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Aspect is the expression of the temporal structure of an action or state. Aspect in English expresses ongoing actions or states with or without distinct end points. English has four aspects: simple, progressive, perfect, and perfect-progressive.

Although not always identified, the simple aspect is the default aspect of the simple present and simple past tenses. The simple aspect expresses single actions, habits, and routines. For the formation of the simple present and simple past verbs, please refer to the charts in the "Tense" section.

The progressive aspect expresses incomplete or ongoing actions or states at a specific time.

The perfect aspect expresses the consequences resulting from a previous action or state. For example, the use of the perfect aspect in I have floated the book focuses on the end result of my floating the book (my having floated the book) as opposed to the process of floating the book. The formula for forming the present perfect is [simple present "to have" + past participle]. The formula for forming the past perfect is [simple past "to have" + past participle].

The perfect-progressive aspect expresses incomplete or ongoing actions or states that began in the past and continue to a specific time. For example, the use of the perfect-progressive aspect in I had been floating the book indicates that I started floating the book in the past and continued to float the book until a specific point in time at which I stopped floating the book. The formula for forming the present perfect-progressive is [simple present "to have" + past participle "to be" + present participle]. The formula for forming the past perfect-progressive is [simple past "to have" + past participle "to be" + present participle].

Present participles, or -ing forms, are formed by adding the suffix -ing to the base form of a verb. For example, the present participles of eat and read are eating and reading. Past participles, or -en forms, are formed 1.) identically to the-ed past tense, 2.) by adding the suffix -en to the base form, or 3.) with a stem change. For example, the past participles of study, take, and begin are studied, taken, and begun.


Mood is the expression of modality of an action or state. Modality is the expression of possibility, necessity, and contingency. Modality can be expressed through modal verbs as well as through grammatical mood in English. English has three moods: indicative, subjunctive, and imperative.

The indicative mood allows speakers to express assertions, denials, and questions of actuality or strong probability. Most sentences in English are in the indicative mood because the indicative is the most commonly used mood. For example, the statement I read the book and the question Did you read the book? are both sentences in the indicative mood.

The subjunctive mood expresses commands, requests, suggestions, wishes, hypotheses, purposes, doubts, and suppositions that are contrary to fact at the time of the utterance. The form of the present subjunctive is identical to the base form of English verbs. The form of the past subjunctive is identical to the plural simple past indicative. However, the subjunctive is only distinguishable in form from the indicative in the third person singular present subjunctive and with the verb to be in the present subjunctive and the first and third person singular in the past subjunctive.

The imperative mood allows speakers to make direct commands, express requests, and grant or deny permission. The form of the English imperative is identical to the base form of any English verb. The negative form of the English imperative is created by inserting the do operator and the negative adverb not before the base form of the verb.


Voice is the expression of relationships between the predicate and nominal functions. English has two voices: active and passive. In the active voice, the subject performs the action of or acts upon the verb and the direct object receives the action of the verb. In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the transitive verb. For example, the sentence I read the book is in the active voice because the subject I performs the action of reading and the direct object the book receives the action of reading. The sentence The book was read [by me], on the other hand, is in the passive voice because the subject The book receives the action of reading.

5. Syntagmatic Connections of Words

§ 1. Performing their semantic functions, words in an utter-ance form various syntagmatic connections with one another.
One should distinguish between syntagmatic groupings of notional words alone, syntagmatic groupings of notional words with functional words, and syntagmatic groupings of functional words alone.Different combinations of notional words (notional phrases) have a clearly pronounced self-dependent nominative destina-tion, they denote complex phenomena and their properties in their inter-connections, including dynamic interconnections (semi-predicative combinations). Cf.: a sudden trembling; a soul in pain; hurrying along the stream; to lead to a cross-road; strangely familiar; so sure of their aims.
Combinations of a notional word with a functional word are equivalent to separate words by their nominative function. Since a functional word expresses some abstract
relation, such combinations, as a rule, are quite obviously non-self-dependent; they are, as it were, stamped as artificially iso-lated from the context. Cf.: in a low voice; with difficulty; must finish; but a moment; and Jimmy; too cold; so unexpectedly.
two-word combination, one of them plays the role of a modifier of the other. Due to this feature, combinations of the latter type can be called "dominational".
§ 3. Equipotent connection in groupings of notional words is realised either with the help of conjunctions (syndetically), or without the help of conjunctions (asyndetically). Cf.: prose and poetry; came and went; on the beach or in the water; quick but not careless; — no sun, no moon; playing, chatting, laugh-ing; silent, immovable, gloomy; Mary's, not John's.
In the cited examples, the constituents of the combinations form logically consecutive connections that are classed as co-ordinative. The term "cumulation" is commonly used to mean connec-tions between separate sentences. By way of restrictive indica-tions, we may speak about "inner cumulation", i. e. cumulation within the sentence, and, respectively, "outer cumulation".
Cumulative connection in writing is usually signalled by some intermediary punctuation stop, such as a comma or a hy-phen. Cf: Eng. agreed, but reluctantly; quick — and careless; satisfied, or nearly so. Russ. сыт, но не очень; согласен, или почти согласен; дал — да неохотно.
Syndetic connection in a word-combination can alternate with asyndetic connection, as a result of which the whole com-bination can undergo a semantically motivated sub-grouping. Cf.: He is a little man with irregular features, soft dark eyes and a soft voice, very shy, with a gift of mimicry and a love of music (S.Maugham).
In enumerative combinations the last element, in distinction to the foregoing elements, can be introduced by a conjunction, which underlines the close of the syntagmatic series. Cf.: All about them happy persons were enjoying the good things of life, talking, laughing, and making merry (S.Maugham).
The same is true about combinations formed by repetition. E. g.: There were rows of books, books and books everywhere.
§ 4. Dominational connection, as different from equipotent connection, is effected in such a way that one of the constitu-ents of the combination is principal (dominating) and the other is subordinate (dominated). The principal element is commonly called the "kernel", "kernel element", or "headword"; the sub-ordinate element, respectively, the "adjunct", "adjunct-word", "expansion".
Dominational connection is achieved by different forms of the word (categorial agreement, government), connective words (prepositions, i. e. prepositional government), word-order.
Dominational connection, like equipotent connection, can be both consecutive and cumulative. Cf.: a careful observer an observer, seemingly careful; definitely out of the
point — — out of the point, definitely; will be helpful in any case will be helpful — at least, in some cases.
The two basic types of dominational connection are bilateral (reciprocal, two-way) domination and monolateral (one-way) domination. Bilateral domination is realised in predicative con-nection of words, while monolateral domination is realised in completive connection of words.
§ 5. The predicative connection of words, uniting the subject and the predicate, builds up the basis of the sentence. The recip-rocal nature of this connection consists in the fact that the sub-ject dominates the predicate determining the person of predica-tion, while the predicate dominates the subject, determining the event of predication, i. e. ascribing to the predicative person some action, or state, or quality. This difference in meaning be-tween the elements of predication, underlying the mutually op-posite directions of domination, explains the seeming paradox of the notion of reciprocal domination, exposing its dialectic essence. Both directions of domination in a predicative group can be demonstrated by a formal test.
§ 7. Different completive noun combinations are distin-guished by a feature that makes them into quite special units on the phrasemic level of language. Namely, in distinction to all the other combinations' of words they are directly related to whole sentences, i. e. predicative combinations of words. This fact was illustrated above when we described the verbal domi-nation over the subject in a predicative grouping of words

