and often used together so that their denotative meanings render contradictory or contrary notions. ВиленComissarov in his dictionary of antonyms classified them into two groups1) absolute or root antonyms /»late» - «early»/ and 2)derivational antonyms /«to please’ - «to displease». Absolute antonyms have different roots and derivational antonyms have the same roots but different affixes. The difference between derivational and root antonyms is not only in their structure, but in semantics as well. Derivational antonyms express contradictory notions, one of them excludes the other, e.g. «active»- «inactive». Absolute antonyms express contrary notions. If some notions can be arranged in a group of more than two members, the most distant members of the group will be absolute antonyms, e.g. «ugly» , «plain»(обыкновенный), «good-looking», «pretty», «beautiful», the antonyms are «ugly» and «beautiful». Semantic classification: 1)Contradictory notions are mutually(взаимно) opposed and denying(отрицают) one another, i.e. alive means “not dead” and impatient means “not patient”.2) Contrary notions are also mutually opposed but they are gradable; e.g. old and young are the most distant elements of a series like: old - middle - aged - young. 3)Incompatibles (противоположныеподействию) may be described as the relations of exclusion but not of contradiction: to say “morning” is to say “not afternoon, not evening, not night”. Not every word of a language may have an antonym though practically every word may have a synonym.

Phraseology: word-groups with transferred meaning. N. Amosova’s and A. Kunin’s theories of Phraseology. Classifications of phrasedogical units

According toНаталья A. ph.u. is a unit of constant context it’s a stable combination of words in which either one of the components has a phraseologicaly bound meaning,for example red tape(бюрократия). АлександрKunin’s theory is based on the concept of specific stability at the ph. level. He distinguishes stability of usage, structural and semantic stability and syntactical stability. Taking into account mainly the types of motivation ph. Units may be classified:1) ph. Fusion represents the highest stage of blending together. There are completely non-motivated, their meaning can not been deduced from the meanings of the consistent meaning parts. For example: to kick the bicket(to die) 2) ph. unities are partly motivated their meaning can usually be understood through metaphorical meaning of the whole ph. unit. For example: to know the way the wind is blowing.3) ph. combinations or collocations. They are motivated, but they consist of words possessing specific lexical valiancy. One component is used in its direct meaning while the other is used figuratively. For example: to pay attention. Amosova’s classification based on the principle of fixed context: 1)phrasems – two member of word groups in which one of the members has specialized meaning depended on the second component. For example: small hours (предрассветныецветы). 2)idioms are semantically and grammatically in separable units and they are subdivided into motivated and demotivated. Kunin: “Structural-semantic classification”.1. Nominative(A hard nut to crack)2. Nominative –communicative(The ice is broken) 3. Interjectional &modal(Emotions, feelings)-Oh, my eye! (= Oh, my God!)4. Communicative (proverbs, sayings)-There is no smoke without fire. The transferred meaning of a word can arise from spatial, temporal, or logical correspondences in concepts, such as the contiguity (смежность) of material and product or of process and result—for example, the metonymic meanings of the words izdanie (“edition”), otdelka (“decoration”), zimovka(“hibernation”), and izobrazhenie (“depiction”). It can also occur from association by similarity in shape, color, or feature of movement—for instance, the metaphorical meanings of the words tupoi (“dull”), svezhii (“fresh”), and shtamp (“cliché”). As a result of the transfer of names on the basis of general function, there arose many transferred meanings of words, such as krylo (“wing”), shchit (“shield”), and sputnik(“companion”). The transferred meaning of a word has closer syntagmatic connections, whereas the literal meaning is paradigmatically conditioned.