Thematic Roles

Thematic roles(TR) were introduced in generative grammar during the mid-1960s and early 1970s as a way of classifying the arguments of natural lan-ge predicates into a closed set of participant types which were thought to have a special status in grammar. TR concern the nature of the relationship between the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the noun.

TRis a term used to express the role that a noun phrase plays with respect to the action or state described by a sentence's verb.

Agent-- The ‘doer’, or instigator of the action denoted by the predicate. Examples: subjects of kill, eat, hit, smash, kick.

Patient-- The ‘undergoer’ of the action or event denoted by the predicate. Examples: objects of kill, eat and smash but not those of watch, hear andlove.

Experiencer-- A participant who is characterised as aware of something. Examples: subject of love or object of annoy. the entity that receives sensory or emotional input

Theme-- A participant which is characterised as changing its position or condition, or as being in a state or position. Examples: objects of give and hand, subjects of walk and die.

Location-- The thematic role associated with the NP expressing the location in a sentence with a verb of location. Examples: subjects of keep, own, retain and know and locative PPs.

Source-- Object from which motion proceeds. Examples: subjects of buy and promise, objects of deprive, free and cure.

Goal-- The location or entity in the direction of which something moves (Adapted from Dowty (1989))

Some of the characteristics that theories of TR strive(стараться, пытаться) for, in order to fulfill their function are the following, according to Dowty:1) Completeness: Every argument of every verb is assignedsome TR or other.2)Uniqueness: Every argument of every verb is assigned only one thematic role. 3) Distinctness: Every argument of every verb is distinguished from the other arguments by the role it is assigned.Independence: Each role is given a consistent(последовательный) semantic definition that applies to all verbs and all situations. Thus, role definitions do not depend on the meaning of the particular verb or on the other thematic roles it assigns.

Phrase: a Unit of two Syntactic Objects, Constituent Structure

Sentences can be divided into phrases. A phrase is a group of words forming a unit and united around a head, the most important part of the phrase.

B. Ilyish defines it as follows: "Phrase is every combination of two or more words which is a grammatical unit but is not an analytical form of some word. A phrase is a syntactic object formed by combining (merging) two syntactic objects, with the properties inherited from one of them (the head of the phrase). The following types of phrases can be identified: ―noun + noun, ―adjective + noun‖, ―verb + noun‖, ―verb + adverb‖,―adverb + adjective‖, ―adverb + adverb‖, etc.

The syntactic operation Merge combines lexical items into larger syntactic objects, and then combines these into larger objects still, and thus, we can see that there is the complex hierarchical[ˌhaɪəˈrɑːkɪk((ə)l)] structure in the theory of syntax. So, Merge joins two syntactic objects together. Merge is essentially a constituent building operation. Two objects merge in order to form a new object. We can give these object = labels. For example, one merged object is X, the other is Y and the new object is Z. The lines joining the labels=branches. X and Y are sisters. Sections of the tree connected by the branches = nodes ( lowest nodes =terminal;topmost = root node).

A categorical – selectional feature (or c – selectional f-re) is CF on a lexical item which doesn’t determine the distribution of the lexical item itself, but it determines the category of elements which will be able to merge with that lexical item. If we take for example a verb saw, it is obvious that it has a V – feature, but besides it also has at least one c –selectional N – feature. For example:we have saw a horse.

Interpretable features are those ones which have an effect the semantic interpretation of a category. Uninterpretable features seem to make no difference to the semantics of a sentence, but they are somehow required for the forming of a grammatically correct sentence. Checking requirement- uninterpretable c – selectional features must be checked, and when they are checked, they can delete. And an uninterpretable feature F on a syntactic object Y (for example) is checked when Y is a sister to another syntactic object X(for example) which bears a matching feature F. It is called Checking under Sisterhood.

Constituent Structure: Constituent: a word or group of words that function as a unit and can make up larger grammatical units.The lines connecting parts of the trees are called branches and indicate how the phrase is divided up. Branches come together in nodes, which are usually labelled. A group of words which can be picked out in this way is called a constituent, and tests like the replacement tests are called constituency tests. And David Crystal defined Constituent as a functional component of a larger construction.

We can have flat or hierarchical trees. Hierarchical trees are more clear.Noun Phrase (NP)/Adjective Phrase (AdjP) and Adverb Phrase/Verb Phrase (VP)/Prepositional Phrase (PP).

Structure of VP. Adjuncts

Structure of VP.


The internal structure of the VP is the Auxiliary System + the Main Verb.

The Main Verb – that is, the Head of the VP – is always realised by a verb, usually lexical, in its base form (play, run, think, etc.). The function of the Main Verb is to be the bearer of the semantic content of the VP and to establish the different relations with all the other elements in the sentence. It therefore expresses the core meaning implied by the whole VP. Broadly speaking, it can represent a state (This table weighs 20 kilos), an action (He jumped the wall), or a process (The weather is changing for the better).

The Auxiliary System – that is, the Dependent element of the VP – is slightly more complex, since it can be realised in different ways:

· by a zero element with no realisation at all (Ø + Head), as in They play football every day, 250 LUIS QUEREDA RODRÍGUEZ-NAVARRO

· by an inflectional morpheme (-ed1 + Head), as in They played football every day,

· by an auxiliary verb (modal verb + Head), as in They may play footballevery day,

· by a combination of auxiliary verbs and inflectional morphemes ([-ed1 +may + have -ed2 + be -ing] + Head), as in They might have been playingfootball every day.

The function of the Auxiliary System in English is to modify the Main Verb.It helps to specify, in a certain way, the general meaning of the Main Verb. The morphologic modifications in VPs are related to the verbal categories of tense, mood, polarity, phase, aspect and voice. The mood modification, for example, allows the speaker to present an action as factual (He is living here) or as nonfactual, as a possibility (He may be living here).


sentences revolve around their verb. A sentence is a verbal expansion, and the VP is its head, with all the other phrases somehow subordinate to it. Verbs are the words that hold sentences together. The VP may have more than one dependent. The two most important dependents are the Subject and the Object, which are normally realised by NPs. Apart from their different syntactic function and semantic role, Subjects and Objects differ in their position (Subjects usually complement VPs in pre-position, whereas Objects usually appear in post-position), and in their relation to VPs (Subjects but not Complements control VPs forms, like in John likes Mary/People like Mary vs. John likes Mary/John likes people).


In linguistics, an adjunct is an optional, or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, if removed or discarded, will not otherwise affect the remainder of the sentence. Example: In the sentence "John helped Bill in Central Park.", the phrase in Central Park is an adjunct. [1]

A more detailed definition of the adjunct emphasizes its attribute as a modifying form, word, or phrase that depends on another form, word, or phrase, being an element of clause structure with adverbial function.[2]

The area of grammar that explores the nature of predicates, their arguments, and adjuncts is called valency theory. Predicates have valency; they determine the number and type of arguments that can or must appear in their environment. The valence of predicates is also investigated in terms of subcategorization.

Take the sentence John helped Bill in Central Park on Sunday as an example:

1. John is the subject argument.

2. helped is the predicate.

3. Bill is the object argument.

4. in Central Park is the first adjunct.

5. on Sunday is the second adjunct.[3]

An adverbial adjunct is a sentence element that often establishes the circumstances in which the action or state expressed by the verb takes place. The following sentence uses adjuncts of time and place:

Yesterday, Lorna saw the dog in the garden.

Notice that this example is ambiguous between whether the adjunct in the garden modifies the verb saw (in which case it is Lorna who saw the dog while she was in the garden) or the noun phrase the dog (in which case it is the dog who is in the garden). The definition can be extended to include adjuncts that modify nouns or other parts of speech (see noun adjunct).

An adjunct can be a single word, a phrase, or an entire clause.[4]

Single word

She will leave tomorrow.


She will leave in the morning.


She will leave after she has had breakfast.

Category of Tense: Tense on Main and Auxiliary Verbs

We have assumed that Modals, emphatic do and to are all T heads, and that sentences in general are projections of Ts. However, we have not addressed how tense is pronounced on elements which are not T heads: on verbs and on other auxiliaries. The first question we might ask is whether verbs have the category feature T. We can dismiss this idea immediately, since we know that we need to posit the category feature V for verbs, and we have argued for a view of their syntax which involves a little v as well. Moreover, verbs are clearly not in complementary distribution with modals, emphatic do or to, since they cooccur with them in the same sentence. However, we have seen that verbs can be morphologically marked with tense distinctions:

(61) Gilgamesh misses Enkidu

(62) Gilgamesh missed Enkidu

Somehow, we need establish a relationship between the tense feature on T (past, or present) and the verbal complex.

In a configuration

X[F:val] . . . Y[uF: ]

where . . . represents c-command, then F checks and values uF, resulting in:

X[F:val] . . . Y[uF: val]

The advantage of this second approach (checking by valuing), is that, instead of generating an ill-formed structure with non-matching features and then ruling it out because of the presence of an unchecked feature, we simply never generate the ill-formed structure in the first place. The advantahe of this is that it reduces the number of possible derivations that we need to consider when we generate a sentence.

Applying the System

The core of the analysis will be that it is v that hosts an uninterpretable feature which can take a tense feature as its value. We will call this feature Infl (for inflection):

Little v contains an uninterpretable inflectional feature [uInfl: ].

Firstly, we will build a vP, where V has raised to v. We assume, for concreteness, that V adjoins to v, giving the following structure:смотрите лекцию в тетр. 1ое дерево

Tense on Auxiliaries

We now turn to progressive and perfect auxiliaries, and investigate how their tense features are checked.

The Perfect Auxiliary

The perfect auxiliary is Merged outside of vP, as we can see from VP-preposing:

I’d planned to have finished, and [finished] I have

It forces the main verb to be in the past participle form:

I have eaten/*eat/*ate/*eating

Lets assume that the perfect auxiliary have has the interpretable categorial feature [Perf].