Morphological structure of English words. Types of morphemes. Allomorphs and Hybrids

A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in a language. The morpheme is formed by phonemes. The concept of word and morpheme are different, a morpheme may or may not stand alone. One or several morphemes compose a word. A morpheme is free if it can stand alone (ex:"one","cake"), or bound if it is used exclusively alongside a free morpheme (ex: "im" in impossible). Types of morphemes: Free morphemes, like town and dog, can appear with other lexemes (as in town hall or dog house) or they can stand alone, i.e (id est-т.е.)"free". Bound morphemes like "un-" appear only together with other morphemes to form a lexeme. Bound morphemes in general tend to be prefixes and suffixes. Unproductive, non-affix morphemes that exist only in bound form are known as "cranberry" morphemes, from the "cran" in that very word. Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create(derive-извлекать) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy," for example, to give "happiness." They carry semantic information. Inflectional morphemes modify(измен.) a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on, without deriving(образ-я) a new word or a word in a new grammatical category (as in the "dog" morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme "-s" becomes "dogs"). They carry grammatical information. The root in English is very often homonymous [hə'mɔnɪməs] with the word. A suffix is a derivational morpheme following the stem(стержень) and forming a new derivative in a different part of speech or a different word class,(-en,-y,-less in hearten, hearty, heartless). A prefix is a derivational morpheme standing before the root and modifying meaning,e.x.hearten – dishearten. Allomorphs any of the versions of a morpheme, such as the plural endings [s] (as in bats), [z] (as in bugs), and [iz] (as in buses) for the plural morpheme,is used in linguistic to denote elements of a group whose members together constitute a structural unit of the language (allophones, allomorphs). ex, -ion-sion-tion-ation. An allomorph is defined as a positional variant of a morpheme occurring in a specific environment and so characterised by complementary(дополнит) distribution. Complementary distribution is said to take place when two linguistic variants cannot appear in the same environment. Thus, stems ending in consonants take as a rule -ation (liberation); stems ending in pt, however, take -tion (corruption).

Allomorphs will also occur among prefixes. Their form then depends on the initials of the stem with which they will assimilate. A prefix such as im- occurs before bilabials (impossible), its allomorph ir- before r (irregular), il- before l (illegal). It is in- before all other consonants and vowels (indirect, inability). effects. Hybrids.Words that are made up of elements derived from two or more different languages are called hybrids. English contains thousands of hybrid words, the vast majority of which show various combinations of morphemes coming from Latin, French and Greek and those of native origin. Thus, readable has an English root and a suffix that is derived from the Latin -abilis and borrowed through French. Moreover, it is not an isolated case, but rather an established pattern that could be represented as English stem+-able.ex.answerable, eatable, likable. Its variant with the native negative prefix un- is also worthy of note: un-+English stem+-able. The ex.for this are: unanswerable, unbearable,unbelievable. Observation of the English vocabulary, which is probably richer in hybrids than that of any other European language, shows a great variety of patterns. In some cases it is the borrowed affixes that are used with native stems, or vice versa. A word can simultaneously contain borrowed and native affixes.

Old English: general characteristics

The Germanic group of Languages: general characteristics.begins with the appearance of what is known as the Proto-Germanic (PG) language. PG is the parent-language of the Germanic group. between the 15th and 10th c. B.C. PG is an entirely pre-historical language: it was never recorded in written form. PG based on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in the region of the Elbe. The first mention of Germanic tribes was made by Pitheas a Greek historian and geographer of the 4 c. PG language broke into parts. It split into 3 branches: East Germanic, North Germanic, and West Germanic. The East Germanic (tribes returned from Scandinavia) presented by The Gothic language. There are no other East Germanic languages, which stay alive. Some of the tribal names have survived in place-names: Bornholm, Burgundy (Burgundians), Andalusia (Vandals). North Germanic (the Teutons who stayed in Scandinavia). The speech of the North Germanic tribes showed little dialectal variation until the 9th c. and is regarded as a sort of common North Germanic parent-language called Old Norse or Old Scandinavian. West Germanic ( between the Oder and the Elbe)- The Franconians ( Franks, who occupied the lower basin of the Rhine), The Angles and the Frisians, the Jutes and the Saxons (Netherlands) , The High Germans ( mountainous southern regions of the Federal Republic of Germany).