Recall that we said that v had to be instantiated with an uninterpretable inflectional feature. Let us suppose that Perf is a possible value of such a feature. This will mean that [Perf] on have and [uInfl: ] on v will Agree, and that [uInfl: ] on v will be valued as [Perf]:

have[Perf] . . . v[uInfl: ] → have[Perf] . . . v[uInfl:Perf]

The derivation will then go as follows: Once vP has been built up, Perf merges with it. Perf Agrees with uInfl, valuing it. In the Spellout component, the checked [uInfl:Perf] feature on little v is spelled out as a participle affix. We have then the following structure (note that I have specified a [uInfl: ] feature on Perf to, since it will end up being the tensed element in the clause): Смотрите 1ое дерево в тетр Perfect

At this point in the derivation, the same null head T that we met above merges and checks a uInfl feature on have, valuing it as (for example) [past]: Смотрите 2ое дерево в тетр Perfect

When have comes to be spelled out, it will be spelled out in its past form, had, via the appropriate morphological interface rule. So far, the treatment of tense marking on a perfect auxiliary is just the same as that on a main verb. However, there is good evidence that the Perfect auxiliary actually raises to T, in the same way that a main verb raises to v. This means that we have the following structure, rather than: Смотрите 3е дерево в тетр Perfect

The Progressive Auxiliary

Assume that the auxiliary be has an unterpretable categorial feature Prog, and that it therefore projects ProgP. This feature values the [uInfl] feature of little v, so that little v ends up being pronounced as -ing at a point in the derivation before subject raising takes place: Смотрите 1ое дерево в тетр Progressive

The position of Negation

In English, negation is marked by a particle not or its reduced form n’t. Negation comes in two forms: sentential negation, which simply denies the truth of the non-negated version of the sentence, and constituent negation. A simple example of sentential negation is

(95) I haven’t left yet

(96) It is not true that I have left yet.

Constituent negation, on the other hand, does not deny the truth of the whole sentence, buts rather states that the sentence is true of something which is not the negated constituent.

The following examples show this:

(97) I was sitting not under the tree (but under the bush)

(98) I was eating not a peach (but an apple)

(97) shows an example of constituent negation of a PP, and (98) shows constituent negation

of a NP. We also find constituent negation of VPs:

(99) I might be not going to the party (but washing my hair)

That this is constituent negation is a little more difficult to see. Note that it has the meaning in (100), rather than that in (101):

(100) It is true that I might be doing something other than going to the party.

(101) It is not true that I might be going to the party.

Смотрите дерево в тетр.

Strong/Weak Value

When [ulnfl:] on Aux is valued by T, the value is strong.

When [ulnfl:] on v is valued by T, the value is weak.

Word as a basic unit of language; its description, definitions and structure

The word may be described as the basic unit of language. Uniting meaning and form, it is composed of one or more morphemes, each consisting of one or more spoken sounds or their written representation. Morphemes are also meaningful units but they cannot be used independently, they are always parts of words whereas words can be used as a complete utterance (e. g. Listen!). The word has been syntactically defined by Henry Sweet and Leonard Bloomfield as a “minimum free form”. This means that a word may form a sentence. Edward Sapir was the first who pointed out such an important characteristic of the word as its indivisibility. Example: alive. This form cannot be split into two elements in spite of the fact that the forms a and live separately exist in the language with almost the same meanings attached to them. A split will cause distortion and disturbance of the meaning. On the other hand, the English language knows too many transitive forms. Example 3: altogether = all together, another = any other, etc.The external structure of the word is its morphological complexity studied by word-building. The internal structure of the word is reflected in its meaning and is making the semantic structure of the lexical unit studied by semasiology. The word is a speech unit used in and for human communication, materially representing a group of sounds or letters. A written word is a unity of graphical signs between two spaces.


Motivation and polysemy

The term motivation is used to denote the relationship existing between the phonemic or morphemic composition and structural pattern of the word on the one hand, and its meaning on the other. There are three main types of motivation: phonetical, morphological, and semantic motivation. When there is a certain similarity between the sounds that make up the word and those referred to by the sense, the motivation is phonetical.Examples are: buzz (vibrating sound like that of a bee. ), cuckoo, giggle(хихиканье),whistle, etc. The morphological motivation may be quite regular. Thus, the prefix ex- means ‘former’ when added to human nouns: ex-president, ex-wife. Alongside with these cases there is a more general use of ex-: in borrowed words it is unstressed and motivation is faded (expect, export, etc.). Re- is one of the most common prefixes of the English language, it means ‘again’ and ‘back’ and is added to verbal stems or abstract deverbal noun stems, as in rebuild, reclaim, resell, resettlement. The third type of motivation is called semantic motivation. It is based on the co-existence of direct and figurative meanings of the same word within the same synchronous system. Mouth continues to denote a part of the human face, and at the same time it can metaphorically apply to any opening or outlet: the mouth of a river, of a cave, of a furnace. Jacket is a short coat and also a protective cover for a book, a phonograph record or an electric wire. Polysemantic words possess more than one meaning. The number of meanings ranges from five to about a hundred. In fact, the commoner the word the more meanings it has. The word table,e.g., has at least nine meanings in Modern English: 1. a piece of furniture; 2. the persons seated at a table; 3. sing. the food put on a table, meals; 4. a thin flat piece of stone, metal, wood, etc.; 5. pl. slabs of stone; 6. words cut into them or written on them (the ten tables); 7. an orderly arrangement of facts, figures, etc.; 8. part of a machine-tool on which the work is put to be operated on; 9. a level area, a plateau. Each of the individual meanings can be described in terms of the types of meanings discussed above. Thus, the human earand the earof corn are from the diachronic point of view two homonyms. The earof cornis felt to be a metaphor of the usual type (cf. the eye of the needle, the foot of the mountain) and consequently as one of the derived or, synchronically, minor meanings of the polysemantic word ear.Synchronically we understand polysemy as the coexistence of various meanings of the same word at a certain historical period of the development of the English language. In this case the problem of the interrelation and interdependence of individual meanings making up the semantic structure of the word must be investigated along different lines.

Semantic contrasts and antonymy. Classifications of antonyms

Semantics is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between signifiers, like words, phrases, signs, and symbols, and what they stand for, their denotation(обозначение). Semantics contrasts with syntax, the study of the combinatorics of units of a language (without reference to their meaning), and pragmatics, the study of the relationships between the symbols of a language, their meaning, and the users of the language. Antonyms – words of opposite meaning. These words of the same language belong to the same part of speech and to the same semantic field, identical in style and nearly identical in distribution, associated and often used together so that their denotative meanings render contradictory or contrary notions. ВиленComissarov in his dictionary of antonyms classified them into two groups1) absolute or root antonyms /»late» - «early»/ and 2)derivational antonyms /«to please’ - «to displease». Absolute antonyms have different roots and derivational antonyms have the same roots but different affixes. The difference between derivational and root antonyms is not only in their structure, but in semantics as well. Derivational antonyms express contradictory notions, one of them excludes the other, e.g. «active»- «inactive». Absolute antonyms express contrary notions. If some notions can be arranged in a group of more than two members, the most distant members of the group will be absolute antonyms, e.g. «ugly» , «plain»(обыкновенный), «good-looking», «pretty», «beautiful», the antonyms are «ugly» and «beautiful». Semantic classification: 1)Contradictory notions are mutually(взаимно) opposed and denying(отрицают) one another, i.e. alive means “not dead” and impatient means “not patient”.2) Contrary notions are also mutually opposed but they are gradable; e.g. old and young are the most distant elements of a series like: old - middle - aged - young. 3)Incompatibles (противоположныеподействию) may be described as the relations of exclusion but not of contradiction: to say “morning” is to say “not afternoon, not evening, not night”. Not every word of a language may have an antonym though practically every word may have a synonym.

Phraseology: word-groups with transferred meaning. N. Amosova’s and A. Kunin’s theories of Phraseology. Classifications of phrasedogical units

According toНаталья A. ph.u. is a unit of constant context it’s a stable combination of words in which either one of the components has a phraseologicaly bound meaning,for example red tape(бюрократия). АлександрKunin’s theory is based on the concept of specific stability at the ph. level. He distinguishes stability of usage, structural and semantic stability and syntactical stability. Taking into account mainly the types of motivation ph. Units may be classified:1) ph. Fusion represents the highest stage of blending together. There are completely non-motivated, their meaning can not been deduced from the meanings of the consistent meaning parts. For example: to kick the bicket(to die) 2) ph. unities are partly motivated their meaning can usually be understood through metaphorical meaning of the whole ph. unit. For example: to know the way the wind is blowing.3) ph. combinations or collocations. They are motivated, but they consist of words possessing specific lexical valiancy. One component is used in its direct meaning while the other is used figuratively. For example: to pay attention. Amosova’s classification based on the principle of fixed context: 1)phrasems – two member of word groups in which one of the members has specialized meaning depended on the second component. For example: small hours (предрассветныецветы). 2)idioms are semantically and grammatically in separable units and they are subdivided into motivated and demotivated. Kunin: “Structural-semantic classification”.1. Nominative(A hard nut to crack)2. Nominative –communicative(The ice is broken) 3. Interjectional &modal(Emotions, feelings)-Oh, my eye! (= Oh, my God!)4. Communicative (proverbs, sayings)-There is no smoke without fire. The transferred meaning of a word can arise from spatial, temporal, or logical correspondences in concepts, such as the contiguity (смежность) of material and product or of process and result—for example, the metonymic meanings of the words izdanie (“edition”), otdelka (“decoration”), zimovka(“hibernation”), and izobrazhenie (“depiction”). It can also occur from association by similarity in shape, color, or feature of movement—for instance, the metaphorical meanings of the words tupoi (“dull”), svezhii (“fresh”), and shtamp (“cliché”). As a result of the transfer of names on the basis of general function, there arose many transferred meanings of words, such as krylo (“wing”), shchit (“shield”), and sputnik(“companion”). The transferred meaning of a word has closer syntagmatic connections, whereas the literal meaning is paradigmatically conditioned.

Morphological structure of English words. Types of morphemes. Allomorphs and Hybrids

A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in a language. The morpheme is formed by phonemes. The concept of word and morpheme are different, a morpheme may or may not stand alone. One or several morphemes compose a word. A morpheme is free if it can stand alone (ex:"one","cake"), or bound if it is used exclusively alongside a free morpheme (ex: "im" in impossible). Types of morphemes: Free morphemes, like town and dog, can appear with other lexemes (as in town hall or dog house) or they can stand alone, i.e (id est-т.е.)"free". Bound morphemes like "un-" appear only together with other morphemes to form a lexeme. Bound morphemes in general tend to be prefixes and suffixes. Unproductive, non-affix morphemes that exist only in bound form are known as "cranberry" morphemes, from the "cran" in that very word. Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create(derive-извлекать) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy," for example, to give "happiness." They carry semantic information. Inflectional morphemes modify(измен.) a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on, without deriving(образ-я) a new word or a word in a new grammatical category (as in the "dog" morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme "-s" becomes "dogs"). They carry grammatical information. The root in English is very often homonymous [hə'mɔnɪməs] with the word. A suffix is a derivational morpheme following the stem(стержень) and forming a new derivative in a different part of speech or a different word class,(-en,-y,-less in hearten, hearty, heartless). A prefix is a derivational morpheme standing before the root and modifying meaning,e.x.hearten – dishearten. Allomorphs any of the versions of a morpheme, such as the plural endings [s] (as in bats), [z] (as in bugs), and [iz] (as in buses) for the plural morpheme,is used in linguistic to denote elements of a group whose members together constitute a structural unit of the language (allophones, allomorphs). ex, -ion-sion-tion-ation. An allomorph is defined as a positional variant of a morpheme occurring in a specific environment and so characterised by complementary(дополнит) distribution. Complementary distribution is said to take place when two linguistic variants cannot appear in the same environment. Thus, stems ending in consonants take as a rule -ation (liberation); stems ending in pt, however, take -tion (corruption).