The Franconian dialects were spoken in the North of the Empire; in the Middle Ages they developed into Dutch and Flemish.

Germanic languages possess a number of defining features compared with other Indo-European languages.

Probably the most well-known are the following:

  1. The sound changes known as Grimm's Law and Verner's Law, which shifted the values of all the Indo-European stop consonants. (For example, original */t d dh/ became Germanic */θ t d/ in most cases; compare three with Latin tres, two with Latin duo, do with Sanskrit dha-.) The recognition of these two sound laws were seminal events in the understanding of the regular nature of linguistic sound change and the development of the comparative method, which forms the basis of modern historical linguistics.
  2. The development of a strong stress on the first syllable of the word, which triggered significant phonological reduction of all other syllables. This is responsible for the reduction of most of the basic English words into monosyllables, and the common impression of modern English and German as consonant-heavy languages. Examples are Proto-Germanic *strangiþō → strength, *aimaitijō → "ant", *haubudan → "head", *hauzijanan → "hear", *harubistaz → German Herbst "autumn", *hagatusjō → German Hexe "witch".
  3. A change known as Germanic umlaut, which modified vowel qualities when a high front vocalic segment (/i/, /iː/ or /j/) followed in the next syllable. Generally, back vowels were fronted, and front vowels were raised. In many languages, the modified vowels are indicated with an umlaut (e.g., ä ö ü in German, pronounced /ɛ ø y/, respectively). This change resulted in pervasive alternations in related words — still extremely prominent in modern German but present only in remnants in modern English (e.g., mouse/mice, goose/geese, broad/breadth, tell/told, old/elder, foul/filth, gold/gild[25]).
  4. Large numbers of vowel qualities. English is typical in this respect, with around 11–12 vowels in most dialects (not counting diphthongs). Standard Swedish has 17 pure vowels,[26] standard German and Dutch 14, and Danish at least 11.[27] The Amstetten dialect of Bavarian German has 13 distinctions among long vowels alone, one of the largest such inventories in the world.[28]
  5. Verb second (V2) word order, which is uncommon cross-linguistically. Exactly one noun phrase or adverbial element must precede the verb; in particular, if an adverb or prepositional phrase precedes the verb, the subject must follow. This is no longer present in modern English except in sentences beginning with "Here is," "There is," "Here comes," "There goes," and related expressions, as well as in a few relic sentences such as "Over went the boat", "Pop Goes The Weasel", the palindrome "Able was I ere I saw Elba" or "Boom goes the dynamite", and in most if not all (if not an absolute) of the Five Ws and one H questions e.g. "What has happened here?", "Who was here today?", "Where will we go?", "When did he go to the stadium?", "Why would this happen to us now?", and "How could these things get here?", but is found in all other modern Germanic languages.

Other significant characteristics are:

  1. The reduction of the various tense and aspect combinations of the Indo-European verbal system into only two: the present tense and the past tense (also called the preterite).
  2. A large class of verbs that use a dental suffix (/d/ or /t/) instead of vowel alternation (Indo-European ablaut) to indicate past tense. These are called the Germanic weak verbs; the remaining verbs with vowel ablaut are the Germanic strong verbs.
  3. A distinction in definiteness of a noun phrase that is marked by different sets of inflectional endings for adjectives, the so-called strong and weak adjectives. A similar development happened in the Balto-Slavic languages. This distinction has been lost in modern English but was present in Old English and remains in all other Germanic languages to various degrees.
  4. Some words with etymologies that are difficult to link to other Indo-European families but with variants that appear in almost all Germanic languages. See Germanic substrate hypothesis.

Note that some of the above characteristics were not present in Proto-Germanic but developed later as areal features that spread from language to language:

  • Germanic umlaut only affected the North and West Germanic languages (which represent all modern Germanic languages) but not the now-extinct East Germanic languages, such as Gothic, nor Proto-Germanic, the common ancestor of all Germanic languages.
  • The large inventory of vowel qualities is a later development, due to a combination of Germanic umlaut and the tendency in many Germanic languages for pairs of long/short vowels of originally identical quality to develop distinct qualities, with the length distinction sometimes eventually lost. Proto-Germanic had only five distinct vowel qualities, although there were more actual vowel phonemes because length and possibility nasality were phonemic. In modern German, long-short vowel pairs still exist but are also distinct in quality.
  • Proto-Germanic probably had a more general S-O-V-I word order. However, the tendency toward V2 order may have already been present in latent form and may be related to Wackernagel's Law, an Indo-European law dictating that sentence clitics must be placed second.[29]

Roughly speaking, Germanic languages differ in how conservative or how progressive each language is with respect to an overall trend toward analyticity. Some, such as Icelandic and, to a lesser extent, German, have preserved much of the complex inflectional morphology inherited from Proto-Germanic (and in turn from Proto-Indo-European). Others, such as English, Swedish, and Afrikaans, have moved toward a largely analytic type.

New English: general characteristics.

There are two periods :Early New English (15 — beginning of the 18 century) — the establishment of the literary norm. Late New English — since the 18 century.

The speed of the development of the language was lesser than in Middle English. The language developed quickly at the beginning of the period and slowly — at the end

The system of stress

In native words the stress is fixed and falls on the first root syllable. Some of the borrowed words were not fully assimilated phonetically, that is why the stress falls on another syllable, those fully assimilated have the stress on the first root syllable, like in native words. Native English words are short — they have one or two syllables, that is why it is a norm, a rhythmic tendency of the language to have one stressed syllable and one unstressed one.In borrowed words there developed a system of two stresses.

Sometimes the stress is used to differentiate the words formed from the same root by the process called conversion (to pro'duce— 'produce).


a) A new [3] was introduced in borrowed words. Otherwise the changes were not so great as in Middle English.

b) Vocalisation of consonants (some consonants in some positions were vocalised — they disappeared, influencing the preceding vowel).

Ex.: [r] disappeared at the end of the words and before consonants changing the quantity of the vowel immediately preceding it:

Middle English New English

for [for] [fo:]

form [form] [fo:m]


a) In the unstressed position the vowels that were levelled in ME generally disappeared at the end of the words. Some of them were preserved for phonetic reasons only, where the pronunciation without a vowel was impossible.

Compare, for example, the plural forms of nouns:

Old English Middle English New English

-as -es [z] dogs

[s] cats

[iz] dresses

b) All Middle English long vowels underwent the Great

Vowel'Shift (in early New English, 15th—18th century). They became more narrow and more front. Some of them remained monophthongs, others developed into diphthongs.

Middle English New English

h e [he:] [hi:] e: => i:

name [na:me] [neim] a: =>ei


In New English it did not change fundamentally.


The vocabulary is changing quickly. Many new words are formed to express new notions, which are numerous.

Ways of enriching the vocabulary:

1. inner means (conversion: hand => to hand);

2, outer means.

Phonetics and phonology.


-deals with the sounds as units of oral speech;

-deals with the physical description of the actual sounds used in human languages.


-deals with org-n of sounds into patterns and systems;

-studies the linguistic function of consonant and vowel sounds, syllabic str-s, word accent and prosodic features, such as pitch, stress and tempo.

Speech sounds:


-How they are produced by organs of speech;(articulatory ph-s)

- How they are perceived(воспринимаются);(auditory ph-s)

-The physical ch-s of speech signals (acoustic ph-s)


How the speech sounds are organized into systems in each individual language, i.e. how the sounds can be combined, the relations between them and how they affect (влиять, воздействовать) each other.

Phonetics:The surface manifestation (representation) of spoken language.( Поверхностное проявление (представление) разговорного языка)

Phonology: The abstract system organizing the surface sounds into systems.