Allomorphs will also occur among prefixes. Their form then depends on the initials of the stem with which they will assimilate. A prefix such as im- occurs before bilabials (impossible), its allomorph ir- before r (irregular), il- before l (illegal). It is in- before all other consonants and vowels (indirect, inability). effects. Hybrids.Words that are made up of elements derived from two or more different languages are called hybrids. English contains thousands of hybrid words, the vast majority of which show various combinations of morphemes coming from Latin, French and Greek and those of native origin. Thus, readable has an English root and a suffix that is derived from the Latin -abilis and borrowed through French. Moreover, it is not an isolated case, but rather an established pattern that could be represented as English stem+-able.ex.answerable, eatable, likable. Its variant with the native negative prefix un- is also worthy of note: un-+English stem+-able. The ex.for this are: unanswerable, unbearable,unbelievable. Observation of the English vocabulary, which is probably richer in hybrids than that of any other European language, shows a great variety of patterns. In some cases it is the borrowed affixes that are used with native stems, or vice versa. A word can simultaneously contain borrowed and native affixes.

Old English: general characteristics

The Germanic group of Languages: general characteristics.begins with the appearance of what is known as the Proto-Germanic (PG) language. PG is the parent-language of the Germanic group. between the 15th and 10th c. B.C. PG is an entirely pre-historical language: it was never recorded in written form. PG based on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in the region of the Elbe. The first mention of Germanic tribes was made by Pitheas a Greek historian and geographer of the 4 c. PG language broke into parts. It split into 3 branches: East Germanic, North Germanic, and West Germanic. The East Germanic (tribes returned from Scandinavia) presented by The Gothic language. There are no other East Germanic languages, which stay alive. Some of the tribal names have survived in place-names: Bornholm, Burgundy (Burgundians), Andalusia (Vandals). North Germanic (the Teutons who stayed in Scandinavia). The speech of the North Germanic tribes showed little dialectal variation until the 9th c. and is regarded as a sort of common North Germanic parent-language called Old Norse or Old Scandinavian. West Germanic ( between the Oder and the Elbe)- The Franconians ( Franks, who occupied the lower basin of the Rhine), The Angles and the Frisians, the Jutes and the Saxons (Netherlands) , The High Germans ( mountainous southern regions of the Federal Republic of Germany).

The Franconian dialects were spoken in the North of the Empire; in the Middle Ages they developed into Dutch and Flemish.

Germanic languages possess a number of defining features compared with other Indo-European languages.

Probably the most well-known are the following:

  1. The sound changes known as Grimm's Law and Verner's Law, which shifted the values of all the Indo-European stop consonants. (For example, original */t d dh/ became Germanic */θ t d/ in most cases; compare three with Latin tres, two with Latin duo, do with Sanskrit dha-.) The recognition of these two sound laws were seminal events in the understanding of the regular nature of linguistic sound change and the development of the comparative method, which forms the basis of modern historical linguistics.
  2. The development of a strong stress on the first syllable of the word, which triggered significant phonological reduction of all other syllables. This is responsible for the reduction of most of the basic English words into monosyllables, and the common impression of modern English and German as consonant-heavy languages. Examples are Proto-Germanic *strangiþō → strength, *aimaitijō → "ant", *haubudan → "head", *hauzijanan → "hear", *harubistaz → German Herbst "autumn", *hagatusjō → German Hexe "witch".
  3. A change known as Germanic umlaut, which modified vowel qualities when a high front vocalic segment (/i/, /iː/ or /j/) followed in the next syllable. Generally, back vowels were fronted, and front vowels were raised. In many languages, the modified vowels are indicated with an umlaut (e.g., ä ö ü in German, pronounced /ɛ ø y/, respectively). This change resulted in pervasive alternations in related words — still extremely prominent in modern German but present only in remnants in modern English (e.g., mouse/mice, goose/geese, broad/breadth, tell/told, old/elder, foul/filth, gold/gild[25]).
  4. Large numbers of vowel qualities. English is typical in this respect, with around 11–12 vowels in most dialects (not counting diphthongs). Standard Swedish has 17 pure vowels,[26] standard German and Dutch 14, and Danish at least 11.[27] The Amstetten dialect of Bavarian German has 13 distinctions among long vowels alone, one of the largest such inventories in the world.[28]
  5. Verb second (V2) word order, which is uncommon cross-linguistically. Exactly one noun phrase or adverbial element must precede the verb; in particular, if an adverb or prepositional phrase precedes the verb, the subject must follow. This is no longer present in modern English except in sentences beginning with "Here is," "There is," "Here comes," "There goes," and related expressions, as well as in a few relic sentences such as "Over went the boat", "Pop Goes The Weasel", the palindrome "Able was I ere I saw Elba" or "Boom goes the dynamite", and in most if not all (if not an absolute) of the Five Ws and one H questions e.g. "What has happened here?", "Who was here today?", "Where will we go?", "When did he go to the stadium?", "Why would this happen to us now?", and "How could these things get here?", but is found in all other modern Germanic languages.

Other significant characteristics are:

  1. The reduction of the various tense and aspect combinations of the Indo-European verbal system into only two: the present tense and the past tense (also called the preterite).
  2. A large class of verbs that use a dental suffix (/d/ or /t/) instead of vowel alternation (Indo-European ablaut) to indicate past tense. These are called the Germanic weak verbs; the remaining verbs with vowel ablaut are the Germanic strong verbs.
  3. A distinction in definiteness of a noun phrase that is marked by different sets of inflectional endings for adjectives, the so-called strong and weak adjectives. A similar development happened in the Balto-Slavic languages. This distinction has been lost in modern English but was present in Old English and remains in all other Germanic languages to various degrees.
  4. Some words with etymologies that are difficult to link to other Indo-European families but with variants that appear in almost all Germanic languages. See Germanic substrate hypothesis.

Note that some of the above characteristics were not present in Proto-Germanic but developed later as areal features that spread from language to language:

  • Germanic umlaut only affected the North and West Germanic languages (which represent all modern Germanic languages) but not the now-extinct East Germanic languages, such as Gothic, nor Proto-Germanic, the common ancestor of all Germanic languages.
  • The large inventory of vowel qualities is a later development, due to a combination of Germanic umlaut and the tendency in many Germanic languages for pairs of long/short vowels of originally identical quality to develop distinct qualities, with the length distinction sometimes eventually lost. Proto-Germanic had only five distinct vowel qualities, although there were more actual vowel phonemes because length and possibility nasality were phonemic. In modern German, long-short vowel pairs still exist but are also distinct in quality.
  • Proto-Germanic probably had a more general S-O-V-I word order. However, the tendency toward V2 order may have already been present in latent form and may be related to Wackernagel's Law, an Indo-European law dictating that sentence clitics must be placed second.[29]

Roughly speaking, Germanic languages differ in how conservative or how progressive each language is with respect to an overall trend toward analyticity. Some, such as Icelandic and, to a lesser extent, German, have preserved much of the complex inflectional morphology inherited from Proto-Germanic (and in turn from Proto-Indo-European). Others, such as English, Swedish, and Afrikaans, have moved toward a largely analytic type.

New English: general characteristics.

There are two periods :Early New English (15 — beginning of the 18 century) — the establishment of the literary norm. Late New English — since the 18 century.

The speed of the development of the language was lesser than in Middle English. The language developed quickly at the beginning of the period and slowly — at the end

The system of stress

In native words the stress is fixed and falls on the first root syllable. Some of the borrowed words were not fully assimilated phonetically, that is why the stress falls on another syllable, those fully assimilated have the stress on the first root syllable, like in native words. Native English words are short — they have one or two syllables, that is why it is a norm, a rhythmic tendency of the language to have one stressed syllable and one unstressed one.In borrowed words there developed a system of two stresses.

Sometimes the stress is used to differentiate the words formed from the same root by the process called conversion (to pro'duce— 'produce).


a) A new [3] was introduced in borrowed words. Otherwise the changes were not so great as in Middle English.

b) Vocalisation of consonants (some consonants in some positions were vocalised — they disappeared, influencing the preceding vowel).

Ex.: [r] disappeared at the end of the words and before consonants changing the quantity of the vowel immediately preceding it:

Middle English New English

for [for] [fo:]

form [form] [fo:m]


a) In the unstressed position the vowels that were levelled in ME generally disappeared at the end of the words. Some of them were preserved for phonetic reasons only, where the pronunciation without a vowel was impossible.

Compare, for example, the plural forms of nouns:

Old English Middle English New English

-as -es [z] dogs

[s] cats

[iz] dresses

b) All Middle English long vowels underwent the Great

Vowel'Shift (in early New English, 15th—18th century). They became more narrow and more front. Some of them remained monophthongs, others developed into diphthongs.

Middle English New English

h e [he:] [hi:] e: => i:

name [na:me] [neim] a: =>ei


In New English it did not change fundamentally.


The vocabulary is changing quickly. Many new words are formed to express new notions, which are numerous.

Ways of enriching the vocabulary:

1. inner means (conversion: hand => to hand);

2, outer means.

Phonetics and phonology.


-deals with the sounds as units of oral speech;

-deals with the physical description of the actual sounds used in human languages.


-deals with org-n of sounds into patterns and systems;

-studies the linguistic function of consonant and vowel sounds, syllabic str-s, word accent and prosodic features, such as pitch, stress and tempo.

Speech sounds:


-How they are produced by organs of speech;(articulatory ph-s)

- How they are perceived(воспринимаются);(auditory ph-s)

-The physical ch-s of speech signals (acoustic ph-s)


How the speech sounds are organized into systems in each individual language, i.e. how the sounds can be combined, the relations between them and how they affect (влиять, воздействовать) each other.

Phonetics:The surface manifestation (representation) of spoken language.( Поверхностное проявление (представление) разговорного языка)

Phonology: The abstract system organizing the surface sounds into systems.

Phonetics relates to the sounds of language, while phonologystudies how those sounds are put together to create meaning. Phonemes, or units of sound that are used in all languages to create words, are the focus of the study of phonetics. Phonology studies the rules in any given language that govern how those phonemes are combined to create meaningful words. Phonetics and phonology study two different aspects of sound, but the concepts are dependent on each other in the creation of language. Phonology is the study of how phonemes are put together and how they create meaning for the speaker of any given language. Some phonemes may have slightly different meanings or uses in two different languages, and phonology is an attempt(попытка) to understand these changes in meaning. Phonetics and phonology differ in that phonetics studies the production of sounds, and phonology studies the combination of sounds. Both depend on each other because without the production of sounds there would be no words, but without the rules to put them together, sounds would have no meaning. They work together in important ways, but both cover their own specific part of language production.

The phoneme. The relations between the phoneme and the allophones

The phoneme is the minimal unit in the sound system of a language.

Sokolova M.A.: The phoneme is a minimal abstract linguistic unit realized in speech in the form of speech sounds opposable to other phonemes of the same languages to distinguish the meaning of morphemes and words.

L.V. Shcerba (1880-1944) divided the phoneme into 3 group functional, material, abstract.