Phonetics relates to the sounds of language, while phonologystudies how those sounds are put together to create meaning. Phonemes, or units of sound that are used in all languages to create words, are the focus of the study of phonetics. Phonology studies the rules in any given language that govern how those phonemes are combined to create meaningful words. Phonetics and phonology study two different aspects of sound, but the concepts are dependent on each other in the creation of language. Phonology is the study of how phonemes are put together and how they create meaning for the speaker of any given language. Some phonemes may have slightly different meanings or uses in two different languages, and phonology is an attempt(попытка) to understand these changes in meaning. Phonetics and phonology differ in that phonetics studies the production of sounds, and phonology studies the combination of sounds. Both depend on each other because without the production of sounds there would be no words, but without the rules to put them together, sounds would have no meaning. They work together in important ways, but both cover their own specific part of language production.

The phoneme. The relations between the phoneme and the allophones

The phoneme is the minimal unit in the sound system of a language.

Sokolova M.A.: The phoneme is a minimal abstract linguistic unit realized in speech in the form of speech sounds opposable to other phonemes of the same languages to distinguish the meaning of morphemes and words.

L.V. Shcerba (1880-1944) divided the phoneme into 3 group functional, material, abstract.

Functional Unit said-says \d\ - \z\

Sleeper-sleepy (derived of root morpheme)



He was heard badly – He was hurt badly.

Allophone is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) used to pronounce a single phoneme. For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as inspin) are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language.

The phoneme is material, real and objective. That means that is realized in speech of all English-speaking people in the form of speech sounds, its allophones.

L.V. Shcherba distinguished 2 types of allophone. They are: principal and subsidiary

The allophones which do not undergo any distinguishable changes in the chain of speech are called principal. There are quite predictable changes in the articulation of allophones that occur under the influence of the neighbouring sounds in different phonetic situations. Such allophones are called subsidiary.

Subsidiary allophones \d\

- slightly palatalized before front vowels and the sonorant \j\ (deal, day, did, did you)

- pronounced without any plosion before another stop (bedtime, badpain, good dog.)

- followed by the labial \w\ it becomes labialized (dweller)

- in the word-final position it is voiceless (road, raised, old)

The system of the English vowel phonemes

The following 20 vowel phonemes are distinguished in BBC English (RP): [i:, a:, o:, u:, з:, i, e, æ, σ, υ, л(типа крышка домика), ə; ei, ai, oi, аυ, eυ, υə, iə].Principles of classification provide the basis for the establishment of the following distinctive oppositions:

1. Stability of articulation

1.1. monophthongs vs. diphthongs bit - bait, kit - kite, John - join, debt — doubt

1.2. diphthongs vs. diphthongoids bile - bee, boat — boot, raid – rude

2. Position of the tongue

2.1. horizontal movement of the tongue a) front vs. central cab — curb, bed — bird

b) back vs. central pull – pearl, cart - curl, call - curl

2.2. vertical movement of the tongue

close (high) vs. mid-open (mid) bid — bird, week – work

open (low) vs. mid-open (mid) lark - lurk, call — curl, bard-bird

3. Position of the lips rounded vs. unrounded don — darn, pot – part

The English diphthongs are, like the affricates, the object of a sharp phonological controversy, whose essence is the same as in the case of affricates are the English diphthongs biphonemic sound complexes or composite monophonemic entities?

Diphthongs are defined differently by different authors. One definition is based on the ability of a vowel to form a syllable. Since in a diphthong only one element serves as a syllabic nucleus, a diphthong is a single sound. Another definition of a diphthong as a single sound is based on the instability of the second element. The 3d group of scientists defines a diphthong from the accentual point of view: since only one element is accented and the other is unaccented, a diphthong is a single sound. D. Jones defines diphthongs as unisyllabic gliding sounds in the articulation of which the organs of speech start from one position and then glide to another position.