Functional Unit said-says \d\ - \z\

Sleeper-sleepy (derived of root morpheme)



He was heard badly – He was hurt badly.

Allophone is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) used to pronounce a single phoneme. For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as inspin) are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language.

The phoneme is material, real and objective. That means that is realized in speech of all English-speaking people in the form of speech sounds, its allophones.

L.V. Shcherba distinguished 2 types of allophone. They are: principal and subsidiary

The allophones which do not undergo any distinguishable changes in the chain of speech are called principal. There are quite predictable changes in the articulation of allophones that occur under the influence of the neighbouring sounds in different phonetic situations. Such allophones are called subsidiary.

Subsidiary allophones \d\

- slightly palatalized before front vowels and the sonorant \j\ (deal, day, did, did you)

- pronounced without any plosion before another stop (bedtime, badpain, good dog.)

- followed by the labial \w\ it becomes labialized (dweller)

- in the word-final position it is voiceless (road, raised, old)

The system of the English vowel phonemes

The following 20 vowel phonemes are distinguished in BBC English (RP): [i:, a:, o:, u:, з:, i, e, æ, σ, υ, л(типа крышка домика), ə; ei, ai, oi, аυ, eυ, υə, iə].Principles of classification provide the basis for the establishment of the following distinctive oppositions:

1. Stability of articulation

1.1. monophthongs vs. diphthongs bit - bait, kit - kite, John - join, debt — doubt

1.2. diphthongs vs. diphthongoids bile - bee, boat — boot, raid – rude

2. Position of the tongue

2.1. horizontal movement of the tongue a) front vs. central cab — curb, bed — bird

b) back vs. central pull – pearl, cart - curl, call - curl

2.2. vertical movement of the tongue

close (high) vs. mid-open (mid) bid — bird, week – work

open (low) vs. mid-open (mid) lark - lurk, call — curl, bard-bird

3. Position of the lips rounded vs. unrounded don — darn, pot – part

The English diphthongs are, like the affricates, the object of a sharp phonological controversy, whose essence is the same as in the case of affricates are the English diphthongs biphonemic sound complexes or composite monophonemic entities?

Diphthongs are defined differently by different authors. One definition is based on the ability of a vowel to form a syllable. Since in a diphthong only one element serves as a syllabic nucleus, a diphthong is a single sound. Another definition of a diphthong as a single sound is based on the instability of the second element. The 3d group of scientists defines a diphthong from the accentual point of view: since only one element is accented and the other is unaccented, a diphthong is a single sound. D. Jones defines diphthongs as unisyllabic gliding sounds in the articulation of which the organs of speech start from one position and then glide to another position.

N.S. Trubetzkoy states that a diphthong should be (a) unisyllabic, that is the parts of a diphthong cannot belong to two syllables; (b) monophonemic with gliding articulation; (c) its length should not exceed the length of a single phoneme. In accordance with the principle of structural simplicity and economy American descriptivists liquidated the diphthongs in English as unit phonemes.

The same phonological criteria may be used for justifying the monophonemic treatment of the English diphthongs as those applicable to the English affricates. They are the criteria of articulatory, morphophonological (and, in the case of diphthongs, also syllabic) indivisibility, commutability and duration. Applied to the English diphthongs, all these criteria support the view of their monophonemic status.

Problem of length. There are long vowel phonemes in English and short. However, the length of the vowels is not the only distinctive feature of minimal pairs like Pete -pit, beet - bit, etc. In other words the difference between i: i. u: - υ is not only quantitative but also qualitative, which is conditioned by different positions of the bulk of the tongue. For example, in words bead- bid not only the length of the vowels is different but in the [i:] articulation the bulk of the tongue occupies more front and high position then in the articulation of [i].

Qualitative difference is the main relevant feature that serves to differentiate long and short vowel phonemes because quantitative characteristics of long vowels depend on the position they occupy in a word: (a) they are the longest in the terminal position: bee, bar, her;

(b) they are shorter before voiced consonants: bead, hard, cord;

(c) they are the shortest before voiceless consonants: beet, cart.






Integrated skills. Explain the meaning of the term and give the examples of different kinds of integrated skills

The objectives of the "integrated skills" modules are to enable participants :

to begin to learn a new language

to develop existing skills and make them more specific

These modules are principally based on communication and the development of skills (speaking, listening, reading, writing) enabling the learner to use the language in various contexts and for various objectives. Cultural and intercultural aspects as well as the ability to learn independently are all integral parts of these modules.

The methods and activities are varied and interesting : discussions, listening exercises, role-plays, language games, videos, reflection on the learning process, etc.

Receptive - L,R. Productive- W,S.

Чередуем все , одно через другое

Name the stages in a reading skills lesson and choose useful activities for each stage

Before reading (pre-reading) stage:

Arose interest, predict the topic (questions, short discussion, brainstorming, visuals, student’s experience)

Aim-to motivate to speak, to work

Don’t worry about mistakes.

Teach key words

Use all means to introduce new vocabulary through visuals, meaning, definition, synonyms, antonyms and so on.

Guess-activities: match, fill in the gaps, make your own sentences.

First-reading stage (skimming)

Set the task overall understanding of the text (yes/no, true/false, give the headline, name the main character, don’t complicate the task)

Students read the text – time-limit

Feedback- discuss in pairs

Second reading stage (scanning)

Set the task for detailed understanding of the text (true/false, logical order, answer the questions (WH-?) problem question, situation. Dates, names, historical events.)

If the answer is false it should be corrected by student himself, if he or she could not correct mistakes, the other students try to correct the mistakes. Then teacher corrects.

Find the correct answers in the text

Read the text for the second time- time-limit



Give the definition of the term “Games” and explain the necessity of the instructions

Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.'
'Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information.'
'The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful interpretation of 'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered.
If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire.

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