N.S. Trubetzkoy states that a diphthong should be (a) unisyllabic, that is the parts of a diphthong cannot belong to two syllables; (b) monophonemic with gliding articulation; (c) its length should not exceed the length of a single phoneme. In accordance with the principle of structural simplicity and economy American descriptivists liquidated the diphthongs in English as unit phonemes.

The same phonological criteria may be used for justifying the monophonemic treatment of the English diphthongs as those applicable to the English affricates. They are the criteria of articulatory, morphophonological (and, in the case of diphthongs, also syllabic) indivisibility, commutability and duration. Applied to the English diphthongs, all these criteria support the view of their monophonemic status.

Problem of length. There are long vowel phonemes in English and short. However, the length of the vowels is not the only distinctive feature of minimal pairs like Pete -pit, beet - bit, etc. In other words the difference between i: i. u: - υ is not only quantitative but also qualitative, which is conditioned by different positions of the bulk of the tongue. For example, in words bead- bid not only the length of the vowels is different but in the [i:] articulation the bulk of the tongue occupies more front and high position then in the articulation of [i].

Qualitative difference is the main relevant feature that serves to differentiate long and short vowel phonemes because quantitative characteristics of long vowels depend on the position they occupy in a word: (a) they are the longest in the terminal position: bee, bar, her;

(b) they are shorter before voiced consonants: bead, hard, cord;

(c) they are the shortest before voiceless consonants: beet, cart.






Integrated skills. Explain the meaning of the term and give the examples of different kinds of integrated skills

The objectives of the "integrated skills" modules are to enable participants :

to begin to learn a new language

to develop existing skills and make them more specific

These modules are principally based on communication and the development of skills (speaking, listening, reading, writing) enabling the learner to use the language in various contexts and for various objectives. Cultural and intercultural aspects as well as the ability to learn independently are all integral parts of these modules.

The methods and activities are varied and interesting : discussions, listening exercises, role-plays, language games, videos, reflection on the learning process, etc.

Receptive - L,R. Productive- W,S.

Чередуем все , одно через другое

Name the stages in a reading skills lesson and choose useful activities for each stage

Before reading (pre-reading) stage:

Arose interest, predict the topic (questions, short discussion, brainstorming, visuals, student’s experience)

Aim-to motivate to speak, to work

Don’t worry about mistakes.

Teach key words

Use all means to introduce new vocabulary through visuals, meaning, definition, synonyms, antonyms and so on.

Guess-activities: match, fill in the gaps, make your own sentences.

First-reading stage (skimming)

Set the task overall understanding of the text (yes/no, true/false, give the headline, name the main character, don’t complicate the task)

Students read the text – time-limit

Feedback- discuss in pairs

Second reading stage (scanning)

Set the task for detailed understanding of the text (true/false, logical order, answer the questions (WH-?) problem question, situation. Dates, names, historical events.)

If the answer is false it should be corrected by student himself, if he or she could not correct mistakes, the other students try to correct the mistakes. Then teacher corrects.

Find the correct answers in the text

Read the text for the second time- time-limit



Give the definition of the term “Games” and explain the necessity of the instructions

Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.'
'Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information.'
'The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful interpretation of 'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered.
If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire.

'There are many advantages of using games in the classroom:
1. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class.
2. They are motivating and challenging.
3. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning.
4. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading.
5. They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6. They create a meaningful context for language use.'

How to Choose Games (Tyson, 2000)
* A game must be more than just fun.
* A game should involve "friendly" competition.
* A game should keep all of the students involved and interested.
* A game should encourage students to focus on the use of language rather than on the language itself.
* A game should give students a chance to learn, practice, or review specific language material

Рекомендуемые страницы:

Читайте также:

Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-05-30; Просмотров: 432; Нарушение авторского права страницы

lektsia.com 2007 - 2021 год. Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав! (0.078 с.) Главная | Обратная связь